List of video game developers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of notable video game companies that have made games for either computers (like PC or Mac), video game consoles, handheld or mobile devices, and includes companies that currently exist as well as now-defunct companies.

See the list of video games for other lists relating to video games, and defunct video game companies for a more specific list of companies that no longer exist. Many of the developers publish their own games.

List of notable developers[edit]

Active independently
Active as subsidiary
Defunct and no longer active
Developer City Administrative division Country Est. Notable games, series or franchises Notes
0verflow Tokyo Japan 1997 School Days
Summer Days
Cross Days
Visual Novel brand (both developer and publisher)
11 bit studios Warsaw Masovian Voivodeship Poland 2010 This War of Mine
Indie developer/publisher
1C Company Moscow Russia 1991 King's Bounty: Warriors of the North The company still exists, but Snowball Studios [ru], the game development subsidiary, was dissolved in 2012 and former employees of the studios formed Snowbird Game Studios, and 1C Entertainment, the game publishing, localization, and development subsidiary, was acquired by Tencent and was renamed Fulqrum Games in 2022.
1-Up Studio Tokyo Japan 2000 Mother 3 Subsidiary of Nintendo. Formed by former employees of Square
2K Czech Brno Czech Republic 1997 Mafia
Mafia II
Former subsidiary of 2K; previously known as Illusion Softworks; closed in 2017 after merged into Hangar 13
2K Novato California United States 2005 Developer/publisher/distributor/marketer; owned by Take-Two Interactive
343 Industries Redmond Washington United States 2009 Halo series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios, took over development for the Halo franchise from Bungie
38 Studios Providence Rhode Island United States 2006 Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning Defunct in 2012; their assets were acquired by THQ Nordic
3D Realms Garland Texas United States 1987 Duke Nukem series Acquired by Embracer Group in 2021
42 Entertainment Pasadena California United States 1993 I Love Bees
4A Games Kyiv
Metro series They moved its headquarters from Ukraine to Malta; acquired by Embracer Group in 2020[1]
5th Cell Bellevue Washington United States 2003 Scribblenauts series
989 Studios Foster City California United States 1995 Twisted Metal III–4
Jet Moto 2124
Division of Sony Computer Entertainment America
Acclaim Entertainment Glen Cove New York United States 1987 Developer/Publisher; declared Bankruptcy August 2004
Acclaim Studios Austin Santa Clara California United States 1991 Turok series
All-Star Baseball series
South Park series
Acquired by Acclaim Entertainment in 1995
Accolade San Jose California United States 1984 HardBall! series
Star Control series
Test Drive II–III
Former publisher and developer. Acquired by Atari, SA née Infogrames in 1999, name retired.
Access Games Osaka Japan 2002 Deadly Premonition Subsidiary of Digital Media Lab [ja]
Access Software Salt Lake City Utah United States 1982 Under a Killing Moon
The Pandora Directive
Acquired by Microsoft
ACE Team Santiago de Chile Chile 2007 Zeno Clash series
Aces Game Studio Redmond Washington United States 1988 Microsoft Flight Simulator Acquired by Microsoft
Acquire Chiyoda, Tokyo Japan 1994 Tenchu series
Way of the Samurai series
Shinobido series
Akiba series
No Heroes Allowed! series
Octopath Traveler
Developer/publisher; acquired by GungHo Online Entertainment in 2011 and then acquired by Kadokawa Corporation in 2024
Action Forms Kyiv Ukraine 1995 Carnivores series Their main employees moved to Tatem Games
Active Gaming Media Osaka Japan 2006 Game localization, debugging/testing, international indie game distribution, publishing
Activision Santa Monica California United States 1979 Call of Duty series
MechWarrior 2
Also video game publisher; acquired several other developers; merged with Vivendi Games to form Activision Blizzard in 2008
Adventure Soft Birmingham England United Kingdom 1992 Simon the Sorcerer series The development company is now defunct but the publishing company, Adventure Soft Publishing, is still active.
Akella Moscow Russia 1995 Age of Sail II
Age of Pirates series
Sea Dogs
Defunct in 2012
Alfa System Kumamoto City Japan 1988 Tales of the World series
Oreshika series
Acquired by Meteorise in 2021
AlphaDream Tokyo Japan 2000 Mario & Luigi series Defunct in 2019
Amazon Game Studios Seattle Washington United States 2012 New World Subsidiary of
Animation Magic Gaithersburg Maryland United States 1991 Link: The Faces of Evil
Zelda: The Wand of Gamelon
Acquired by Davidson & Associates, a subsidiary of Cendant Software (latterly Vivendi Games), in 1997; closed in 2001
Amazon Game Studios, Orange County (formerly Double Helix Games) Irvine California United States 2007 Silent Hill: Homecoming
Killer Instinct
Front Mission Evolved
acquired by Amazon and incorporated in Amazon Game Studios
Ambrella Tokyo Japan 1996 Hey You, Pikachu!
Pokémon Rumble series
Acquired and merged by Creatures in 2020
Ancient Hino Japan 1990
Anino Manila Philippines 2001 Despicable Me: Minion Mania
Ankama Games Roubaix France 2001 Wakfu
Appy Entertainment Carlsbad California United States 2008
AQ Interactive Tokyo Japan 2005 Merged into Marvelous Entertainment in 2011
Aquria Yokohama Kanagawa Japan 2002 Sword Art Online series
Arc System Works Yokohama Japan 1988 Guilty Gear series
BlazBlue series
Dragon Ball FighterZ
Granblue Fantasy Versus
Arcane Kids Los Angeles California United States 2010 Bubsy 3D: Bubsy Visits the James Turrell Retrospective
Sonic Dreams Collection
Arcen Games Durham North Carolina United States 2009 AI War series
A Valley Without Wind series
Bionic Dues
The Last Federation
Starward Rogue
Arkane Studios Lyon France 1999 Arx Fatalis
Dishonored series
Subsidiary of ZeniMax Media
Arkedo Studio Paris France 2006 Hell Yeah! Wrath of the Dead Rabbit Defunct in 2013
ArenaNet Bellevue Washington United States 2000 Guild Wars
Guild Wars 2
Subsidiary of NCSoft
Arika Tokyo Japan 1995 Endless Ocean series
Street Fighter EX series
Tetris: The Grand Master series
Tetris 99
Pac-Man 99
Art Co., Ltd Tokyo Japan 1995
Artech Digital Entertainment Ottawa Ontario Canada 1982 Monopoly Star Wars
Monopoly (2000)
Defunct in 2011
Artdink Tsukishima Japan 1986 A-Train series
Sword Art Online series
ArtePiazza Tokyo Japan 1989
Artificial Studios Gainesville Florida United States 2001 Subsumed by Ignition Entertainment which was defunct in 2012
Artoon Yokohama Japan 1999 Yoshi's Island DS Subsidiary of AQ Interactive; defunct in 2010
Arzest Yokohama Japan 2010 Wii Play: Motion
Yoshi's New Island
Formed by former employees of Artoon
Ascaron Gütersloh Germany 1989 Sacred series Developer/publisher; closed in 2009
Asobo Studio Bordeaux France 2002 Kinect Rush: A Disney–Pixar Adventure
Monopoly Plus
A Plague Tale series
Microsoft Flight Simulator (2020)
Aspyr Austin Texas United States 1996 Game porting. Acquired by Embracer Group as a subsidiary of Saber Interactive in 2021.
Atelier 801 Lille Hauts-de-France France 2011 Transformice
Dead Maze
Indie developer/publisher
Atari Interactive (formerly Hasbro Interactive) Pawtucket Rhode Island United States 1995 Acquired by Infogrames in 2001
Atlus Tokyo Japan 1986 Megami Tensei franchise

Etrian Odyssey series
Trauma Center series

Developer/publisher; acquired by Sega in 2013
Atomic Planet Entertainment Middlesbrough England United Kingdom 2000 Taito Legends series Closed in 2009
Attic Entertainment Software Albstadt Germany 1990 Realms of Arkania: Blade of Destiny Developer/publisher; defunct in 2001
Audiogenic Essex England United Kingdom 1985 Brian Lara Cricket series
Avalanche Studios Group Stockholm Sweden 2003 Just Cause series
theHunter series
Acquired by Nordisk Film in 2018
Aventurine SA Athens Greece 2002 Darkfall
Babaroga Chicago Illinois United States 2001
Backflip Studios Boulder Colorado United States 2009 DragonVale Subsidiary of Hasbro; closed in 2019[2]
Bandai Namco Entertainment
Bandai Namco Studios
Minato, Tokyo Japan 1955
Pac-Man franchise
Tekken franchise

Soul Calibur series
Tales series
Katamari series
Klonoa series
Ace Combat series
The Idolmaster series
Taiko no Tatsujin series
God Eater series
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U
Pokkén Tournament
Mr. Driller series
Mojipittan series
Family Stadium series
Go Vacation
Code Vein
New Pokémon Snap

