List of vaping bans in the United States

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A pictogram used to denote a vaping ban.
A pictogram used to denote a vaping ban.

The following is a list of vaping bans in the United States. For federal regulation concerning the legal status of the sale of electronic cigarettes products in and outside the United States, see the worldwide regulation of electronic cigarettes.

United States regulation[edit]

Federal[edit]

A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.
A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.

Effective August 8, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates electronic cigarettes products to be regulated as tobacco products.[1] The FDA rule also bans sales to minors.[2] The FDA classified e-cigarettes as drug delivery devices and subject to regulation under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) before importation and sale in the US.[3]

State[edit]

Vaping is steadily being regulated across the US.[4] Some state and regional governments in the US had extended their indoor smoking bans to include e-cigarettes.[5] As of April 2017, 12 US states and 615 localities had prohibited the use of e-cigarettes in venues in which traditional cigarette smoking was prohibited.[6] High schools and some middle schools throughout the US have been revising their tobacco rules to ban vaping on school grounds.[7]

A review of regulations in 40 US states found that how a law defines e-cigarettes is critical, with some definitions allowing e-cigarettes to avoid smoke-free laws, taxation, and restrictions on sales and marketing.[8] The tobacco industry heavily lobbies states to make it harder to regulate and tax e-cigarettes.[9]

Indoor bans[edit]

Indoor vaping laws by-state in the US, rough summary.
Indoor vaping laws by-state in the US, rough summary.
The sign states: No smoking and vaping within 9 meters of building.
A sign stating: No smoking and vaping within 9 meters of building.

In August 2016, a World Health Organization (WHO) report recommended that e-cigarettes be banned in indoor areas or where smoking is prohibited.[10] This is because of their potential for non-users to be exposed to chemicals and e-cigarette aerosol in indoor areas.[11] Many local and state jurisdictions have recently begun enacting laws that prohibit e-cigarette usage everywhere that smoking is banned, although some state laws with comprehensive smoke-free laws will still allow for vaping to be permitted in bars and restaurants while prohibiting e-cigarettes in other indoor places.[12] The only states that do not regulate indoor vaping at all, be it by state territory or on a local level, are in the states of Nebraska, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Tennessee.

 Alabama[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (11 total):
    • Anniston, July 1, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Clay, January 6, 2012, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Creola, April 25, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Fultondale, September 1, 2011, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; also includes private clubs[12]
    • Gadsden, January 1, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Homewood, November 19, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Midfield, December 28, 2011, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Monroeville, March 19, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mountain Brook, October 19, 2016, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[13]
    • Troy, June 25, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Vestavia Hills, July 25, 2012, banned in workplaces, bars, restaurants, hotels/motels, and within 20 feet (6.1 m) of entrances and exits[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (3 total):
    • Bessemer, November 1, 2012, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Foley, June 18, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Opelika, October 7, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include bars and restaurants (2 total):
    • Daphne, August 18, 2014 banned in enclosed facilities owned, operated or leased by the city, including vehicles; vaping can also be prohibited where there is an owner, operator, manager, or other person having control of a place meeting certain criteria[14]
    • Madison, November 24, 2014, banned in all city buildings[15]

 Alaska[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include bars and restaurants (3 total):
    • Dillingham, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Juneau, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Palmer, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Arizona[edit]

  • Localities in Arizona with vaping bans that include bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Tempe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities in Arizona with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Coconino County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]

 Arkansas[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is generally prohibited on school property, although localities may choose to enact rules of their own that govern e-cigarette use, but so far, only Wooster has done so

 California[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban As of June 2016, e-cigarettes are included in California's smokefree laws. E-cigarette use is prohibited in workplaces and many public spaces, including restaurants and bars. It is allowed wherever smoking is allowed.[16] Communities can have stronger e-cigarette laws, e.g. covering parks, beaches, bus stops, outdoor worksites, and so on.[17] Sale of e-cigarettes to persons under 21 is prohibited.[18]

