List of usurpers

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The following is a list of usurpers – illegitimate or controversial claimants to the throne in a monarchy. The word usurper is a derogatory term, and as such not easily definable, as the person seizing power normally will try to legitimise his position, while denigrating that of his predecessor.

China[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Wang Mang Ruzi Ying 9–23
Cao Pi Emperor Xian of Han 220–226
Emperor Wu of Jìn Cao Huan 265–290
Huan Xuan Emperor An of Jin 404
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Emperor Gong of Jin 420–422
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Emperor Shun of Liu Song 479–482
Emperor Wu of Liang Emperor He of Southern Qi 502–549
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei 550–559
Emperor Wu of Chen Emperor Jing of Liang 557–559
Emperor Wen of Sui Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou 581–604
Yuwen Huaji Yang Hao 618–619
Wu Zetian Emperor Ruizong of Tang 690–705
Zhu Wen Emperor Ai of Tang 907–912
Emperor Taizu of Song Guo Zongxun 960–976
Wanyan Liang Emperor Xizong of Jin 1150–1161
Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi 1945-1976

Egypt[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Amasis II Apries 570 BC – 526 BC

England[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
William I Harold Godwinson 1066–1087 When Edward the Confessor died Harold crowned himself Harold II so William then invaded England with his own army. William victored at the Battle of Hastings during which Harold II was killed. William then crowned himself King of England.
Stephen Henry I 1135–1154 Henry I named his daughter Matilda his heir, and she was recognised as such by the barons of England. On Henry's death, Stephen took the crown before Matilda knew her father was dead, leading to 20 years of civil war.
Henry IV Richard II 1399–1413 A period of crisis emerged in 1398-1399 under Richard II as he enacted revenge on leading nobles for a dispute 10 years previously. He took action against the Lords Appellant, murdering a leader and banishing Henry Bolingbrook. On the death of Bolingbrook's father John of Gaunt, the son wished to return to claim his inheritance as the Duke of Lancaster, which Richard II denied. Henry returned from his exile in France, whilst Richard II was away in Ireland. With the support of prominent Northern noble families Henry took the throne.
Henry VII Richard III 1485–1509 Forces under Henry Tudor won the Battle of Bosworth Field during which Richard III was killed. Henry then became Henry VII and married the daughter of Edward IV which is claimed to have ended the War of the Roses, though relatives of Richard made various attempts to remove him from power.
William III and Mary II James II 1689–1702 James II fled after the arrival of William and Mary along with their army. This became known as the Glorious Revolution.

France[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Pippin the Younger Childeric III 751–768
Napoleon Bonaparte The Directorate 1799–1814 In the Coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, (9 November 1799) Napoleon overthrew the Constitution of the Year III and established his rule as First Consul, and five years later as Emperor.
Napoleon Bonaparte Louis XVIII 1815–1815 Hundred Days
Louis Philippe I Charles X 1830–1848 Louis Philippe took the throne in the aftermath of the July Revolution, which had resulted in the abdication of King Charles X in favor of his grandson, a young child.

Japan[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Emperor Temmu Emperor Kōbun 672–686

Norway[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Sverre Sigurdsson Magnus Erlingsson 1184–1202

Portugal[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Miguel Maria II 1828–1834 Was himself deposed by his brother Pedro I of Brazil, Maria's father, who reinstated Maria.
João IV Felipe III 1640–1656 Tired of the dual monarchy, the Portuguese elite, decided restore the independence of kingdom, more enthroning John, they ended betraying the king Felipe III; more as the new king was good, the designation of usurper, never was determined for the new sovereign.

Roman Empires[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Eric the Saint Sverker the Elder 1156–1160 Involvement in Sverker's murder is uncertain.
Magnus Henriksen Eric the Saint 1160–1161
Charles Sverkerson Magnus Henriksen 1161–1168
Canute Ericson Boleslas Sverkerson 1168–1195
Erik Knutsson Sverker the Younger 1208–1216
Canute the Tall Eric the Lisp and Lame 1229–1234
Charles IX Sigismund III Vasa 1604–1611 As regent from 1599 – 1611.
Charles XIII Gustav IV Adolf 1809–1818 initially as regent after his nephew's deposition

Thailand[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Worawongsathirat Yodfa 1548 His kingship is not accepted by most traditional historians

India[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya Thimma Bhupala 1485-1491 To change the way of ruling in VIJAYNAGRA

Vietnam[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Dương Tam Kha Ngô Quyền 944–950
Ngô Xương Văn Dương Tam Kha 951–965
Mạc Đăng Dung Le Chieu Tong 1527–1529

Gwynedd (Wales)[edit]

Usurper Predecessor Reign Comments
Dafydd,
Rhodri,
& Cynan
Hywel ab Owain 1170–1195 Llywelyn the Great, with the senior legitimate claim, overthrew his uncles