Bandai Namco Entertainment is a subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings; Bandai Namco Studios was split off from Bandai Namco Entertainment in 2012
Bauhaus Entertainment Tokyo Japan 2006 Division of Imagica DigitalScape [ja]
B.B. Studio Tokyo Japan 1994 Digimon World series
Super Robot Wars series
Formerly known as Banpre Kikaku and Banpresoft; Subsidiary of Bandai Namco Entertainment
Beamdog Edmonton Alberta Canada 2009 Baldur's Gate: Siege of Dragonspear Acquired by Aspyr in 2022
Beenox Quebec City Quebec Canada 2000 Spider-Man game series
Crash Team Racing Nitro-Fueled
Guitar Hero Smash Hits
Skylanders: SuperChargers
Acquired by Activision on May 25, 2005
Behaviour Interactive Montreal Quebec Canada 1992 Dead by Daylight
Behaviour Santiago Santiago de Chile Chile 2002 Assault Heroes series Acquired by Vivendi Games in 2007 and then acquired by Behaviour Interactive in 2008; closed in 2017
Bethesda Game Studios Rockville Maryland United States 2001 The Elder Scrolls series
Fallout series
In-house development team of Bethesda Softworks LLC which is a subsidiary of ZeniMax Media.
Big Blue Bubble London Ontario Canada 2004 My Singing Monsters franchise Acquired by Enad Global 7 in 2020.[3]
Big Finish Games Salt Lake City Utah United States 2007 Tesla Effect: A Tex Murphy Adventure
Big Huge Games Baltimore Maryland United States 2000 Rise of Nations
Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning
Acquired by Nexon in 2016
BioWare Edmonton Alberta Canada 1995 Baldur's Gate series
Mass Effect series
Dragon Age series
Neverwinter Nights
Star Wars: The Old Republic
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2007
The Bitmap Brothers London England United Kingdom 1987 Xenon series Dissolved.[4][5] Their portfolio was acquired by Rebellion Developments in 2019.[6]
Best Way Luhansk Ukraine 1991 Men of War series
Bits Studios London England United Kingdom 1991 Spider-Man: Return of the Sinister Six Acquired by PlayWize in 2008
Bizarre Creations Liverpool England United Kingdom 1994 Project Gotham Racing series
Geometry Wars series
Acquired by Activision in 2007; defunct in 2011
Black Forest Games Offenburg Germany 2012 Giana Sisters: Twisted Dreams
Destroy All Humans! (2020 remake)
Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2017
Black Isle Studios Orange County California United States 1996 Fallout 2
Planescape: Torment
Icewind Dale
Subsidiary of Interplay Entertainment; closed in 2003
Black Rock Studio Brighton England United Kingdom 1998 MotoGP 2
ATV Offroad Fury 3
Defunct in 2011
Blind Squirrel Games Irvine California United States 2010 BioShock: The Collection
Sonic Colors: Ultimate
Subsidiary of Blind Squirrel Entertainment
Blitz Games Studios Leamington Spa England United Kingdom 1990 Karaoke Revolution Liquidated[7]
Blizzard Entertainment Irvine California United States 1991 Diablo series
StarCraft series
Warcraft series
Heroes of the Storm
Developer/publisher; acquired by Vivendi and became part of Vivendi Games group in 1998; merged into Activision Blizzard in 2008
Bloober Team Kraków Lesser Poland Voivodeship Poland 2008 Layers of Fear series
Silent Hill 2
Bluepoint Games Austin Texas United States 2006 Shadow of the Colossus remake
Demon's Souls remake
Acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 2021
Blueside Seoul South Korea 2003 Kingdom Under Fire series Founded by former employees of Phantagram
Blue Fang Games Waltham Massachusetts United States 1998 Zoo Tycoon series Shut down in 2011
Blue Tongue Entertainment Melbourne Victoria Australia 1995 Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis
de Blob
Marvel Super Hero Squad
Shut down in 2011; subsidiary of THQ
Bluehole Studio Seongnam South Korea 2007 TERA Subsidiary of Krafton
Bohemia Interactive Prague Czech Republic 1999 Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis
Arma series
Take On Helicopters
Carrier Command: Gaea Mission
Boss Fight Entertainment McKinney Texas United States 2013 Acquired by Netflix in 2022
Boss Key Productions Raleigh North Carolina United States 2014 LawBreakers Founded by Cliff Bleszinski and Arjan Brussee
BreakAway Games Hunt Valley Maryland United States 1998
Brøderbund Eugene Oregon United States 1980 Prince of Persia series Closed in 1998
Budcat Creations Iowa City Iowa United States 2000 Madden NFL 2002 handheld version Acquired by Activision Blizzard in 2008; defunct in 2010
Bugbear Entertainment Helsinki Finland 2000 FlatOut series
Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2018
Bullfrog Productions Guildford England United Kingdom 1987 Theme Park
Magic Carpet
Dungeon Keeper series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1995 and closed in 2001
Bungie Bellevue Washington United States 1991 Halo series
Pathways into Darkness
Minotaur: The Labyrinths of Crete
Operation: Desert Storm
Destiny series
Formerly a subsidiary of Microsoft Game Studios, acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 2022
Camelot Software Planning Tokyo Japan 1990 Shining series
Mario Golf series
Mario Tennis series
Golden Sun series
Capcom Osaka Japan 1979 Mega Man franchise

Street Fighter franchise
Resident Evil franchise
Devil May Cry franchise
Monster Hunter franchise
Ghost 'n Goblins series
Strider series
Final Fight series
Dino Crisis series
Darkstalkers series
Ace Attorney franchise
Onimusha series
Sengoku BASARA series
Dragon's Dogma series
Viewtiful Joe series
Ōkami series
Dead Rising series
Marvel vs. Capcom series
Breath of Fire series
Bionic Commando

Capcom Vancouver Burnaby British Columbia Canada 2005 Dead Rising series Founded as Blue Castle Games; acquired by Capcom in 2010; closed on September 18, 2018
Carbine Studios Aliso Viejo California United States 2005 WildStar Subsidiary of NCSoft
Cattle Call Tokyo Japan 1998 Metal Max series
Arc the Lad series
Formed by former employees of Data East
Cauldron Bratislava Slovakia 1996 Chaser Their assets were acquired by Bohemia Interactive[8]
Cave Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1994 DoDonPachi
Cavia Tokyo Japan 2000 Drakengard series
CCP Games Reykjavík Iceland 1997 Eve Online Their Newcastle studio was acquired by Sumo Digital. CCP Games itself was acquired by Pearl Abyss.
CD Projekt Red Warsaw Masovian Voivodeship Poland 2002 The Witcher series
Cyberpunk 2077
Game development studio of CD Projekt
Certain Affinity Austin Texas United States 2006 Halo series Co-developed the Halo series
Chair Entertainment Salt Lake City Utah United States 2005 Undertow
Shadow Complex
Infinity Blade series
Subsidiary of Epic Games
Chunsoft Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1984 Mystery Dungeon series
Dragon Quest I–V
Merged with Spike to become Spike Chunsoft in 2012
Cing Fukuoka Japan 1999 Another Code series
Little King's Story
Clap Hanz Yokohama Japan 1998 Everybody's Golf series
Everybody's Tennis series
Climax Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1990 Runabout series
Climax Studios Portsmouth England United Kingdom 1988 Silent Hill: Origins
Assassin's Creed Chronicles series
Acquired by Keywords Studios in 2021
Clover Studio Osaka Japan 2004 Viewtiful Joe series
God Hand
Subsidiary of Capcom; became defunct in 2007.
Coded Illusions Rotterdam Netherlands 2005
Codemasters Southam England United Kingdom 1985 F1 series
Colin McRae Rally series
Operation Flashpoint series
Grid series
Brian Lara Cricket series
Former subsidiary of Reliance Entertainment; acquired by Electronic Arts in 2021
Coffee Stain Studios Skövde Sweden 2010 Goat Simulator


Acquired by THQ Nordic AB (latterly Embracer Group) in 2018
Cohort Studios Cardiff Wales United Kingdom 2006 Buzz! Junior series
Coktel Vision Paris France 1985 Inca series Former publisher
Colossal Order Tampere Finland 2009 Cities in Motion
Cities: Skylines
Developer for Paradox Interactive
Compile Heart Tokyo Japan 2006 Hyperdimension Neptunia franchise
Mary Skelter series
Record of Agarest War
Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Idea Factory
Compulsion Games Montreal Quebec Canada 2009 Contrast
We Happy Few
Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Com2uS Seoul South Korea 1998 Summoners War: Sky Arena
Skylanders Ring of Heroes
Acquired by Gamevil in 2013
Com2uS Holdings (formerly Gamevil) Seoul South Korea 2000 Zenonia series
Core Design Derby England United Kingdom 1988 Tomb Raider series Subsidiary of Eidos Interactive; closed down in 2006
Crafts & Meister Osaka Japan 2004 Gundam Breaker series
Crawfish Interactive Croydon England United Kingdom 1997 Defunct in 2002
Creat Studios Canton Massachusetts United States 1990 American Chopper 2: Full Throttle
Tony Hawk's Motion
Creative Assembly Horsham England United Kingdom 1987 Total War series
Alien: Isolation
Acquired by Sega in 2005
Creatures Tokyo Japan 1995 Pokémon Ranger series
Detective Pikachu
Criterion Games Guildford England United Kingdom 1993 Burnout series Subsidiary of Electronic Arts
Croteam Zagreb Croatia 1993 Serious Sam series
The Talos Principle
Acquired by Devolver Digital in 2020
Cryo Interactive Paris France 1992 Dune
Egypt series
Bankrupt in 2002
Culture Brain Excel Tokyo Japan 1980 Hiryū no Ken series
Super Chinese series
Crea-Tech Tokyo Japan 1988 Metal Max series
Cryptic Studios Los Gatos California United States 2000 City of Heroes
Champions Online
Star Trek Online
Acquired by Atari, SA in 2008 and then acquired by Perfect World in 2011 and managed by Perfect World Entertainment, the North American subsidiary, which was acquired by Embracer Group in 2021
Crystal Dynamics Redwood City California United States 1992 Legacy Of Kain series
Tomb Raider series (second era)
Acquired by Square Enix in 2009 and then acquired by Embracer Group in 2022
Crytek Frankfurt Germany 1999 Far Cry
Crysis series
Ryse: Son of Rome
Crytek UK Nottingham England United Kingdom 1999 TimeSplitters series Founded as Free Radical Design; acquired by Crytek in 2009; defunct in 2014
Cyan Worlds Mead Washington United States 1987 Myst series
Cyanide Nanterre France 2000 Pro Cycling Manager series Acquired by Bigben Interactive (latterly Nacon) in 2018
CyberConnect2 Fukuoka Japan 1996 .hack franchise