 Colorado[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited only on school property, due to lack of FDA approval for e-cigarettes as cessation devices. All other indoor places, including bars and restaurants, are exempt from the state's regulations. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (16 total):
    • Arvada, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts partial theatrical productions and specialty vaping stores[12]
    • Boulder, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Breckenridge, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Brighton, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Edgewater, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Evans, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Fort Collins, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Frisco, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Golden, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Greeley, banned in bars and restaurants, any public access buildings including businesses, and within 50 feet of outdoor seating areas for events[12]
    • Greenwood Village, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Lafayette, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Lakewood, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Littleton, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Louisville, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Wheat Ridge, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]

 Connecticut[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban.[1] Sales to minors also banned.[2] Effective October 1, 2015, vaping is prohibited in all indoor places where smoking is prohibited, including bars and restaurants, as signed into law by Governor Dannel P. Malloy. Local government are forbidden from regulating vaping more stringently than the state.

 Delaware[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. Effective September 5, 2015, vaping is prohibited in all places that smoking is banned, which includes bars & restaurants, as signed into law by Governor Jack Markell. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.[3]

 Florida[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (19 total):
    • Alachua County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Archer, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Belleview, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Boca Raton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Clay County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Miami-Dade County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Delray Beach, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Gainesville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Hawthorne, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • High Springs, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Lighthouse Point, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Marion County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Miami, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Newberry, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Orange Park, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Port Saint Lucie, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Port St. Joe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Vero Beach, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Waldo, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]

 Georgia (U.S. state)[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited only on all campuses of University System of Georgia, with limited exceptions for educational purposes and research. Municipalities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state. Roswell bans vaping in all city parks
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (3 total):
    • Chatham County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pooler, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Savannah, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):

 Hawaii[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. In April 2015 a bill passed that makes it no longer legal for vaping to be permitted in workplaces and other public places.[4] In June 2015 Hawaii raised the legal age to purchase traditional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes to 21.[5]

 Idaho[edit]

  • Ketchum, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Illinois[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited on all campuses of state-supported institutions of higher education, including buildings, grounds, parking lots, and vehicles owned by institutions. Enclosed research laboratories are exempt, as well as bars, restaurants, workplaces and all other indoor places where smoking is banned under the Illinois Clean Indoor Air Act. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (13 total):
    • Chicago, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants;[6] exempts vape shops.[7]
    • Deerfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • DeKalb, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Elgin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Elk Grove Village, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Evanston, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Naperville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • New Lenox, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Oak Park, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ogle County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Schaumburg, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Skokie, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wilmette, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (2 total):
    • Arlington Heights, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Wheaton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]

 Indiana[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Indianapolis, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Greenwood, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars and restaurants[12]

 Iowa[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (4 total):
    • Ames, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Coralville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Iowa City, July 16, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants or selling to minors.[19]
    • North Liberty, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Kansas[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is generally prohibited on all Department of Corrections property and grounds, by both employees and inmates, with no exceptions whatsoever. All other indoor places, including bars, restaurants, and gambling facilities are entirely exempt from the state e-cigarette regulations. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (7 total):
    • Eudora, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hutchinson, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Olathe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Overland Park, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Park City, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Topeka, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wyandotte County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Kentucky[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited only on all properties of State Executive Branch, including buildings, vehicles, and land, but excluding specific outdoor areas such as parks, Kentucky Horse Park, and Kentucky State Fairgrounds. Per Governor's Office, does not apply to State colleges and universities. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (10 total):
    • Bardstown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Berea, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Danville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants, as well as within ten feet of the entrance of any such place[12]
    • Glasgow, banned in bars and restaurants, but not all other workplaces[12]
    • Lexington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mancher, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Morehead, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Richmond, September 9, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Versailles, October 6, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Woodford County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Louisiana[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (7 total):
    • Abbeville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Cheneyville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hammond, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Monroe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • New Orleans, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ouachita Parish, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • West Monroe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Sulphur, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lake Charles, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Maine[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. Effective October 1, 2015, vaping is prohibited in all smoke-free areas, which included bars and restaurants. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.[20]

