List of victims of Nazism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. Many on the lists below were of Jewish and Polish origin, although Soviet POWs, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Serbs, Catholics, Roma and dissidents were also murdered. This list includes people from public life who, owing to their origins, their political or religious convictions, or their sexual orientation, lost their lives as victims of the Nazi regime. It includes those whose deaths were part of the Holocaust as well as individuals who died in other ways at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. Those who died in concentration camps are listed alongside those who were murdered by the Nazi Party or those who chose suicide for political motives or to avoid being murdered.

The list is sorted by occupation and by nationality.

Performing arts[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Hana Brady 1931–1944 Czech Portrayed in Hana's Suitcase: A True Story Gassed at Auschwitz concentration camp
René Blum 1878–1942 French Founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra à Monte Carlo ?
Arthur Bergen 1875–1943 Austrian Actor, director Auschwitz concentration camp
Egon Friedell 1878–1938 Austrian Actor, cabaret performer Suicide to avoid arrest by Sturmabteilung
Eugen Burg 1871–1944 German Film actor Died at an unknown concentration camp
Ernst Arndt 1861-1942/3 German Actor gas chamber at Treblinka concentration camp
Maria Bard 1900–1944 German Actress Suicide in Berlin for "political reasons"[citation needed]
Lea Deutsch 1927–1943 Croatian Child actress Heart failure en route to the Auschwitz concentration camp
Max Ehrlich 1892–1944 German Actor, screenwriter, director, best-selling author Gassed at Auschwitz concentration camp
Lisl Frank 1911–1944 Czech Dancer, cabaret singer Forced death march from Auschwitz to Christianstadt
Kurt Gerron 1897–1944 German Performer, actor, film director Gassed at Auschwitz concentration camp
Dora Gerson 1899–1943 German Actress, cabaret singer Gassed at Auschwitz concentration camp
John Gottowt 1881–1942 Austro-Hungarian Actor Murdered by SS in Wieliczka
Joachim Gottschalk 1904–1941 German Actor Suicide in Berlin to avoid arrest[citation needed]
Leslie Howard 1893–1943 British Actor airplane shot down by Luftwaffe
Georg John 1879–1941 German Actor Łódź Ghetto
Salomon Meyer Kannewasser 1916–1945 Dutch Jazz singer. Part of the duo 'Johnny & Jones' Died of exhaustion in Bergen-Belsen
Paul Morgan 1886–1938 Austrian Actor, cabaret performer Buchenwald concentration camp
Bernard Natan 1886–1942 Franco-Romanian Film director, actor and former head of Pathé Film Studios Auschwitz concentration camp
Joseph Schmidt 1904–1942 Ukrainian Singer, actor Heart attack in a Swiss refugee camp in Gyrenbad
Fritz Spira 1881–1943 Austrian Film and stage actor Died at Ruma concentration camp in Vojvodina
Mathilde Sussin 1876–1943 Austrian Actress Theresienstadt concentration camp
Arnold Siméon van Wesel 1918–1945 Dutch Jazz singer. Part of the duo Johnny & Jones Died of exhaustion in Bergen-Belsen
Miklós Vig 1898–1944 Hungarian Singer, actor, comedian, theater secretary Shot in Budapest by members of the Arrow Cross
Karel Hašler 1879–1941 Czech Songwriter-lyricist, film and theatre director, actor, dramatist and screenwriter Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp
Otto Wallburg 1899–1944 German Actor and cabaret performer Auschwitz concentration camp
Witold Zacharewicz 1914–1943 Polish Actor Auschwitz concentration camp
Max Zilzer 1868–1943 Hungarian-German Actor Died under interrogation by the Gestapo[where?]