Naruto: Ultimate Ninja series
Dragon Ball Z: Kakarot

Cyberlore Studios (Blueline Simulations[9]) Northampton Massachusetts United States 1992 Majesty: The Fantasy Kingdom Sim Developer of computer games
CyberStep Tokyo Japan 2000 GetAmped
Cosmic Break
Developer/publisher of global online games
Cygames Tokyo Japan 2011 The Idolmaster Cinderella Girls series
Granblue Fantasy series
Princess Connect! series
Dragalia Lost
Subsidiary of CyberAgent
Daedalic Entertainment Hamburg Germany 2007 Edna & Harvey series
Blackguards series
The Lord of the Rings: Gollum
Acquired by Bastei Lübbe in 2014 and then acquired by Nacon in 2022
Dambuster Studios Nottingham England United Kingdom 2014 Homefront: The Revolution
Dead Island 2
Formed by former employees of Crytek UK; acquired by Koch Media in 2014 and managed by its Deep Silver division
Danger Close Games Los Angeles California United States 1995 Medal of Honor series Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; defunct in 2013
Day 1 Studios Chicago Illinois United States 2001 Axis & Allies series
MechAssault series
Merged with WarGaming[10]
Daybreak Game Company San Diego California United States 1997 EverQuest series
PlanetSide series
H1Z1 series
Acquired by Enad Global 7 in 2020.[11]
Deadline Games Copenhagen Denmark 1996 Total Overdose
Watchmen: The End Is Nigh
Faith and a .45
Deck13 Frankfurt Germany 2001 Ankh series
The Surge series
Acquired by Focus Home Interactive(currently Focus Entertainment) in 2020.[12]
Demiurge Studios Cambridge Massachusetts United States 2002 acquired by Sega in 2015; became independent in 2020; acquired by Embracer Group in 2021
DeNA Tokyo Japan 1999 Final Fantasy Record Keeper
Pokémon Masters
Mario Kart Tour
devCAT Studios (Nexon development 3rd division) Seoul South Korea 2001 Mabinogi
Division of Nexon Korea
Dhruva Interactive Bangalore India 1997 Acquired by Starbreeze Studios in 2016 and then they were acquired by Rockstar Games and were merged into Rockstar India in 2019
Die Gute Fabrik Copenhagen Denmark 2006 Where is my Heart?
Digital Extremes London Ontario Canada 1993 Warframe Subsidiary of Leyou, which was acquired by Tencent in 2020; Founded by James Schmalz, co-creator of Unreal series.
Digital Eclipse Emeryville California United States 1992 Spyro handheld series Division of Other Ocean Group[13]
Digital Happiness Bandung West Java Indonesia 2013 DreadOut
Digitalmindsoft Ulm Germany 2006 Men of War series
Digital Reality Budapest Hungary 1991 Imperium Galactica series Defunct in 2013; their assets were acquired by Nordic Games[14]
Dimps Osaka Japan 2000 Street Fighter IV
Crash Boom Bang!
Dragon Ball Z: Budokai series
Dragon Ball Xenoverse series
Sword Art Online: Fatal Bullet
Disney Interactive Studios Glendale California United States 1988 Publisher and subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company; closed in 2016
Don Bluth Entertainment Dublin Ireland 1979 Dragon's Lair IIIII Defunct in 1995
Don't Nod Paris France 2008 Life Is Strange series
Tell Me Why
DotEmu Paris France 2007 Wonder Boy: The Dragon's Trap
Streets of Rage 4
Acquired by Focus Home Interactive in 2021
Double Fine Productions San Francisco California United States 2000 Psychonauts
Broken Age
Gang Beasts
Founded by former employees of LucasArts; acquired by Microsoft in 2019
Dovetail Games Chatham England United Kingdom 2008 Train Simulator franchise Acquired by Focus Entertainment in 2023[15]
The Dovetail Group United States c. 1984 Early developer of music video games
Dr. Panda Chengdu China 2011 Role-playing apps aimed at children ages 5 and under
Dynamix Eugene Oregon United States 1984 Red Baron
Front Page Sports series
Betrayal at Krondor
Tribes series
Closed in 2001
EA Black Box British Columbia Canada 1998 Skate series
NHL Hitz series
Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; closed in 2013
EA Digital Illusions CE (EA DICE) Stockholm Sweden 1992 Battlefield series
Mirror's Edge
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2004
EA Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden 2011 Need for Speed Payback Subsidiary of Electronic Arts
EA Phenomic Ingelheim am Rhein Germany 1997 SpellForce series
Lord of Ultima
Command and Conquer: Tiberium Alliances
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2006; shut down in 2013
EA Salt Lake Salt Lake City Utah United States 1992 Tiger Woods PGA Tour 2001–08
Littlest Pet Shop series
Nerf N-Strike series
Monopoly Streets
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2006; defunct in 2017
EA Tiburon Maitland Florida United States 1994 Madden NFL series
NBA Live series (2013–)
NFL Head Coach series
NCAA Football series
EA Sports NASCAR series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1998
EA Vancouver (formerly Distinctive Software) Burnaby British Columbia Canada 1982 Test Drive
SSX series
NHL series
NBA Live series (1994–2010)
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1991
Eagle Dynamics Moscow Russia 1991 Su-27 Flanker
Flanker 2.0
Lock On: Modern Air Combat
DCS World
Eat Sleep Play Salt Lake City Utah United States 2007 Twisted Metal series Defunct in 2017
Eko Software Paris France 1999 Acquired by Bigben Interactive (latterly Nacon) in 2018
Egosoft Würselen Germany 1988 X series
Eden Games Lyon France 1998 Test Drive Unlimited series Former subsidiary of Atari SA; acquired by Engine Media in 2017 and then acquired by Animoca Brands in 2022
Eidos-Montréal Montreal Quebec Canada 2007 Deus Ex series Subsidiary of Square Enix Europe
Eighting Tokyo Japan 1993 Kururin series
Kamen Rider: Climax series
Kamen Rider: Battride War series
Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds
Acquired by COLOPL
Electronic Arts Redwood City California United States 1982 FIFA series
Need For Speed series
Apex Legends
Elemental Games Vladivostok Russia 1999 Space Rangers Defunct in 2015
Elite Systems Lichfield England United Kingdom 1984 Dragon's Lair: The Legend
Engine Software Doetinchem Netherlands 1995 Also middleware developer
Ensemble Studios Dallas Texas United States 1995 Age of Empires series
Age of Mythology
Halo Wars
Former subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
Epic Games Cary North Carolina United States 1991 Unreal series
Gears of War series
Shadow Complex
Infinity Blade series
Developer, publisher, and distributor
Epics Tokyo Japan 1987 PoPoLoCrois series
Epicenter Studios Sherman Oaks California United States 2007 Real Heroes: Firefighter
ESA (formerly Softmax) Seoul South Korea 1994 TalesWeaver ESA left from game business. The former employees formed Studio 4Leaf and the studio was acquired by NextFloor [ko].[16]
Eric Barone Seattle United States 2012 Stardew Valley Developer/publisher
Epyx San Francisco California United States 1978 California Games series
Impossible Mission series
Jumpman series
Pitstop series
Summer Games series
Developer/publisher, defunct 1993
Étranges Libellules Lyon France 1994 Asterix & Obelix XXL
The Legend of Spyro: Dawn of the Dragon
Eugen Systems Paris France 2000 Act of War series
Wargame series
Steel Division series
Eurocom Derby England United Kingdom 1988 GoldenEye 007
Crash Bash
Spyro: A Hero's Tail
Defunct in 2012
Evolution Studios Runcorn England United Kingdom 1999 World Rally Championship series
MotorStorm series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios and subsidiary of Sony Computer Entertainment; defunct in 2016
Examu Tokyo Japan 2007 Arcana Heart series Their business operations were suspended in 2020 and their business was taken over by Team Arcana.[17]
Eyedentity Games Seoul South Korea 2007 Dragon Nest Acquired by Shanda Games (currently Shengqu Games) in 2010
Facepunch Studios Walsall England United Kingdom 2009 Garry's Mod
FarSight Studios Big Bear Lake California United States 1989 The Pinball Arcade
FASA Studio Redmond Washington United States 1994 MechCommander series
MechWarrior 4
defunct in 2007
Fatshark Stockholm Sweden 2008 War of the Roses
Bionic Commando Rearmed 2
Warhammer: Vermintide series
Subsidiary of Tencent
feelplus Tokyo Japan 1992 No More Heroes: Heroes' Paradise Merged into AQ Interactive
Felistella Gifu Japan 2010 Summon Night 5
Firaxis Games Sparks Maryland United States 1996 Civilization series (part 3 and later)
XCOM (Reboot) series
Subsidiary of 2K; founded by former employees of MicroProse.
Firefly Studios London England United Kingdom 1999 Stronghold series Acquired by Devolver Digital in 2021
Firesprite Liverpool England United Kingdom 2012 Formed by former employees of Studio Liverpool; acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 2021
First Star Software Chappaqua New York United States 1982 Defunct in 2018. Their name and assets were acquired by BBG Entertainment
Flagship Studios San Francisco California United States 2003 Hellgate:London
Closed down in 2008
Flight-Plan Gifu Japan 1989 Black/Matrix series
Summon Night series
Defunct in 2010
Flying Wild Hog Warsaw Poland 2009 Hard Reset
Shadow Warrior series
Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[18]
Focus Entertainment Paris France 1996 Cities XL series (2011 and later)
Foundation 9 Entertainment Emeryville California United States 1992 Dissolved in 2016
Fox Digital Entertainment Los Angeles California United States 2002 Subsidiary of 20th Century Studios. The company still exists, but 20th Century Fox's video game business was rearranged to FoxNext.
FoxNext Los Angeles California United States 2017 Marvel Strike Force Division of 20th Century Studios. The company still exists but their game development studios were acquired by Scopely in 2020.[19]
Frictional Games Helsingborg Sweden 2001 Penumbra series
Amnesia: The Dark Descent
Frogwares Kyiv Ukraine 2000 Adventures of Sherlock Holmes series
Frog City Software San Francisco California United States 1994 Imperialism series
Tropico 2: Pirate Cove