 Maryland[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited only on MARC commuter rail system trains. All other indoor places, including bars and restaurants, that are subject to the Maryland Clean Indoor Air Act are entirely exempt from the state's vaping regulations. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (3 total):
    • Howard County, July 31, 2015, banned in bars, restaurants, stores, offices, sports complexes and at open-air concerts.[21]
    • Montgomery County, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Prince George's County, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces; exempts video lottery establishments[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Baltimore, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars and restaurants; also exempts video lottery facilities and e-cigarette shops[12]

 Massachusetts[edit]

  • Vaping is banned on all state college & university campuses.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (116 total):
    • Acton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Adams, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Amherst, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Andover, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Arlington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ashland, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Athol, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Attleboro, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Auburn, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Barre, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Billerica, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bolton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Boston, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bourne, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bridgewater, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Buckland, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Burlington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Cambridge, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts Housing Authority developments & outdoor restaurant & bar patios[12]
    • Charlemont, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Cohasset, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Concord, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Dartmouth, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Dedham, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Deerfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Dighton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Dover, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Dracut, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Eastham, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Easthampton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Fairhaven, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Fitchburg, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Foxborough, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Franklin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Gardner, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Gill, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Gloucester, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Grafton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Granby, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Great Barrington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Greenfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Halifax, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hamilton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hatfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts hotels/motels[12]
    • Haverhill, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Holyoke, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hubbardston, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hudson, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hull, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lee, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Leicester, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lenox, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Leominster, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Leverett, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lexington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lynn, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lynnfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Marblehead, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Marion, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Marlborough, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Marshfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mashpee, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Medfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Medway, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Methuen, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Milford, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Montague, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Natick, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Needham, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • New Bedford, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Newburyport, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Newton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Northampton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • North Andover, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • North Attleborough, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • North Reading, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Orange, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Orleans, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Oxford, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pittsfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Plainville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Provincetown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Reading, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Rockland, September 3, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[22]
    • Salem, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Saugus, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sharon, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Shelburne, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sherborn, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Shrewsbury, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Somerset, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Somerville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • South Hadley, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Stockbridge, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sunderland, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sutton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Swampscott, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Swansea, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Taunton, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Tewksbury, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Townsend, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Tynsborough, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wakefield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Watertown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wayland, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Webster, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wendell, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • West Springfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Westminster, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Westport, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Westwood, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Weymouth, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Whately, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Williamstown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Winchendon, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Winchester, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Worcester, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Yarmouth, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Michigan[edit]

  • Washtenaw County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars and restaurants[12] and is not illegal to use a "vaporizer" inside of domestic homes, houses, etc.
  • Canton, use of electronic cigarettes by minors is a misdemeanor

