List of utilitarians

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This is an incomplete list of advocates of utilitarianism and/or consequentialism.



18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]



  1. ^ 'Dei delitti e delle pene' (Of Crime and Punishment), Milan, 1764.
  2. ^ 'Essay on Utilitarianism, Long Version', in Amnon Goldworth (ed.), Deontology; together with A table of the springs of action; and the Article on Utilitarianism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
  3. ^ The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, London, 1832.
  4. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Bailey, Samuel". Encyclopædia Britannica (11 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Selected Writings on Ethics and Politics, Amsterdam 2007.
  6. ^ "Charles Darwin - The Descent of Man Page 393". Retrieved 2019-10-05.("As all men desire their own happiness, praise or blame is bestowed on actions and motives, according as they lead to this end; and as happiness is an essential part of the general good, the greatest-happinesss principle indirectly serves as a nearly safe standard of right and wrong.")
  7. ^ Mathematical Psychics, London: Kegan Paul, 1881; New and Old Methods of Ethics, Oxford and London: James Parker, 1877, 56-57 ("‘Méchanique Sociale’ may one day take her place along with ‘Mécanique Celeste’, throned each upon the double-sided height of one maximum principle, the supreme pinnacle of moral as of physical science. As the movements of each particle, constrained or loose, in a material cosmos are continually subordinated to one maximum sum-total of accumulated energy, so the movements of each soul, whether selfishly isolated or linked sympathetically, may continually be realizing the maximum energy of pleasure, the Divine love of the universe.")
  8. ^ An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice. 1st edition.
  9. ^ The Economy of Happiness, Boston, 1906.
  10. ^ Utilitarianism, London, 1863.
  11. ^ Better-World Philosophy: A Sociological Synthesis, Chicago: Ward Waugh, 1899, pp. 78–79 ("Each living being of the universe, therefore, sustains to every other living being the relation of possible right and wrong, but to the insentient universe no such relation exists. Right is that relation which is conducive to happiness, or welfare, or complete living, or whatever synonym is preferred. Wrong is that which conduces to the opposite of happiness—misery, ill-fare, maladaptation.").
  12. ^ The Methods of Ethics, London: Macmillan, 1907, 7th edition.
  13. ^ A Theory of the Good and the Right, Amherst: Prometheus, 1998.
  14. ^ 'Ethical Theory and Utilitarianism', in H. D. Lewis, Contemporary British Philosophy, Vol. 4, London: Allen and Unwin.
  15. ^ 'Morality and the Theory of Rational Behavior', Social Research, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 623-56.
  16. ^ The Foundations of Morality, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1964.
  17. ^ The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, London: Routledge, 2000 [London: Allen and Unwin, 1969, Vol. 1], p. 39 ("It appeared to me obvious that the happiness of mankind should be the aim of all action, and I discovered to my surprise that there were those who thought otherwise. Belief in happiness, I found, was called Utilitarianism, and was merely one among a number of ethical theories. I adhered to it after this discovery.").
  18. ^ 'An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics', in J. J. C. Smart and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
  19. ^ The Rational Foundations of Ethics, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.
  20. ^ Supporting the case against empathy--Jonathan Baron interviewed by Edwin Rutsch, YouTube, 6:01.
  21. ^ Stubborn Attachments ("I sometimes call myself a 'two-thirds utilitarian'").
  22. ^ (University of Toronto Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8020-9594-7)
  23. ^ 'Utilitarismo', in Victoria Camps, Osvaldo Guariglia and Fernando Salmerón (eds.), Concepciones de la ética, Madrid: Trotta: 1992, pp. 269-295.
  24. ^ Ideal Code, Real World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  25. ^ Kaufmann, Eric (2010). Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-first Century. Profile Books. p. 266. ISBN 9781846681448. ("As a utilitarian, I believe that the maximisation of collective happiness is the proper end of humanity.")
  26. ^ Member of Facebook Utilitarians group.
  27. ^ Parker, Ian (August 2, 2004), "The Gift", The New Yorker, 80: 54–63
  28. ^ Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, London: Penguin, 2005, pp. 4, 112 ("[My] philosophy is that of the eighteenth century Enlightenment, as articulated by Jeremy Bentham. [...] I believe Bentham's idea was right and that we should fearlessly adopt it and apply it to our lives.").
  29. ^ From the point of view of the universe, 3:AM Magazine, September 6, 2015 ("Yes, together with Sidgwick, we are act-utilitarians.").
  30. ^ de Lazari-Radek, Katarzyna; Singer, Peter (2017). Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780198728795.
  31. ^ "I'm a cosmopolitan utilitarian." Dylan Matthews, "You have $8 billion. You want to do as much good as possible. What do you do?". Vox (April 24, 2015).
  32. ^ 'An Argument for Utilitarianism', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 11, no. 2 (1981), pp. 229-239 (with Peter Singer).
  33. ^ 'Reasons without Demands: Rethinking Rightness', in James Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory, Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006, p. 39 ("Many utilitarians (myself included) believe [...]").
  34. ^ de Lazari-Radek, Katarzyna; Singer, Peter (2017). Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780198728795.
  35. ^ The Hedonistic Imperative, §2.19 ("The utilitarian ethic championed here [...]").
  36. ^
  37. ^ 'Vegetarianism', in Tom L. Beauchamp and R. G. Frey (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press ("As a utilitarian, I...").
  38. ^ In the introduction to his book The Happiness Philosophers, Princeton University Press, 2017 p2, Schultz says he "offers two cheers for utilitarianism", explaining that he "offers two cheers because some of the criticisms of utilitarianism are very serious. But then, two cheers may be about the best any developed ethical and political theory can hope for ...".
  39. ^ 'The Singer Solution to World Poverty', The New York Times Magazine, September 5, 1999, pp. 60-63 ("for a utilitarian philosopher like myself [...]").
  40. ^ 'The wisdom of Cass Sunstein', EconLog, July 19, 2014.
  41. ^ Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  42. ^ Hedonistic Utilitarianism, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998.
  43. ^ The Moral Animal: Why We Are, the Way We Are: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology, Vintage, 1995, p. 341 ("although utilitarianism was Darwin's and Mill's solution to the moral challenge of modern science, it isn't everyone's. Nor is this chapter intended to make it everyone's (although, I admit, it's mine).").