Acquired by Take-Two Interactive in 2003 and closed in 2006
FromSoftware Tokyo Japan 1986 Armored Core series
Dark Souls series
Elden Ring
Subsidiary of Kadokawa Corporation
Frontier Developments Cambridge England United Kingdom 1994 Elite series
RollerCoaster Tycoon 3
Planet Coaster
Frozenbyte Helsinki Finland 2001 Shadowgrounds series
Trine series
FTL Games San Diego California United States 1982 Dungeon Master series Closed in 1982
Fun Labs Bucharest Romania 1999 MIB: Alien Crisis
Cabela's series
Acquired by Maximum Entertainment in 2023[20]
Funcom Oslo Norway 1993 The Longest Journey series
Anarchy Online
Age of Conan
The Secret World
Conan Exiles
Developer/publisher; acquired by Tencent in 2020[21]
FuRyu Tokyo Japan 2007 Unchained Blades series
Beyblade Burst series
Cardfight!! Vanguard series
Futuremark Espoo Finland 1997 Shattered Horizon Their game development division was acquired by Rovio Entertainment. Futuremark itself was acquired by UL and was merged into them.
Gaijin Entertainment Budapest Hungary 2002 War Thunder
IL-2 Sturmovik: Birds of Prey
Game Arts Chiyoda, Tokyo Japan 1985 Thexder series
Lunar series
Grandia series
Acquired by GungHo Online Entertainment in 2005.
Game Freak Setagaya-ku, Tokyo Japan 1989 Pokémon series
Pocket Card Jockey series
GameHouse Seattle Washington United States 1998 Delicious series Casual game developer, publisher and portal; acquired by RealNetworks
Gameloft Paris France 1999 Modern Combat: Domination
Order & Chaos Online
Assassin's Creed (for mobile)
Subsidiary of Vivendi; developer/publisher of mobile games
Ganbarion Fukuoka Japan 1999 One Piece series
Jump Super Stars series
Wii Fit U
Dragon Ball Fusions
Gearbox Software Plano Texas United States 1999 Brothers In Arms series
Borderlands series
Half-Life: Opposing Force
Risk of Rain series
Acquired by Embracer Group in 2021.
Geewa Prague Czech Republic 2005 Acquired by AppLovin in 2020
Genius Sonority Tokyo Japan 2002 Pokémon Colosseum series
Pokémon Trozei! series
The Denpa Men series
Genki Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1990 Shutokou Battle series Subsidiary of Daikoku Denki [ja]
Glu Mobile San Francisco California United States 2001 Deer Hunter series Developer and publisher of mobile games; acquired by Electronic Arts in 2021
Gogii Games Moncton New Brunswick Canada 2006 Developer/publisher
Good-Feel Kobe Japan 2005 Kirby's Epic Yarn
Yoshi's Woolly World
Yoshi's Crafted World
Founded by former employees of Konami
Goodgame Studios Hamburg Hamburg Germany 2009 Developer/publisher
Granzella Nonoichi Japan 2011 Disaster Report 4 Plus Founded by former Irem employees
Grasshopper Manufacture Chiyoda, Tokyo Japan 1998 The Silver Case
Flower, Sun, and Rain
No More Heroes series
Shadows of the Damned
Lollipop Chainsaw
Killer Is Dead
Let It Die
Founded by Suda51; acquired by GungHo Online Entertainment in 2013; later acquired by NetEase Games
Gravity Seoul South Korea 2000 Ragnarok Online Acquired by GungHo Online Entertainment
Gray Matter Studios Los Angeles California United States 1993 Call of Duty: United Offensive Acquired by Activision in 2002; merged into Treyarch in 2005
Gremlin Interactive Sheffield England United Kingdom 1984 Monopoly (1997)
Zool series
Premier Manager series
Taken over by Infogrames in 1999 studio closed in 2003
Grezzo Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 2006 The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D
The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask 3D
The Legend of Zelda: Tri Force Heroes
Ever Oasis
The Legend of Zelda: Link's Awakening (2019 Remake)
Second-party developer of Nintendo
Grin Stockholm Sweden 1997 Bionic Commando Rearmed
Bionic Commando (2009)
Defunct in 2009
Grinding Gear Games Auckland New Zealand 2006 Path of Exile Acquired by Tencent
Griptonite Games Kirkland Washington United States 1994 Marvel Super Hero Squad: Comic Combat Acquired by Glu Mobile
GSC Game World Kyiv Ukraine 1995 Cossacks series, S.T.A.L.K.E.R series Defunct in 2011, reopened in 2014
Guerrilla Cambridge Cambridge England United Kingdom 1997 (as SCE Cambridge Studio), 2013 MediEvil series Branch of Guerrilla Games and division of SIE Worldwide Studios; closed in 2017
Guerrilla Games Amsterdam Netherlands 2000 Killzone series
Horizon series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2004
Gunfire Games Austin Texas United States 2014 Darksiders series
Remnant: From the Ashes
Formed by former employees of Vigil Games; acquired by THQ Nordic in 2019
GungHo Online Entertainment Chiyoda, Tokyo Japan 1998 Puzzle & Dragons series Developer/publisher
Gust Nagano Japan 1993 Atelier series
Blue Reflection series
Fairy Tail
Became a division of Koei Tecmo Games in 2014
Haemimont Games Sofia Bulgaria 1997 Tropico 3–5
HAL Laboratory Chiyoda, Tokyo Japan 1980 Kirby series
Earthbound/Mother series
Pokémon Snap
Developer closely associated with Nintendo
Halfbrick Brisbane Queensland Australia 2001 Fruit Ninja series
Jetpack Joyride
Mobile game developer/publisher
Hanaho Cerritos California United States 1992
h.a.n.d. Sapporo Japan 1993 Aikatsu! series
Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days
Disney Magical World series
Hangar 13 Novato California United States 2014 Mafia III Subsidiary of 2K
Harebrained Schemes Seattle Washington United States 2011 Shadowrun Returns
Shadowrun: Dragonfall
Shadowrun: Hong Kong
Acquired by Paradox Interactive in 2018
Harmonix Music Systems Cambridge Massachusetts United States 1995 Guitar Hero I–II
Rock Band series
Dance Central series
Former subsidiary of Viacom; acquired by Epic Games in 2021
Hazelight Studios Stockholm Sweden 2014 It Takes Two
Headstrong Games London England United Kingdom 2000 Battalion Wars series
Art Academy series
Subsidiary of Kuju Entertainment; defunct in 2017
Heartbeat Tokyo Japan 1992 Dragon Quest VI–VII
Heavy Iron Studios Manhattan Beach California United States 1999 SpongeBob's Truth or Square
UFC Personal Trainer
Family Guy: Back to the Multiverse
Acquired by Keywords Studios in 2020.
HB Studios Lunenburg Nova Scotia Canada 2000 PGA Tour 2K series Acquired by 2K in 2021
HeroCraft Kaliningrad Russia 2001 Warhammer 40,000: Space Wolf
HexaDrive Osaka Japan 2007 Rez HD
Ōkami HD
Super Bomberman R
High Impact Games Burbank California United States 2003 Ratchet & Clank: Size Matters
Secret Agent Clank
Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier
Founded by former employees of Insomniac Games & Naughty Dog
High Moon Studios San Diego California United States 2005 Transformers: War for Cybertron series
Subsidiary of Activision
High Voltage Software Hoffman Estates Illinois United States 1993 The Conduit series Acquired by Keywords Studios in 2020.
Hothead Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2006 DeathSpank
Founded by former employees of Radical Entertainment
Housemarque Helsinki Finland 1995 Super Stardust
Acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment as a subsidiary of PlayStation Studios in 2021
Hudson Soft Tokyo Japan 1973 Bomberman series
Adventure Island series
Far East of Eden series
Momotaro Dentetsu series
Mario Party series
Developer/publisher; acquired and dissolved by Konami
Human Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1983 Fire Pro Wrestling series
Formation Soccer series
Twilight Syndrome series
Human Head Studios Madison Wisconsin United States 1997 Rune
Humongous Entertainment Bothell Washington United States 1992 Fatty Bear's Birthday Surprise
Putt-Putt series
Freddi Fish series
Pajama Sam series
Spy Fox series
Backyard Sports series
Former subsidiary of Infogrames; closed in 2006; their assets and brand were acquired by Tommo and relaunched in 2013
Hyperion Entertainment Brussels Belgium 1999
Ice-Pick Lodge Moscow Russia 2002 Pathologic series
id Software Mesquite Texas United States 1991 Wolfenstein series
Doom series
Quake series
Acquired by ZeniMax Media on June 24, 2009
Idea Factory Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 1994 Amnesia series Developer/publisher
Idol Minds Westminster Colorado United States 1997 Cool Boarders 3–4
Neopets: Darkest Faerie
Rally Cross
Imageepoch Tokyo Japan 2005 Luminous Arc series
Fate/Extra series
Defunct in 2016
Image & Form Gothenburg Sweden 1997 SteamWorld series Subsidiary of Thunderful; merged into Thunderful Development in 2020.
Imagineer Tokyo Japan 1986 Shape Boxing series
Infinity Ward Woodland Hills California United States 2002 Call of Duty series Acquired by Activision in 2003.
Infocom Cambridge] Massachusetts United States 1979 Zork series
Planetfall series
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Leather Goddesses of Phobos
Acquired by Activision in 1986; closed in 1989.
Incognito Entertainment Salt Lake City Utah United States 1999 Twisted Metal series
Warhawk (2007)
Formed by former employees of SingleTrac; subsidiary of SCE Worldwide Studios; defunct in 2009
Incredible Technologies Arlington Heights Illinois United States 1985 Golden Tee Golf Defunct in 2016; arcade game designer, arcade game manufacturer
indieszero Musashino Japan 1997 Cooking Guide: Can't Decide What to Eat?
Theatrhythm series
Kingdom Hearts: Melody of Memory
Innerloop Studios Oslo Norway 1996 Project I.G.I. series Defunct in 2003
Insomniac Games Burbank California United States 1994 Spyro the Dragon series
Ratchet & Clank series
Resistance series
Sunset Overdrive
Spider-Man (2018)
Acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 2019 as a division of SIE Worldwide Studios.
Intelligent Systems Tokyo Japan 1986 Fire Emblem franchise
Advance Wars series
Paper Mario series
Puzzle League series
Developer closely associated with Nintendo
Interplay Entertainment Beverly Hills California United States 1983 Earthworm Jim series
ClayFighter series
Fallout series
The Bard's Tale series
Inti Creates Ichikawa, Chiba Japan 1996 Mega Man Zero series
Mega Man ZX series