 Minnesota[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is only prohibited in state and local government buildings, facilities of state colleges and universities, facilities licensed by Commissioner of Human Services, and facilities licensed by Commissioner of Health. All other indoor places subject to the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, including bars and restaurants, are entirely exempt from the state's regulation. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (38 total):
    • Austin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; use of vaporized medical marijuana permitted wherever not prohibited by State law[12]
    • Beltrami County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts e-cigarette shops for purposes of sampling non-nicotine substances[12]
    • Big Stone County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bloomington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Chippewa County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Clay County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Duluth, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Eagle Lake, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Eden Prairie, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Edina, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Elk River, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ely, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Glyndon, banend in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hennepin County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hermantown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Houston County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Isanti, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Jordan, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Lac Qui Parle County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lakeville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mankato, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Marshall County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Minneapolis, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Moorhead, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • North Mankato, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Olmsted County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; use of vaporized medical marijuana permitted wherever not prohibited by law[12]
    • Orono, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Perham, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ramsey County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Red Wing, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Richfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Savage, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sleepy Eye, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • St. Anthony, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • St. Louis County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Steele County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Waseca, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wilkin County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Mississippi[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (55 total):
    • Anguilla, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Arcola, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Baldwyn, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bassfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Beulah, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Brandon, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Bruce, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Byram, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Calhoun City, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Clinton, banned in all bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Centreville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Coahoma County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Courtland, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Crawford, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Duck Hill, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Duncan, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Durant, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Ethel, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Farmington, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Fayette, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Forest, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Friars Point, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Georgetown, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Holly Springs, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Indianola, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Isola, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Itta Bena, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Iuka, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Louisville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Magee, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mantachie, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Mendenhall, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Monticello, banned in all bars and restaurants, but not all other enclosed workplaces[12]
    • Moorhead, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Nettleton, February 5, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • New Augusta, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants
    • Petal, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pickens, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pittsboro, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Plantersville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Prentiss, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Rolling Fork, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sidon, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sledge, June 4, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Southaven, August 4, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • State Line, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sumner, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Tupelo, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Tutwiler, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Walnut, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Walnut Grove, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Weir, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wesson, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wiggins, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Woodville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (2 total):
    • Diamondhead, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Flowood, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]

 Missouri[edit]

  • Localities with a vaping ban that includes all bars and restaurants (9 total):
    • Branson, July 1, 2015, banned in all enclosed public places and workplaces by unanimous Board of Aldermen vote in October 2014; exempts up to 20% of designated hotel and motel smoking rooms, tobacco shops, smoking lounges in tobacco-related businesses, private homes, outdoor areas in places of employment, outdoor patios of restaurants, and golf courses.[12]
    • Clinton, March 1, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Columbia, banned in all workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts rented social halls, separately ventilated offices occupied exclusively by smokers, stage performances, retail tobacco shops, and private clubs with no employees.[12]
    • Creve Coeur, January 2, 2011, banned by unanimous city council vote in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; exempts cigar bars, private clubs, tobacco shops, and hotel/motel designated smoking rooms[12]
    • Farmington, November 13, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants, after public vote of 59%-41% and including within 15 feet (4.6 m) of entrances; exempts cigar bars, vape shops, hotel rooms, private clubs, and nursing homes[12]
    • Kansas City, banned in all indoor workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Gainesville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • St. Joseph, June 7, 2014, banned in all enclosed workplaces and public places, including all bars, restaurants, and private and semiprivate rooms in nursing homes, after public vote of 52.75%–47.25%; exempts private vehicles and residences, 10% of hotel and motel rooms designated as smoking, private clubs (when no employees are present), and casino gaming areas (including bars, restaurants, and lounges within those gaming areas).[12]
    • Washington, April 15, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants by unanimous city council vote; also banned in private rooms in nursing homes; exempts only private residences not serving as a workplace and designated smoking rooms in hotels and motels; exempts hookah lounges until April 15, 2014[12]

 Montana[edit]

 New Hampshire[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited only in public educational facilities and on grounds thereof. All other indoor places that are covered by the New Hampshire Clean Indoor Air Act, including bars and restaurants, are entirely exempt from the state's regulations. Localities are prohibited from regulating vaping more stringently as they are prohibited from regulating smoking more stringently.[citation needed]

 New Jersey[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. On March 13, 2010, a law went into effect prohibited vaping everywhere that smoking is banned, which is in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently.[citation needed] (NJ Title 26:3D-55 - 60)

 New Mexico[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Santa Fe, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (1 total):
    • Carlsbad, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars and restaurants

 New York[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. On November 22, 2017, a law went into effect prohibited vaping everywhere that smoking is banned, including all enclosed workplaces, bars and restaurants.[8]
  • Localities with a vaping ban that include all bars and restaurants (6 total):
    • Albany, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[9]
    • Cattaraugus County, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Lynbrook, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • New York City, prohibited to anyone under 21 years of age;[23] also prohibited everywhere smoking is banned indoors and out;[12] vaping is allowed only in e-cigarette shops
    • Suffolk County, prohibited to anyone under 21 years of age;[24] also prohibited everywhere smoking is banned indoors and out[12]
    • Tompkins County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants
    • Westchester County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include bars and restaurants (1 total):

 North Carolina[edit]

Localities may regulate vaping indoors, but not in bars and restaurants.