Literature and publishing[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Anne Frank 1929–1945 German/Dutch author of a published diary typhus at Bergen-Belsen
Else Feldmann 1884–1942 Austrian writer and journalist gas chamber at Sobibór
Egon Friedell 1878–1938 Austrian writer and philosopher suicide to avoid deportation
Peter Hammerschlag 1902–1942, Auschwitz Austrian writer and graphic artist died in detention, circumstances unclear
Lidia Zamenhof 1904–1942 Polish work for Esperanto movement, as well as translations of Baháʼí Faith writings gas chamber at Treblinka
Jura Soyfer 1912–1939 Austrian journalist, writer typhus at Buchenwald
Itzhak Katzenelson 1886–1944 Belarusian teacher, writer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Petr Ginz 1928–1944, aged 16 Czech editor of Vedem gas chamber at Auschwitz
Julius Fučík 1903–1943 Czech resistance leader hanged at Plötzensee Prison
Milena Jesenská 1896–1944 Czech journalist kidney failure at Ravensbrück concentration camp
Paul Kornfeld 1889–1942 Czech writer died in detention, circumstances unclear
Karel Poláček 1892–1944 Czech writer died in Gleiwitz concentration camp
Vladislav Vančura 1891–1942, Prague Czech writer, doctor executed at Kobylisy Shooting Range
Etty Hillesum 1914–1943, Auschwitz Dutch writer, diary author died in detention, circumstances unclear
Helga Deen 1925–1943 Dutch author of a published diary gas chamber at Sobibór
Hélène Berr 1921–1945 French author of a published diary died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Jacques Decour 1910–1942 French writer, resistance leader executed by firing squad[where?]
Robert Desnos 1900–1945 French poet, resistance fighter typhoid few weeks after the liberation of Theresienstadt concentration camp
Benjamin Fondane 1898–1944 French poet, literary critic gas chamber at Auschwitz
Régis Messac 1893–1945 French writer died at either the Groß-Rosen or Dora concentration camp
Walter Benjamin 1892–1940 German literary critic and philosopher suicide at Portbou to avoid deportation
Felix Fechenbach 1894–1933 German journalist and activist executed during the deportation to Dachau
Walter Hasenclever 1890–1940 German expressionist writer suicide to avoid deportation
Jakob van Hoddis 1887–1942 German writer gas chamber at Sobibór
Jochen Klepper 1903–1942 German writer suicide in Berlin
Erich Knauf 1895–1944 German journalist, poet beheaded at Brandenburg-Görden Prison
Clementine Krämer 1873–1942 German author, poet, social worker died at Theresienstadt
Adam Kuckhoff 1887–1943 German writer, dramatist, Resistance fighter died in detention, circumstances unclear
Erich Mühsam 1878–1934 German writer, anarchist executed at Plötzensee Prison
Willi Münzenberg 1889–1940 German publisher, politician murdered at Oranienburg concentration camp
Friedrich Münzer 1868–1942 German philologist enteritis at Theresienstadt
Carl von Ossietzky 1889–1938 German journalist, Nobel Peace Prize winner tuberculosis[where?]
Erich Salomon 1886–1944 German photojournalist died in detention, circumstances unclear
Libertas Schulze-Boysen 1913–1942 German film critic, resistance fighter executed at Plötzensee Prison
Miklós Radnóti 1909–1944 Hungarian poet shot into a mass grave near Abda, Hungary
Antal Szerb 1901–1945 Hungarian writer, literary scholar beaten to death in a concentration camp in Balf
Mordechai Gebirtig 1877–1942 Polish Yiddish poet, musician and composer shot dead in the Krakow Ghetto
Bruno Schulz 1892–1942 Polish writer shot dead in the ghetto at Drohobycz
Debora Vogel 1902–1942 Polish poet, philosopher shot in the Lwów ghetto
Willi Schmid d. 1934 German music critic accidental victim of the Night of the Long Knives in a case of mistaken identity
Martha Wertheimer 1890–1942 German journalist a Kindertransport director, sent to Sobibor extermination camp
Elena Shirman 1908–1942 Russian poet beaten to death in Rostov Oblast, Russia
Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger 1924–1942 Romanian writer typhus at the Mikhailovska labor camp in rural Ukraine
David Vogel 1891–1944 Russian Hebrew writer tuberculosis at a satellite camp of the Neuengamme concentration camp
Anton de Kom 1898–1945, Neuengamme Surinamese author, human rights activist died in detention, circumstances unclear
Irène Némirovsky 1903–1942 Ukrainian-French writer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Else Ury 1877–1943 German writer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Renia Spiegel 1924–1942 Polish author of a published diary shot dead in Przemyśl