Gunvolt franchise:

Gal Gun series
Bloodstained: Curse of the Moon series
Blaster Master Zero trilogy
Dragon Marked for Death
Gal Guardians: Demon Purge
Mighty Gunvolt series
Mega Man 9
Mega Man 10

Introversion Software London England United Kingdom 2002 Darwinia
inXile Entertainment Newport Beach California United States 2002 Wasteland 2
The Bard's Tale IV: Barrows Deep
Founded by one of Interplay Entertainment founders; acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
IO Interactive Copenhagen Denmark 1998 Hitman series Subsidiary of Square Enix until 2017 when they dropped IO, they then became independent
Ion Storm Dallas Texas United States 1996 Daikatana
Shut down in 2001; subsidiary of Eidos Interactive
Ion Storm Austin Austin Texas United States 1997 Deus Ex
Thief: Deadly Shadows
Shut down in 2005; subsidiary of Eidos Interactive
Irem Hakusan Japan 1974 R-Type series
Disaster Report 1–3
Subsidiary of Eizo
Iron Galaxy Studios Chicago Illinois United States 2008 Divekick
Borderlands 2 (PSVita)
Iron Lore Entertainment Maynard Massachusetts United States 2000 Titan Quest series
Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War – Soulstorm
Defunct in 2008
Irrational Games Quincy Massachusetts United States 1996 System Shock 2
Freedom Force series
BioShock series
Subsidiary of 2K; defunct in 2017. Their main employees moved to Ghost Story Games.
Ivory Tower Lyon France 2007 The Crew series Subsidiary of Ubisoft;[22] founded by former employees of Eden Games
Jackbox Games Chicago Illinois United States 1989 The Jackbox Party Pack series
Jadestone Group Stockholm Sweden 2000 Acquired by WMS Industries in 2012 and merged into Williams Interactive; Online game developer, mobile game developer
Jagex Cambridge England United Kingdom 2001 RuneScape Subsidiary of The Carlyle Group; online game developer
Jaleco Tokyo Japan 1974 Idol Janshi Suchie-Pai series Acquired by Game Yarou in 2009 and defunct in 2014
Jam City Los Angeles California United States 2007 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery Former subsidiary of Netmarble;[23] mobile game developer
Javaground Irvine Massachusetts United States 2001 God of War: Betrayal Mobile game developer
Jupiter Kyoto Japan 1996 Picross series
Pokémon Pinball series
JV Games Las Vegas Nevada United States 1999
Kairosoft Tokyo Japan 1996 Game Dev Story
Kalypso Media Worms Germany 2006 Tropico series Developer/publisher
Kaos Studios New York City New York United States 2006 Frontlines: Fuel of War
Subsidiary of THQ
Keen Software House Prague Czech Republic 2010 Space Engineers
Kesmai Charlottesville Virginia United States 1981 Island of Kesmai Subsidiary of Electronic Arts; closed in 2001
Kiloo Games Aarhus Denmark 2000 Subway Surfers
Frisbee Forever
Mobile game developer; closed in 2023[24]
King Stockholm Sweden 2003 Candy Crush series Subsidiary of Activision Blizzard; Mobile game developer
Klei Entertainment Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2005 Shank series
Don't Starve
Acquired by Tencent in 2021.[25]
Koei Tecmo Games (formerly Koei) Ashikaga Japan 1978 Warriors franchise

Trilogy of Histories franchise

Ninja Gaiden series
Dead or Alive franchise
Nioh series
Haruka series
Fire Emblem: Three Houses

Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Koei Tecmo Holdings
KOG Studios Seoul South Korea 2000 Elsword
Kojima Productions Tokyo Japan 2005 Death Stranding
Konami Tokyo Midtown
Japan 1969 Gradius series
Contra series
Metal Gear series
Castlevania series
Pro Evolution Soccer series
Silent Hill series
TwinBee series
Bemani series
Power Pros series
Professional Baseball Spirits series
Ganbare Goemon series
Tokimeki Memorial series
LovePlus series
Suikoden series
Bombergirl series
Momotaro Dentetsu: Showa, Heisei, Reiwa Mo Teiban!
Kongzhong Beijing China 2002
Krome Studios Brisbane Queensland Australia 1999 The Legend of Spyro series Defunct
Krome Studios Melbourne Melbourne Victoria Australia 1988 Horace series Defunct
Kuju Entertainment Shalford England United Kingdom 1998 Microsoft Train Simulator Subsidiary of Catalis SE
Kunos Simulazioni Rome Italy 2005 Assetto Corsa series Subsidiary of Digital Bros
Kush Games Camarillo California United States 1998
Kuma Reality Games New York City New York United States 2003
Kylotonn Paris France 2002 WRC 5–
V-Rally 4
Acquired by Bigben Interactive (latterly Nacon) in 2018[26]
Larian Studios Oudenaarde Belgium 1996 Divinity series
Baldur's Gate III
Left Field Productions Ventura California United States 1994 Excitebike 64 closed in 2011
Legacy Interactive Los Angeles California United States 1998 Emergency Room series
Legend Entertainment Chantilly Virginia United States 1989 Spellcasting series
Superhero League of Hoboken
The Wheel of Time
Unreal II
Closed in 2004.
Legendo Entertainment Gothenburg Sweden 2004 Developer/publisher
Level-5 Fukuoka Japan 1998 Dark Cloud series
Rogue Galaxy
Professor Layton series
Inazuma Eleven series
Ni no Kuni series
Yo-Kai Watch franchise
Fantasy Life series
The Snack World
Dragon Quest VIII–IX
Developer/publisher and founded by Akihiro Hino
Lift London London England United Kingdom 2012 videogame developer for Microsoft Hololens Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Limbic Entertainment Langen Germany 2002 Might & Magic X: Legacy
Might & Magic Heroes VII
Tropico 6
The majority stake was acquired by Bandai Namco
Lionhead Studios Guildford England United Kingdom 1997 Black & White series
Fable series
Closed by Microsoft Studios in 2016
Liquid Entertainment Pasadena California United States 1999 Battle Realms Dissolved in 2018[27]
Little Green Men Games Zagreb Croatia 2006 Starpoint Gemini
LK Avalon Świlcza, Rzeszów Poland 1989 Hans Kloss
Schizm: Mysterious Journey
Llamasoft Reading England United Kingdom 1982
Linden Lab San Francisco California United States 1999 Second Life
Locomotive Games Santa Clara California United States 1997 Jet Moto 3 Defunct in 2008
Looking Glass Studios Cambridge Massachusetts United States 1990 Ultima Underworld series
System Shock series
Thief series
Love-de-Lic Tokyo Japan 1995 Moon: Remix RPG Adventure Formed by former employees of Square
LucasArts San Francisco California United States 1982 Maniac Mansion
Sam & Max Hit the Road
Day of the Tentacle
Monkey Island series
The Dig
Full Throttle
Grim Fandango
Star Wars: The Force Unleashed series
Star Wars: Battlefront series
Publisher and former developer; closed as developer of April 3, 2013 by Disney
Luma Arcade Johannesburg South Africa 2006 Division of Luma Animation
Luxoflux Santa Monica California United States 1998 True Crime series Acquired by Activision in 2002; defunct in 2010
MachineGames Uppsala Sweden 2009 Wolfenstein series Founded by former employees of Starbreeze Studios; acquired by ZeniMax Media in 2010.
Magenta Software Liverpool England United Kingdom 1994 Buzz! Junior series
MAGES. Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 2005 Science Adventure franchise Acquired by COLOPL in 2020.[28] Former subsidiary of Dwango.
Majesco Entertainment Edison New Jersey United States 1986 Defunct December 8, 2016
Marvelous Shibuya, Tokyo Japan 1997 Senran Kagura series
Soul Sacrifice series

Story of Seasons series

Fate/Extella series
Kandagawa Jet Girls
Daemon X Machina
Super Monkey Ball: Banana Splitz

Massive Entertainment Malmö Sweden 1997 Ground Control
World In Conflict
Tom Clancy's The Division series
Founded in 1997; acquired by Vivendi Universal Games in 2002 and then acquired by Ubisoft in 2008
Masthead Studios Sofia Bulgaria 2005 Earthrise
Matrix Software Tokyo Japan 1994 Omega Labyrinth series
Brigandine: The Legend of Runersia
Maxis Emeryville California United States 1987 The Sims series
SimCity series
Became a subsidiary of Electronic Arts in 1997
Mean Hamster Software Deer Park Washington United States 1985
Media Molecule Guildford England United Kingdom 2006 LittleBigPlanet series
Founded by former employees of Lionhead Studios; division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2010
Media.Vision Tokyo Japan 1993 Wild Arms series
Chaos Rings series
Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth
Summon Night 6
Mediatonic London England United Kingdom 2005 Robot Unicorn Attack
Fable Fortune
Subsidiary of Tonic Games Group, which was acquired by Epic Games in 2021
MegaZebra Munich Germany 2009
Mercury Steam Madrid Spain 2002 Castlevania: Lords of Shadow series