  • Asheville, March 10, 2015, banned from city buses, parks and greenways and in facilities such as the U.S. Cellular Center[26]
  • Waynesville, May 23, 2015, banned on sidewalks, public parks, parking lots, greenways, city vehicles and the area in and surrounding town buildings[27]

  North Dakota[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban. On November 6, 2012, by a vote of 66%-34%, North Dakota voters ratified Initiative Measure Four, which, upon taking effect in December 2012, amends North Dakota's existing partial smoking ban so as to ban smoking statewide in all enclosed public places and places of employment, including all bars, restaurants, and tobacco stores with all restrictions applying to e-cigarettes as well.[28][29] The ban exempts only (1) private residences except when operating as a childcare or adult day care facility, (2) outdoor areas except within 20 feet of the entrance to a public place or place of employment, (3) businesses not open to the public with no employees besides the owner, and (4) American Indian religious and cultural rituals.[29] Local governments may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.[29]

 Ohio[edit]

  • Localities with a vaping ban that includes all bars and restaurants (3 total):
    • Bexley, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Grandview Heights, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Oberlin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Oklahoma[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is only prohibited in all Dept. of Corrections facilities, including vehicles and grounds. Localities are prohibited from regulating vaping more stringently than the state. Also, sales, gifts and furnishing of vapor products to persons under the age of 18 are subject to legal action the same way as if it were alcohol to a person under 21.

 Oregon[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban: Effective January 1, 2016, vaping is prohibited in all smoke free areas, which includes bars and restaurants. Localities may regulate vaping more stringently than the state.

 Pennsylvania[edit]

  • Philadelphia, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars where food accounts for less than 10% of sales and alcohol accounts for more than 90% of sales, and persons under 18 are prohibited.[12] Philadelphia's ordinance is the only local vaping ban in Pennsylvania. Vaping is also banned at all city parks.

 South Carolina[edit]

  • Localities with a vaping ban that include all bars and restaurants. (6 total):
    • Denmark, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Estill, May 1, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Hartsville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Inman, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • West Pelzer, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]
    • Yemassee, August 9, 2013, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including all bars and restaurants[12]

 South Dakota[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is only prohibited in Department of Corrections facilities and on grounds thereof, by both employees and inmates. All other indoor places, including bars and restaurants, are entirely exempt from the state's regulations, and it remains unclear whether or not local government are allowed to regulate their usage more stringently.[citation needed]

 Texas[edit]

  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (17 total):
    • Austin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants.[30]
    • Bonham, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Denton, April 22, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; previous smoking ordinance that allowed smoking in bars did not include e-cigarettes[31]
    • Desoto, January 1, 2016, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Duncanville, May 1, 2016, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Edinburg, December 1, 2015, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • El Paso, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Frisco, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Harlingen, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Lufkin, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • San Angelo, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • San Marcos, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Seagoville, March 3, 2016, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Sherman, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces[12]
    • Socorro, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Tyler, banned in all places where traditional tobacco smoking is banned, all city owned property, and all privately owned bars and restaurants. Exemptions are available for retail tobacco and vaping shops[12][32]
    • Waco, January 1, 2016, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Waxahachie, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
  • Localities with vaping bans that do not include all bars and restaurants (7 total):
    • Bedford, banned in restaurants, but not bars or other enclosed workplaces[12]
    • Boerne, banned in restaurants, but not bars or other enclosed workplaces[12]
    • Burkburnett, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars
    • Highland Village Texas, June 1, 2011 banned in all enclosed public places as well as restaurants; the law is silent as to whether or not bars are included[12]
    • Joshua, banned in all enclosed public places as well as restaurants; the law is silent as to whether or nor bars are included[12]
    • Weatherford, banned in restaurants, but not bars or other enclosed workplaces[12]
    • Wichita Falls, banned in all enclosed workplaces, exempting bars and restaurants[12]