Visual arts and design[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis 1896–1944 Austrian artist gas chamber in Auschwitz
Josef Čapek 1887–1945 Czech painter, draughtsman, illustrator, writer typhoid fever at Bergen-Belsen
Frania Hart 1896–1943 Polish/French painter unknown
Abraham Icek Tuschinski 1886–1942, Auschwitz Dutch designer of the Tuschinski Theater gas chamber at Auschwitz
Max Jacob 1876–1944 French artist pneumonia at Drancy
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938 Davos German painter suicide due to persecution
Julius Klinger 1876–1942 Austrian artist/designer
Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler 1899–1940 German painter Aktion T4 victim at Sonnenstein Euthanasia Centre
Jacob Mącznik 1905–1945 Polish painter slave labor at Ebensee division of Mauthausen[1]
Samuel J. de Mesquita 1868–1944 Dutch painter and designer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Felix Nussbaum 1904–1944 Austrian painter gas chamber at Auschwitz
Karl Pärsimägi 1902–1942 Estonian painter Auschwitz
Heinrich Rauchinger 1858–1942 Polish/Austrian painter Theresienstadt
Jan Rubczak 1884–1942 Polish painter, graphic artist gas chamber at Auschwitz
Charlotte Salomon 1917–1943 German painter gas chamber at Auschwitz


Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Pavel Haas 1899–1944 Czech composer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Heinz Alt 1922–1945 German composer Dachau
Ernst Bachrich 1892–1942 Austrian composer Majdanek/Lublin concentration camp
Al Bowlly 1898–1941 South African/British vocalist killed by a Luftwaffe parachute mine in London
Žiga Hirschler 1894–1941 Croatian composer Jasenovac concentration camp
Rudolf Karel 1880–1945 Czech composer dysentery at Theresienstadt
Gideon Klein 1919–1945 Czech composer killed during liquidation of Fürstengrube, a sub-camp of Auschwitz
Hans Krása 1899–1944, Czech (Bohemian) composer gas chamber at Auschwitz
Mario Finzi 1913–1945 Italian pianist intestinal infection at Auschwitz shortly after liberation
Leon Jessel 1871–1942, Berlin German composer torture by Gestapo
Erwin Schulhoff 1894–1942 Czech composer, jazz pianist tuberculosis at Wülzburg concentration camp
Viktor Ullmann 1898–1944 Czech composer, pianist gas chamber at Auschwitz
Karlrobert Kreiten 1916–1943 German pianist hanged at Plötzensee Prison
Alma Rosé 1906–1944 Austrian violinist, conductor possibly poisoning, at Auschwitz
Józef Koffler 1896–1944, Krosno Polish composer, teacher, columnist probably shot by Einsatzgruppen
Leo Smit 1900–1943 Dutch composer gas chamber at Sobibór
Marcel Tyberg 1893–1944 Austrian composer, pianist, conductor gas chamber at Auschwitz
Leone Sinigaglia 1868–1944 Italian composer suffered a fatal heart attack at the moment of his arrest
Gershon Sirota 1874–1943 Polish cantor, tenor killed in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Ilse Weber 1903–1944 Czech composer, playwright gas chamber at Auschwitz


Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Mildred Harnack 1902–1943 American literary historian, translator, resistance fighter beheaded at Plötzensee Prison
Elise Richter 1865–1943 Austrian Romance philology professor
Simon Dubnow 1860–1941 Belarusian historian, writer, activist killed at the Riga ghetto during the Rumbula massacre
Norbert Jokl 1877–1942, Roßau (?) Czech Albanologist
Marc Bloch 1886–1944 French historian, resistance leader tortured and shot by Gestapo at Saint-Didier-de-Formans
Valentin Feldman 1909–1942 French philosopher, resistance leader executed by firing squad
Georges Politzer 1902–1942 French philosopher, resistance leader executed by firing squad
Boris Vildé 1908–1942 French ethnographer, resistance fighter executed by firing squad
Avgust Pirjevec 1887–1944 Slovenian literary historian
Walter Benjamin 1892–1940 German philosopher suicide at Portbou to avoid deportation
Friedrich Münzer 1868–1942, Theresienstadt German classical scholar


Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Georg Alexander Pick[2] 1859–1942 Austrian Pick's theorem Theresienstadt
Jean Cavaillès 1903–1944 French philosopher of science, resistance leader executed by firing squad
Isaak Bacharach 1854–1942 German Cayley-Bacharach Theorem Theresienstadt
Albert Lautman 1908–1944 French mathematical philosopher, resistance leader executed by firing squad
Otto Blumenthal[3] 1876–1944 German Work in number theory, editor of Mathematische Annalen Theresienstadt
Felix Hausdorff[4] 1868–1942 German One of the founders of modern topology and contributed significantly to set theory, descriptive set theory, measure theory, function theory, and functional analysis. suicide, Bonn
Friedrich Hartogs 1874–1943 German Foundational work in several complex variables suicide, Großhesselohe
Robert Remak 1888–1942 German Work in group theory, number theory, mathematical economics Auschwitz
Adolf Lindenbaum 1904–1941 Polish Work in set theory Ghetto Vilnius
Antoni Łomnicki 1881–1941 Polish Polish mathematician Massacre of Lwów
Stanisław Ruziewicz 1889–1941 Polish Ruziewicz problem Massacre of Lwów
Stanisław Saks 1897–1942 Polish Work in measure theory murdered in prison by the Gestapo, Warsaw
Juliusz Schauder 1899–1943 Polish Schauder fixed point theorem, Schauder basis executed by the Gestapo, Lviv
Włodzimierz Stożek 1883–1941 Polish Polish mathematician Massacre of Lwów
Alfred Tauber 1866–1942 Slovak Tauberian theorems Theresienstadt

Natural sciences[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Ernst Cohen 1869–1944 Dutch chemist, work on the allotropy of metals gas chamber at Auschwitz

Medicine and psychology[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 1874–1941 Polish paediatrician, poet, translator Massacre of Lwów
Antoni Cieszyński 1882–1941 Polish physician, dentist, surgeon
Władysław Dobrzaniecki 1897–1941 Polish physician, surgeon
Gisela Januszewska 1867–1943 Austrian physician Theresienstadt
Janusz Korczak 1878–1942 Polish pediatrician, educator, child welfare Treblinka
Adolf Reichwein 1898–1944 German doctor, educator, politician executed, Berlin-Plötzensee
Sabina Spielrein 1885–1942 Russian physician, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst Massacre of Zmievskaya Balka
Elisabeth von Thadden 1890–1944, German educator executed, Berlin-Plötzensee
Martha Goldberg 1873–1938 German social activist, doctor's assistant Kristallnacht

Law, business[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Klaus Bonhoeffer 1901–1945 German jurist, resistance fighter executed, Berlin
Betsie ten Boom 1885–1944 Ravensbrück Dutch book keeper Pernicious anemia
Casper ten Boom 1859–1944 Scheveningen Prison Dutch watchmaker tuberculosis, mistreatment
Hans von Dohnányi 1902–1945 German jurist, resistance fighter executed, Sachsenhausen
Reinhold Frank 1896–1945 Berlin-Plötzensee German lawyer, member of 20 July Plot executed
Martin Gauger 1905–1941, NS-Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein German jurist, pacifist, member of the Kreisau Circle
Maurice Halbwachs 1877–1945 French sociologist, economist, philosopher, developer of collective memory Buchenwald
Franz Kaufmann 1886–1944 German jurist Sachsenhausen
Wilhelm Mautner 1889–1944 Austrian economist Auschwitz concentration camp
Helmuth James Graf von Moltke 1907–1945 German jurist, founder of the Kreisau Circle executed, Berlin-Plötzensee
Alfred Müller 1888 – 1945, Dachau Croatian entrepreneur
Leo Müller 1894 – 1941, Jasenovac Croatian entrepreneur
Karl Sack 1896–1945 German jurist, member of the 20 July plot executed, Flossenbürg
Rüdiger Schleicher 1895–1945 German resistance fighter executed, Berlin
Armin Schreiner 1874–1941 Croatian industrialist Jasenovac
Kazimierz Prószyński 1875–1945 Polish inventor Mauthausen
Elisabeth de Rothschild 1902–1945 French wife of Baron Philippe de Rothschild Ravensbrück
Ludwik Maurycy Landau 1902–1944 Polish economist executed, Warsaw