Metroid: Samus Returns

Metroid Dread

Metropolis Software Warsaw Poland 1992 Teenagent
Gorky 17
Studio was bought by CD Projekt in 2008 and closed in 2009.
MicroProse Software Hunt Valley Maryland United States 1982 Silent Service
Railroad Tycoon
Civilization series
Microsoft Casual Games Redmond Washington United States 2013 Solitaire
Subsidiary by Microsoft Studios
Midway Games Chicago Illinois United States 1988 Mortal Kombat series
NFL Blitz series
As of 2012, Midway is a corporation existing under Delaware law subject to a Chapter 11 bankruptcy liquidation plan
Midway Studios – Newcastle Gateshead England United Kingdom 1996 Test Drive 4–6 Defunct in 2009
Might and Delight Stockholm Sweden 2010 Shelter series Formed by former employees of Grin
miHoYo Shanghai China 2012 Guns Girl
Honkai Impact 3rd
Genshin Impact
Honkai: Star Rail
Developer and publisher; founded by Cai Haoyu, Liu Wei, and Luo Yuhao, three former students from Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Milestone Suginami, Tokyo Japan 2003 Chaos Field series
Milestone srl Milan Italy 1996 Superbike series
MotoGP series
WRC 1–4
MXGP series
Ride series
Acquired by Koch Media in 2019
Millennium Kitchen Tokyo Japan 1997 Boku no Natsuyasumi series
Mimimi Games Munich Germany 2011 Desperados III the studio was closed in 2023[29]
Minakuchi Engineering Kōka Japan 1984 Solar Striker
Mega Man series
Exact fate unknown. Defunct in 2002 (estimated)
Mistwalker Tokyo Japan 2004 Blue Dragon
Mitchell Corporation Tokyo Japan 1960 Polarium
Puzz Loop series
MLB Advanced Media New York City New York United States 2000 R.B.I. Baseball 18
Mode 7 Games Brighton East Sussex United Kingdom 2005 Frozen Synapse series
Tokyo 42
The company still exists, but they exited the game development business in 2019.
Mojang AB Stockholm Sweden 2009 Minecraft
Former Indie developer and publisher; acquired by Microsoft on September 15, 2014
Monolith Productions Kirkland Washington United States 1994 F.E.A.R. series
Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor

Middle-earth: Shadow of War

Acquired by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment in 2004
Monolith Soft Tokyo Japan 1999 Xenosaga series
Baten Kaitos series
Xenoblade Chronicles series
Project X Zone series
Founded by Tetsuya Takahashi and former subsidiary of Namco; acquired by Nintendo as a first-party developer and subsidiary in 2007
Monster Games Northfield Minnesota United States 1996 NASCAR Heat series
Excite Truck
Pilotwings Resort
Acquired by Motorsport Simulations in 2022
Monte Cristo Paris France 1995 City Life series
Cities XL
Defunct in 2010
Moonton Shanghai China 2015 Mobile Legends: Bang Bang Acquired by Bytedance in 2021
Moon Studios Vienna Austria 2010 Ori series
Motion Twin Bordeaux France 2001 Dead Cells
MTO Yokohama Japan 1996 GT Advance series
Mythic Entertainment Fairfax Virginia United States 1995 Dark Age of Camelot Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2006 and closed in 2014
Nadeo Paris France 2000 TrackMania Acquired by Ubisoft in 2009
Namco Tales Studio Tokyo Japan 1986 Tales series Originally it was division or subsidiary of Telenet Japan but it became a jointly-owned company of Namco and Telenet Japan
Nanobit Zagreb Croatia 2008 Acquired by Stillfront Group in 2020
NAPS team Messina Italy 1993 Gekido series NAPS team is the oldest Italian development studio
Natsume Atari Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1987 Metabots series
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater (GBC version)
Pocky and Rocky series
Natsume Inc. Burlingame, California United States 1988 Harvest Moon series
Reel Fishing
River King
NaturalMotion London England United Kingdom 2001 Backbreaker series Acquired by Zynga
Naughty Dog Santa Monica California United States 1986 Crash Bandicoot 1–3
Crash Team Racing
Jak and Daxter series
Uncharted series
The Last of Us series
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2001
NCSoft Seoul South Korea 1997 Aion
Lineage series
Blade & Soul
Online game developer/publisher
NDcube Tokyo Japan 2000 Wii Party series
Mario Party series
Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics
Subsidiary of Nintendo
NDOORS Corporation Seoul South Korea 1999 Atlantica Online Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Nexon; merged into Nexon Red in 2017[30]
Neko Entertainment Montreuil-sous-Bois France 1998 Cocoto
The Mysterious Cities of Gold: Secret Paths
Kung Fu Rabbit
Developer/publisher; defunct in 2017
Nerve Software Richardson Texas United States 1999
NetDevil Louisville Colorado United States 1997 LEGO Universe
NetDragon Websoft Fuzhou China 1999 Disney Fantasy Online
NetEase Guangzhou China 1997 Fantasy Westward Journey
Cyber Hunter
Identity V
Rules of Survival
Marvel Duel
Marvel Super War
Revelation Online
Developer, publisher, and online services company
NetherRealm Studios Chicago Illinois United States 2010 Mortal Kombat series
Injustice: Gods Among Us

Injustice 2

Successor to Midway Games; Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Neverland Tokyo Japan 1993 Rune Factory series
Neversoft Woodland Hills California United States 1994 Guitar Hero III–Metallica
Tony Hawk series


Acquired by Activision in 1999; merged into Infinity Ward in 2014
Nevosoft St. Petersburg Russia 2002
New World Computing Agoura Hills California United States 1984 Might and Magic franchise
New World Interactive Denver Colorado United States 2010 Insurgency Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020[1]
Nexon Tokyo
South Korea
Atlantica Online
Online video game developer, publisher and distributor; moved its headquarters from Korea to Japan.
Next Level Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2002 Super Mario Strikers
Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon
Luigi's Mansion 3
Spider-Man: Friend or Foe
Acquired by Nintendo in 2021.[31]
Niantic San Francisco California United States 2010 Ingress
Pokémon Go
Nibris Kraków Poland 2000
Nicalis Santa Ana California United States 2007 VVVVVV
Cave Story
1001 Spikes
The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth
Crystal Crisis
Indie developer/publisher
Night School Studio Glendale California United States 2014 Oxenfree
Acquired by Netflix in 2021
Nihon Falcom Tokyo Japan 1981 Ys series
Xanadu series
The Legend of Heroes franchise
Dragon Slayer series
Nikita Online St. Petersburg Russia 1991
Nimble Giant Entertainment Buenos Aires Argentina 2002 Regnum Online
Master of Orion: Conquer the Stars
Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[18]
Ninjabee Orem Utah United States 2005 Division of Wahoo Studios
Ninja Theory Cambridge England United Kingdom 2000 Heavenly Sword
Enslaved: Odyssey to the West
DmC: Devil May Cry
Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice
Former Indie developer and publisher; acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Nintendo Kyoto Japan 1889 Super Mario franchise
The Legend of Zelda franchise
Pokémon franchise
Fire Emblem franchise
Splatoon series
Metroid franchise
Kid Icarus series
Pikmin series
Xenoblade Chronicles series
Animal Crossing series
F-Zero series
Star Fox series
Kirby franchise
Mother series
Super Smash Bros. series
Tomodachi series
Brain Age series
Big Brain Academy series
Nintendogs series
Wave Race series
Famicom Detective Club series
Tetris Attack series
1-2-Switch series
First-party developer/publisher/console manufacturer
Nintendo Software Technology Redmond Washington United States 1998 Bionic Commando: Elite Forces
Wave Race: Blue Storm
Mario vs. Donkey Kong series
Subsidiary of Nintendo of America
Nippon Ichi Software Kakamigahara Japan 1991 Rhapsody: A Musical Adventure
La Pucelle: Tactics
Disgaea series
Phantom Brave
Hotaru no Nikki
Nival St. Petersburg Russia 1996 Etherlords series
Blitzkrieg series
Heroes of Might and Magic V
Nordeus Belgrade Serbia 2009 Top Eleven Football Manager Developer/publisher; acquired by Take-Two Interactive in 2021
NovaLogic Agoura Hills California United States 1985 Delta Force series
Joint Operations series
Their assets were acquired by THQ Nordic
Novarama Barcelona Spain 2003 Invizimals series
Now Production Osaka Japan 1986 Mario Super Sluggers
Sonic Riders
Nude Maker Tokyo Japan 2002 Steel Battalion series
Infinite Space
Formed by former employees of Human Entertainment
NuFX Hoffman Estates Illinois United States 1990 Merged into EA Chicago in 2004
n-Space Orlando Florida United States 1994 Heroes of Ruin
Port for various video games, include Call of Duty series
Obsidian Entertainment Irvine California United States 2004 Fallout New Vegas
Neverwinter Nights 2
Dungeon Siege III
South Park: The Stick of Truth
Pillars of Eternity
The Outer Worlds
Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Oddworld Inhabitants San Luis Obispo California United States 1994 Oddworld series
Omega Force Ashikaga Japan 1997 Warriors franchise

Toukiden series
Dragon Quest Heroes series
Dragon Quest Builders 2
Persona 5 Strikers