 Utah[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban: Effective January 1, 2009, vaping is prohibited in all indoor places exempting only (1) designated hotel/motel smoking rooms, (2) areas of owner-operated businesses with no employees besides the owner, and (3) American Indian religious and cultural ceremonies. Since the state law supersedes any ordinances passed by political subdivisions of the state (i.e., cities, counties, school districts, agencies, etc.), such political subdivisions are preempted from regulating indoor smoking or vaping any more or less stringently than the Act.[401][citation needed]

 Vermont[edit]

  • Statewide vaping ban: Effective January 1, 2017, vaping is prohibited in public areas where smoking is banned.[10]

 Virginia[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is prohibited on Virginia Railway Express trains and limited to 100 feet on north end of station platforms. All other indoor places can freely permit vaping if they choose. The law is silent as to whether local governments can regulate vaping more stringently than the state, since they are forbidden from regulating smoking more stringently.[citation needed]

 Washington[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Washington State Ferries forbids vaping on its vessels as per an announcement given on every sailing.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (6 total):
    • Grant County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; vaping is allowed only in e-cigarette shops[12]
    • King County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pasco, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Pierce County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Snohomish County, banned 25 feet from public places and enclosed areas and outdoor venues. Only tribal businesses on reservation land and permitted vape product retail shops are exempted per section 14.7 of Health District Sanitary Code 13.2 and 14.6.
    • Whatcom County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 West Virginia[edit]

  • Localities with a vaping ban that include all bars and restaurants (24 total):
  • Localities with a vaping ban that do not include all bars and restaurants (5 total):
    • Marshall County, banned in all restaurants, but not bars or all other workplaces[12]
    • Mercer County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Morgan County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Webster County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including restaurants but exempting bars[12]
    • Wyoming County, banned in all enclosed workplaces except bars and restaurants[12]

 Wisconsin[edit]

  • No statewide vaping ban. Instead, vaping is only prohibited at indoor facilities of State Fair and at main stage area. All other places covered by the state's smoking regulations, including bars and restaurants, are entirely exempt and may permit vaping if they choose. Local governments may regulate vaping more stringently than the state, so long as it's to have smoke-free laws that address the provision of vaping alongside all smoke-free areas.
  • Localities with vaping bans that include all bars and restaurants (10 total):
    • Ashwaubenon, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Dane County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Florence County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Greenfield, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Janesville, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Jefferson County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • La Cross County, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Madison, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants; vaping is only allowed in retail e-cigarette shops[12]
    • Onalaska, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]
    • Wausau, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants[12]

 Wyoming[edit]

  • Laramie, banned in bars and restaurants, but not other workplaces; ban includes private clubs[12]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "FDA Bans E-Cig Sales to Minors". Fox 15 News. 9 August 2016. 
  3. ^ "FDA Fighting for Authority to Regulate Electronic Cigarette". 2 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Twanna Harps (17 April 2014). "Electronic Cigarette Increasingly Being Banned". Guardian Liberty Voice. 
  5. ^ Crowley, Ryan A. (2015). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Executive Summary of a Policy Position Paper From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (8): 583–4. doi:10.7326/M14-2481. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 25894027. 
  6. ^ Glantz, Stanton A.; Bareham, David W. (January 2018). "E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications". Annual Review of Public Health. 39 (1). doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013757. ISSN 0163-7525. PMID 29323609.  This article incorporates text by Stanton A. Glantz and David W. Bareham available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
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