Theology, spirituality, religion[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Hedwig Jahnow 1879-1944 German Old testament theologian malnutrition in Theresienstadt
Kaj Munk 1898–1944 Danish theologian, playwright murdered by an SS-Sonderkommando, Hørbylunde/Denmark
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906–1945, Flossenbürg German Lutheran pastor, theologian Hanged with thin wire
Regina Jonas 1902–1944, Auschwitz German woman Rabbi
Jochen Klepper 1903–1942 German theologian, journalist suicide shortly before deportation, Berlin
Friedrich Lorenz 1897–1944 German priest, member of Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate executed, Halle an der Saale (beheaded)
Paul Schneider 1897–1939, Buchenwald German clergyman lethal injection
Edith Stein 1891–1942, Auschwitz German Carmelite nun, Ph.D. in Philosophy, Catholic saint (born Jewish) gas chamber
Sándor Büchler 1869–1944, Auschwitz Hungarian rabbi, historian
Giovanni Fornasini 1915–1944, Marzabotto Italian parish priest, MOVM, Servant of God shot by a member of the Waffen SS
Avraham Yitzchak Bloch 1891–1941 Lithuanian Chief Rabbi, rosh yeshiva of the Telz Yeshiva murdered in a massacre of the male population of Telz
Elchonon Wasserman 1875–1941, Kovno Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva
Riccardo Pacifici 1904–1943 Italian rabbi gas chamber at Auschwitz
Azriel Rabinowitz 1905–1941 Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva at the Telz Yeshiva murdered in a massacre of the male population of Telz
Maximilian Kolbe 1894–1941, Auschwitz Polish friar, Catholic saint lethal injection after voluntarily taking place of another prisoner
Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski 1913–1945, Dachau Polish priest
Karl Ernst Krafft 1900–1945, during transport to Buchenwald Swiss astrologer, occultist
Kalonymus Kalman Shapira 1889–1943, Aktion Erntefest Polish Rabbi
Menachem Ziemba 1883–1943, The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Polish Rabbi
Maria Skobtsova 1891–1945, Ravensbrück concentration camp Russian Russian Orthodox nun, saint gas chamber


Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Eddy Hamel 1902–1943, Auschwitz American football player, AFC Ajax
Evžen Rošický 1914–1942, Prague Czech athlete (800m, 400m relay), 1936 Berlin Olympic Games executed at Kobylisy Shooting Range
Otto Herschmann 1877–1942, Izbica concentration camp Austrian fencer & swimmer; 2-time Olympic silver medalist
Heinrich Wolf 1875–1943, Vienna Austrian chess player
Vera Menchik 1906–1944 British-Czech chess player; world champion killed in a V-1 rocket bombing raid in South London
Karel Treybal 1885–1941 Czech chess player; chess Olympian executed, Prague
Estella Agsteribbe 1909–1943, Auschwitz Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Gerrit Kleerekoper 1897–1943, Sobibór Dutch coach Dutch gymnastics team 1928 Amsterdam Olympic Games
Salo Landau 1903–1944, Gräditz concentration camp Dutch chess player
Helena Nordheim 1903–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Ans Polak 1906–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Jud Simons 1904–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Alfred Flatow 1869–1942, Theresienstadt German gymnast; 3-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Gustav Flatow 1875–1945, Theresienstadt German gymnast; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Lilli Henoch 1899–1942, Riga Ghetto German 4 world records (discus, shot put, and 4x100-m relay), 10 German national championships
Werner Seelenbinder 1904–1944 German wrestler; Olympian executed, Brandenburg an der Havel
Johann Trollmann 1907–1943, Neuengamme German boxer; German national champion
János Garay (fencer) 1889–1945, Mauthausen Hungarian fencer; Olympic gold, silver, and bronze medalist
Oszkár Gerde 1883–1944, Mauthausen Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Attila Petschauer 1904–1943, Davidovka concentration camp Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
András Székely 1909–1943, Hungarian swimmer, Olympic silver (200-m breaststroke) and bronze (4x200-m freestyle relay)
Bronisław Czech 1908–1944, Auschwitz Polish skier: Olympian
Roman Kantor 1912–1943, Majdanek concentration camp Polish fencer; Olympian
Józef Klotz 1900–1941 Polish Polish national soccer team
Janusz Kusociński 1907–1940 Polish athlete;1932 Los Angeles men's athletics gold medalist executed in Palmiry
Dawid Przepiórka 1880–1940 Polish chess player; chess Olympian executed, Warsaw
Leon Sperling 1900–1941, Lemberg Ghetto Polish left wing on national soccer team
Ilja Szrajbman 1907–1943, Majdanek concentration camp Polish swimmer, Olympic 4×200-m freestyle relay
Victor Perez 1911–1945, Auschwitz Tunisian boxer; world flyweight champion
Ernest Toussaint 1908–1942, Hinzert concentration camp Luxembourgian boxer
László Bartók 1904–1944, Buchenwald Hungarian Olympic rower, 1928 Summer OlympicsMen's coxed four