Division of Koei Tecmo Games
Origin Systems Austin Texas United States 1983 Ultima series
Ultima Online
Wing Commander series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1992 and closed in 2004
OtherSide Entertainment Boston Massachusetts United States 2013 Underworld Ascendant
System Shock 3
Founded by one of Looking Glass Studios founders.
Outfit7 Ljubljana Slovenia 2010 Talking Tom and Friends franchise Acquired by Zhejiang Jinke Entertainment Culture Co., Ltd. in 2017
Outrage Entertainment Ann Arbor Michigan United States 1996 Descent 3 Closed in 2004
Out of the Park Developments Hollern-Twielenfleth Germany 1999 Out of the Park Baseball series Acquired by Com2uS in 2020
Overkill Software Stockholm Sweden 2009 Payday series Founded by Grin founders; acquired by Starbreeze Studios in 2012
Oxygen Studios Croydon England United Kingdom 2006 King of Clubs
Page 44 Studios San Francisco California United States 1998 Freekstyle
High School Musical 3: Senior Year Dance
Madden NFL 11 iOS
uDraw Pictionary
World of Goo iOS
Subsidiary of Zynga; closed in 2011.
Pangea Software Austin Texas United States 1987
Paradigm Entertainment Farmers Branch Texas United States 1997 F-1 World Grand Prix series
Pilotwings 64
Acquired by Infogrames Entertainment SA in 2000; acquired by THQ in 2006; closed in 2008
People Can Fly Warsaw Poland 2002 Bulletstorm
Project Sora Tokyo Japan 2009 Kid Icarus: Uprising Subsidiary of Nintendo; became defunct in 2012
Purple Lamp Studios Vienna Austria 2018 SpongeBob SquarePants: Battle for Bikini Bottom – Rehydrated Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[18]
Papaya Studio Irvine California United States 1999
Project Soul Tokyo Japan 1996 Soul series Division of Bandai Namco Studios
Panther Games Pty Ltd Canberra Australia 1985 Fire-Brigade
Command Ops: Battles from the Bulge
Paradox Development Studio Stockholm Sweden 1995 Europa Universalis series
Hearts of Iron series
Crusader Kings series
In-house development studio and subsidiary of Paradox Interactive
Parallax Software Ann Arbor Michigan United States 1993 Descent series Split into Volition and Outrage Entertainment
Pandemic Studios Los Angeles California United States 1998 Star Wars: Battlefront
Destroy All Humans! series
Full Spectrum Warrior
Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction
The Saboteur
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2007 and closed in 2009.
Pendulo Studios Madrid Spain 1993 Hollywood Monsters series
Runaway series
Yesterday series
Penguin Software Geneva Illinois United States 1978 Transylvania series
Perfect World Beijing China 2004 Perfect World series Developer/publisher
Petroglyph Las Vegas Nevada United States 2003 Star Wars: Empire at War
Universe at War: Earth Assault
Grey Goo
Command & Conquer Remastered Collection
Phantagram Seoul South Korea 1994 Kingdom Under Fire series Acquired by Blueside in 2010[32]
Pipeworks Studios Eugene Oregon United States 1999 Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
Deadliest Warrior
Zumba Fitness
Acquired by Sumo Group in 2020 and acquired by Jagex in 2022
Piranha Bytes Essen Germany 1997 Gothic 1–3
Risen series
Acquired by THQ Nordic in 2019
Piranha Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2000 MechWarrior 5
MechWarrior Online
Bass Pro Shops: The Strike
Die Hard: Nakatomi Plaza
Acquired by Enad Global 7 in 2020.[3]
Pi Studios Houston Texas United States 2002 Bomberman Live: Battlefest
Pivotal Games Bath England United Kingdom 2000 Conflict series
The Great Escape
Pixel Federation Bratislava Slovakia 2007 Galactic Junk League Developer/Publisher
Playdom San Francisco California United States 2009 Facebook, Myspace game developer Subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company; closed in 2016
Playfish London England United Kingdom 2007 The Sims Social Facebook, Myspace game developer Acquired by Electronic Arts; closed in 2013
PlayFirst San Francisco California United States 2004 Acquired by Glu Mobile in 2014; Casual game developer, publisher and portal
Playground Games Royal Leamington Spa England United Kingdom 2009 Forza Horizon series
Fable (2020)
Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
PlatinumGames Osaka Japan 2006 MadWorld
Bayonetta series
Anarchy Reigns
Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance
The Wonderful 101
Star Fox Zero
Nier: Automata
Astral Chain
Successor to Clover Studio, and founded by Shinji Mikami, Atsushi Inaba, and Hideki Kamiya.
Polyphony Digital Tokyo Japan 1998 Gran Turismo series
Tourist Trophy
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
PopCap Games Seattle Washington United States 2000 Bejeweled series
Plants vs. Zombies series
Peggle series
Casual game developer, publisher and portal; subsidiary of Electronic Arts since 2011
PopTop Software Fenton Missouri United States 1993 Tropico
Railroad Tycoon series
Acquired by Take-Two Interactive in 2000 and merged into Firaxis Games in 2006
Press Play Copenhagen Denmark 2006 Max & the Magic Marker
Max: The Curse of Brotherhood
Former subsidiary of Microsoft Studios; defunct in March 2016
Private Division New York City New York United States 2017 Kerbal Space Program 2 The company has Intercept Games studio and Roll7 studio. Subsidiary of Take-Two Interactive.
Psyonix San Diego California United States 2001 Rocket League
XCOM: Enemy Unknown
Acquired by Epic Games in 2019
PUBG Studios Seongnam South Korea 2009 Devilian
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds
Acquired by Bluehole (currently Krafton) in 2015
Punch Entertainment Hanoi Vietnam 2005 Subsidiary of Evolable Asia [ja]; Casual games, social games developer
Pyro Mobile Madrid Spain 1996 Commandos series Subsidiary of Zed Group; their assets were acquired by Kalypso Media[33]
Q Entertainment Tokyo Japan 2003 Lumines series Acquired by Sanyo Kasei Seisakusho in 2013 and the parent company was defunct in 2018.
Q-Games Nakagyō-ku Japan 2001 Star Fox Command
PixelJunk series
The Tomorrow Children
Quantic Dream Paris France 1997 Fahrenheit
Heavy Rain
Beyond: Two Souls
Detroit: Become Human
Acquired by NetEase in 2022
Quest Corporation Tokyo Japan 1988 Ogre Battle series The game development division was acquired by Square in 2002
Quintet Tokyo Japan 1989 ActRaiser
Soul Blazer
Illusion of Gaia
The company appears to have been inactive since 2002. According to Terranigma artist Kamui Fujiwara, Quintet president Tomoyoshi Miyazaki had "disappeared" to his knowledge. A remaster of ActRaiser entitled ActRaiser Renaissance was released in September 2021 by Square Enix, suggesting that Square Enix at least has access to ActRaiser's rights, and might have the rest of Quintet's library as well.[34]
Radical Entertainment Vancouver Canada 1991 Prototype series
Mario Is Missing!
Crash Tag Team Racing
Crash of the Titans
Acquired by Vivendi Games in 2005; dissolved in 2013[35]
Rage Games Liverpool England United Kingdom 1992 Incoming series Defunct in 2003
Rainbow Studios Phoenix Arizona United States 1996 MX vs. ATV series Acquired by THQ, later closed by THQ, but re-instated in 2013 by Nordic Games (later known as THQ Nordic)
Rare Twycross England United Kingdom 1985 Battletoads series
Donkey Kong Country series
Killer Instinct series
Banjo-Kazooie series
Donkey Kong 64
GoldenEye 007
Conker's Bad Fur Day
Perfect Dark series
Sea of Thieves
Successor to Ultimate Play the Game; second-party developer for Nintendo; turned; Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2002 as a first-party developer
Raven Software Middleton Wisconsin United States 1990 Heretic
Call of Duty series
Star Wars Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast
Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix
Marvel: Ultimate Alliance
Acquired by Activision in 1997
RDI Video Systems Carlsbad California United States 1982 Dragon's Lair Defunct in 1985
Ready at Dawn Irvine California United States 2003 Daxter
The Order: 1886
Lone Echo
Formed by former members of Naughty Dog and Blizzard Entertainment. Acquired by Facebook in 2020.[36]
Red Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1976 (as the Red Company), 2000 (as Red Entertainment) Sakura Wars series
Gungrave series
Developer/publisher; acquired by Oizumi Corporation [ja] in 2014
Reality Pump Studios Kraków Poland 1995 Two Worlds series Division of TopWare Interactive
Realtime Associates Los Angeles California United States 1986
Realtime Worlds Dundee Scotland United Kingdom 2002 Crackdown Closed in 2010
Rebellion Developments Oxford England United Kingdom 1992 Aliens vs. Predator series
Sniper Elite series
Rebellion Warwick Leamington Spa England United Kingdom 2013 SkySaga: Infinite Isles Formed by former employees of Blitz Games Studios; acquired by Rebellion Developments in 2018
RedLynx Helsinki Finland 2000 Trials series Subsidiary of Ubisoft
Red Thread Games Oslo Norway 2012 Dreamfall Chapters: The Longest Journey Founded by former employees of Funcom
Red Storm Entertainment Cary North Carolina United States 1996 Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six
Acquired by Ubisoft in 2000
RedTribe (Tribalant) Melbourne Victoria Australia 2003
Reflexive Entertainment Lake Forest California United States 1997 Airport Mania series Subsidiary of
Relic Entertainment Vancouver British Columbia Canada 1997 Company of Heroes series
Warhammer 40000: Dawn of War series
Homeworld series
Acquired by Sega in 2013; became independent in 2024[37]
Remedy Entertainment Espoo Finland 1995 Max Payne series
Alan Wake series
Respawn Entertainment Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles California United States 2010 Titanfall
Apex Legends
Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 2017.
Reto-Moto Copenhagen Denmark 2008 Heroes & Generals The business was acquired by TLM Partners in 2022[38]
Retro Studios Austin Texas United States 1998 Metroid Prime series
Donkey Kong Country series
First-party developer and subsidiary of Nintendo
Revolution Software York England United Kingdom 1990 Broken Sword series
Beneath a Steel Sky
Riot Games Santa Monica California United States 2006 League of Legends