Politics, resistance[edit]

Name Lifespan Nationality Political Ideology/Occupation Cause of death
Käthe Leichter 1895–1942, Bernburg Euthanasia Centre Austrian Politician, economist executed
Rosa Manus 1891–1942, Bernburg Dutch Feminist and peace activist murdered by gassing
Victor Basch 1877–1945 French Aesthetician, politician assassinated by the Vichy French Milice
Pierre Brossolette 1903–1944 French high resistance leader committed suicide (so as not to break under Gestapo torture)
Georges Mandel 1885–1944 French Politician, resistance leader murdered in the Forest of Fontainebleau
Jean Moulin 1899–1943 French high resistance leader tortured to death by the Gestapo
Jean Zay 1904–1944 French politician, former minister of French Government assassinated by the Vichy French Milice
Edgar André 1894–1936, Hamburg German Communist executed
Friedrich Aue 1896–1944, Brandenburg German Communist executed
Judith Auer 1905–1944, Berlin German Communist resistance fighter executed
Bernhard Bästlein 1894–1944, Brandenburg German Communist executed
Olga Benário Prestes 1908–1942, Ravensbrück German-Brazilian Communist executed
Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff 1890–1945 German Diplomat murdered in custody, Berlin
Cato Bontjes van Beek 1920–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German Red Orchestra (communist) resistance fighter executed
Rudolf Breitscheid 1874–1944, Buchenwald German Social Democrat executed
Marianne Cohn 1922–1944 German Maquis Resistance fighter Beaten to death by Gestapo
Hans Coppi 1916–1942, Berlin-Plötzensee German Communist resistance fighter executed
Hilde Coppi 1909–1943, Berlin-Plötzensee German Communist resistance fighter executed
Georg Elser 1903–1945, Dachau German Manual laborer, Rotfront-Kämpfer executed
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler 1884–1945, Berlin-Plötzensee German Mayor of Leipzig, Putschist executed
Willi Graf 1918–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter; student Guillotined
Albrecht Haushofer 1903–1945, Berlin-Moabit German Diplomat, writer executed
Rudolf Henning d. 1944, Sachsenhausen German executed
Rudolf Hilferding 1877–1941, in Gestapo custody, Paris German Social Democrat executed
Otto Hirsch 1885–1941, Mauthausen concentration camp German Representative of German Jews executed
Camill Hoffmann 1878–1944, Auschwitz German Diplomat, writer executed
Martin Hoop 1892–1933, Zwickau German Communist, District leader of KPD in Saxony executed
Kurt Huber 1893–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter, professor Guillotined
Franz Jacob 1906–1944, Brandenburg German Communist executed
Ludwig Landmann 1868-5 March 1945 German DDP politician, Mayor of Frankfurt starved to death in hiding place
Julius Leber 1891–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German Socialist executed
Wilhelm Leuschner 1890–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German Politician executed
August Lütgens d. 1933, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist executed
Ottilie Pohl d. 1942, Theresienstadt German Resistance fighter executed
Fritz Pröll 1915–1944, Nordhausen German Resistance fighter Suicide due to threatened torture
Christoph Probst 1918–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter, student Guillotined
Joseph Roth 1896–1945 German Teacher and politician murdered by a poison injection after being imprisoned in Buchenwald
Anton Saefkow 1903–1944, Zuchthaus Brandenburg German Communist, resistance fighter executed
Werner Scharff 1912–1945, Sachsenhausen German Resistance fighter, electrician executed
Rudolf von Scheliha 1897–1942, Berlin-Plötzensee German Red Orchestra (communist) resistance fighter, diplomat Guillotined
Alexander Schmorell 1917–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter, student Guillotined
Ernst Schneller 1890–1944, Sachsenhausen German KPD politician executed
Werner Scholem 1895–1940, Buchenwald German Communist executed
Hans Scholl 1918–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter, medical student Guillotined
Sophie Scholl 1921–1943, MunichStadelheim Prison German White Rose resistance fighter, student Guillotined
Ilse Stöbe 1911–1942, Berlin-Plötzensee German Red Orchestra (communist) resistance fighter Guillotined
Bruno Tesch 1913–1933, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist executed
Ernst Thälmann 1886–1944, Buchenwald German Leader of KPD executed
Adam von Trott zu Solz 1909–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German Diplomat executed
Jenő Deutsch  (Eugen Deutsch) 1879–1944 Hungarian Social democrat politician executed[5]
Hannah Szenes 1921–1944 Hungarian Jewish partisan executed
Kazimierz Bartel 1882–1941 Polish Prime Minister of Poland 1926–1930 executed
Paweł Frenkiel 1920–1943 Polish Jewish Military Union leader executed
Yitzhak Gitterman 1889–1943 Polish Politician, Director of American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee fighting in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Herschel Grynszpan 1921–1943/1945, location and date of death not known, possibly Gestapo-Prison Berlin-Moabit Polish Radical executed
Stefan Rowecki 1895–1944, Warsaw Polish General, leader of the Armia Krajowa, journalist executed
Stefan Starzyński 1893–1943 Polish Politician, economist, writer fate unknown, possibly died in Dachau
Szmul Zygielbojm 1895–1943 Polish Bund leader suicide in protest of Nazism
Tone Čufar 1905–1942 Slovenian Resistance fighter shot during an escape attempt
Slavko Šlander 1909–1941 Slovenian Resistance fighter executed


Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of death
Charles Delestraint 1879–1945 French general, resistance leader assassinated in Dachau concentration camp
Ludwig Beck 1880–1944, Berlin German General, Putschist executed
Wilhelm Canaris 1887–1945, Flossenbürg German military information service executed
Erich Fellgiebel 1886–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer and resistance fighter in the Third Reich executed
Werner von Haeften 1908–1944, Berlin German jurist, adjutant of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg executed
Erich Hoepner 1886–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German demoted Colonel General, member of Military opposition
about Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim 1905–1944, Berlin German Colonel, Putschist executed
Friedrich Olbricht 1888–1944, Berlin German General, Putschist executed
Hans Oster 1887–1945, Flossenbürg German Chief of staff executed
Erwin Rommel 1891–1944 German Army(Wehrmacht), Field Marshal forced suicide
Harro Schulze-Boysen 1909–1942, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer, publicist executed
Claus von Stauffenberg 1907–1944, Berlin German Chief of staff of General Army Office, Putschist executed
Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel 1886–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German military commander in occupied France executed
Henning von Tresckow 1901–1944, near Ostrov, Russia German Major General, Putschist suicide
Erwin von Witzleben 1881–1944, Berlin-Plötzensee German retired Field Marshal executed
Maurizio Giglio 1920–1944, Rome Italian soldier, policeman, secret agent, MOVM shot, one of the victims of the Ardeatine massacre
Dmitry Karbyshev 1880–1945, Mauthausen Russian Army(RKKA), engineer commander executed
Rudolf Viest 1890–1945, Flossenbürg Slovak Division General, commander of the Slovak National Uprising executed
Ján Golian 1906–1945, Flossenbürg Slovak Brigadier General, commander of the Slovak National Uprising executed

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Macznik".
  2. ^ "Pick biography". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Blumenthal biography". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  4. ^ "HCM: About Felix Hausdorff". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  5. ^ "Deutsch Jenő". Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon 1000–1990 (in Hungarian). Retrieved 3 February 2019.

External links[edit]