Legends of Runeterra


Acquired by Tencent in 2011
Rising Star Games Luton England United Kingdom 2004 Acquired by Thunderful in 2018
Robomodo Chicago Illinois United States 2008 Tony Hawk's Pro Skater HD
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 5
Defunct in 2016
Robot Entertainment Plano Texas United States 2009 Orcs Must Die! series
Hero Academy series
Age of Empires Online
Rockstar Games
Rockstar India
Rockstar Leeds
Rockstar Lincoln
Rockstar London
Rockstar New England
Rockstar North
Rockstar San Diego
Rockstar Toronto
New York City
New York
United States
United Kingdom
Grand Theft Auto franchise
Manhunt series
Midnight Club series
Red Dead series
Developer/publisher; owned by Take-Two Interactive
Rockstar Dundee Dundee Scotland United Kingdom 2008 Crackdown 2 Acquired by Take-Two Interactive in 2020
Rocksteady Studios London England United Kingdom 2005 Batman: Arkham series
Suicide Squad: Kill the Justice League
Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Robinson Technologies Hiroshima Japan 1989 Dink Smallwood
Romero Games Galway Ireland 2015 Empire of Sin
Rovio Entertainment Espoo Finland 2003 Angry Birds franchise Publisher, developer and distributor; acquired by Sega in 2023
Runic Games Seattle Washington United States 2008 Torchlight Subsidiary of Perfect World; closed in 2017
Running with Scissors Tucson Arizona United States 1997 Postal series
Saber Interactive Millburn New Jersey United States 2001 World War Z Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[39]
Sandlot Tokyo Japan 2001 Robot Alchemic Drive
Earth Defense Force series
Zangeki no Reginleiv
Formed by former employees of Human Entertainment
Sanzaru Games Foster City California United States 2006 Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time
Sonic Boom: Shattered Crystal
Sonic Boom: Fire & Ice
Acquired by Facebook in 2020.[40]
Sir-Tech Ogdensburg New York United States
1979 Wizardry series
Jagged Alliance series
Schell Games Pittsburgh Pennsylvania United States 2002 I Expect You To Die Developer and publisher
SCS Software Prague Czech Republic 1997 18 Wheels of Steel series
Euro Truck Simulator series
Sega Tokyo Japan 1960 Sonic the Hedgehog franchise
Crazy Taxi series
Golden Axe series
Streets of Rage
The House of the Dead series
Super Monkey Ball series
Puyo Puyo series
Jet Set Radio series
Phantasy Star series
Panzer Dragoon series
Jet Set Radio series
Let's Make a Soccer Team! series
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games series
Shenmue series
Sakura Wars
Valkyria Chronicles series
Mushiking series
Border Break series

Hatsune Miku: Project DIVA series
Virtua Fighter series
Virtua Tennis series
World Club Champion Football series
Samba de Amigo series

Third-party (Formerly first-party) developer, publisher, and former console manufacturer; subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings
Sensible Software Cambridge England United Kingdom 1986 Sensible Soccer series
Cannon Fodder series
Mega Lo Mania
Microprose Soccer
Shoot-'Em-Up Construction Kit
Sensible Golf
Developer, studio closed and company acquired by Codemasters in 1999
Bend Studio Bend Oregon United States 1993 (Founded as Blank, Berlyn and Co., later Eidetic) Syphon Filter series
Days Gone
Founded by Blank, Berlyn and Co. and Eidetic, acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment as a part of SIE Worldwide Studios in 2000.
San Mateo Studio (formerly Foster City Studio) San Mateo California United States 1998 Division of SIE Worldwide Studios; relocated from Foster City to San Mateo
Japan Studio Tokyo Japan 1993 Ape Escape series
Shadow of the Colossus
Siren series
Patapon series
Loco Roco series
Gravity Rush series
Knack series
The Last Guardian
Former division of SIE Worldwide Studios, re-organized into Team Asobi in 2021[41]
London Studio London England United Kingdom 2002 SingStar series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
San Diego Studio San Diego California United States 2001 MLB: The Show series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
Santa Monica Studio Los Angeles California United States 1999 God of War series Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
Studio Liverpool Liverpool England United Kingdom 1984 Wipeout series
Formula One series
Colony Wars series
Former Division of SIE Worldwide Studios; shut down by Sony on August 22, 2012
Shaba Games San Francisco California United States 1997 Tony Hawk's Underground 2: Remix
Spider-Man: Web of Shadows
Acquired by Activision in 2002; defunct in 2009
SIE Worldwide Studios Tokyo, Fukuoka, Santa Monica, Los Angeles, San Diego, Bend, Amsterdam, London, Guildford, Cambridge California, Washington, Oregon, England Japan, United States, Netherlands, United Kingdom 2005 A group of first-party development studios and subsidiaries owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment
SingleTrac Salt Lake City Utah United States 1994 Twisted Metal 1–2
Jet Moto 1–2
Warhawk (1995)
Defunct in 2000
Shengqu Games Shanghai China 1999 Acquired by Zhejiang Century Huatong in 2017
Sherman3D Petaling Jaya Malaysia 2003 Alpha Kimori
Shin'en Multimedia Munich Germany 1999 Fast Racing League series
Sierra Entertainment Oakhurst California United States 1979 Mystery House
King's Quest series
Space Quest series
Police Quest series
Leisure Suit Larry series
Quest for Glory series
Gabriel Knight series
Subsidiary of Activision; internal development ceased in 1999; closed in 2004
Silicon Knights St. Catharines Ontario Canada 1992 Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain
Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem
Too Human
Closed in 2014
Silicon Studio Tokyo Japan 2000 Bravely Default series They still develop game middlewares but their game contents division was sold to CREEK & RIVER.[42]
Simtex Austin Texas United States 1988 Master of Orion series
Master of Magic
Closed in 1997
skip Ltd. Tokyo Japan 2000 bit Generations series
Chibi-Robo! series
Formed by former employees of Love-de-Lic
SkyBox Labs Burnaby British Columbia Canada 2011 Kinect Nat Geo TV
Project Spark
Acquired by NetEase Games in 2023.
Slant Six Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2005 SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs series
Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City
Defunct in 2013
Sledgehammer Games Foster City California United States 2009 Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare
co-developer of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3
Subsidiary of Activision
Snail Suzhou China 2000 Voyage Century Online
Snapshot Games Sofia Bulgaria 2013 Chaos Reborn Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[18]
Slightly Mad Studios London England United Kingdom 2008 Project CARS series Acquired by Codemasters in 2019[43]
Slipgate Ironworks Aars Denmark 2017 Rad Rodgers Formed by former employees of Interceptor Entertainment; acquired by Embracer Group in 2021
Slitherine Software Epsom England United Kingdom 2000 Horrible Histories: Ruthless Romans
Smilegate Seoul South Korea 2002 Crossfire series
SNK Osaka Japan 2001 Fatal Fury series
The King of Fighters series
Metal Slug series
Samurai Showdown series
The Last Blade series
World Heroes series
Acquired by 37Games in 2015; game hardware and software developer/publisher/manufacture
Sobee Studios Istanbul Turkey 2000 I Can Football
Merged into TTNET; closed in 2013
Snowblind Studios Seattle Washington United States 1997 Top Gear Overdrive
Champions of Norrath
Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment; defunct in 2012
Software 2000 Eutin Germany 1987 Pizza Tycoon series Closed in 2002
Sony Interactive Entertainment Tokyo (SIE, Inc.)

San Mateo (SIE, LLC)

Japan (SIE, Inc.)

California (SIE, LLC)

United States 1994 Various titles First-party developer, publisher and console manufacturer
Sora Ltd. Tokyo Japan 2005 Kid Icarus: Uprising
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate
Spellbound Entertainment Offenburg Germany 1994 Desperados series
Arcania: Gothic 4
Closed in 2012
Spiders Paris France 2008 The Technomancer
Acquired by Bigben Interactive (latterly Nacon) in 2019[44]
Spike Tokyo Japan 1991 Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi series Merged with Chunsoft to become Spike Chunsoft in 2012
Spike Chunsoft Tokyo Japan 2012 Zero Escape series
Danganronpa franchise
AI: The Somnium Files
Mystery Dungeon franchise

Jump Force

The result of a merger between Spike and Chunsoft and is owned by Dwango
Spil Games Hilversum Netherlands 2001 Web game developer/publisher. Acquired by Azerion.[45][46]
Splash Damage London England United Kingdom 2001 Enemy Territory: Quake Wars
Dirty Bomb
Acquired by Leyou in 2016 and then Leyou was acquired by Tencent in 2020
Sports Interactive London England United Kingdom 1994 Championship Manager series
Football Manager series
Eastside Hockey Manager series
Acquired by Sega in 2006
Sproing Interactive Media Vienna Austria 2001 Cursed Mountain Defunct in 2017; their assets were acquired by Purple Lamp Studios
Square Enix Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1975 Final Fantasy franchise
Mana series
SaGa series
Chrono Trigger
Brave Fencer Musashi
Star Ocean franchise
Valkyrie Profile series
Kingdom Hearts franchise
Dragon Quest franchise
Drakengard series

Bravely Default series
Octopath Traveler
Front Mission series

Developer/publisher; previously known as Square Co. and Enix
Squad Mexico City Mexico 2009 Kerbal Space Program series
Stainless Games Newport England United Kingdom 1993 Magic: The Gathering – Duels of the Planeswalkers series
Stainless Steel Studios Cambridge Massachusetts United States 1998 Empire Earth Closed in 2005
Starbreeze Studios Uppsala Sweden 1998 Enclave
Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons
Stardock Plymouth Michigan United States 1991 Galactic Civilizations series Developer/publisher
Sting Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1989 Baroque series
Dungeon Travelers series
Strategic Simulations Sunnyvale California United States 1979 Gold Box series
Panzer General series
Closed in 1994
Stoic Studio Austin Texas United States 2011 The Banner Saga series Founded by former employees of BioWare
Strawdog Studios Derby England United Kingdom 2003 Geon series
Straylight Studios Dunedin New Zealand 2004 Closed in 2009
Streamline Studios Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 2001
Success Tokyo Japan 1978 Cotton series
Sucker Punch Productions Bellevue Washington United States 1997 Rocket: Robot on Wheels
Sly Cooper series
Infamous series
Ghost of Tsushima
Division of SIE Worldwide Studios since 2011
Sumo Digital Sheffield England United Kingdom 2003 LittleBigPlanet 3
Crackdown 3
Subsidiary of Sumo Group
Sunsoft Kōnan Aichi Japan 1978 Blaster Master Developer and publisher. Division of Sun Corporation.
Supercell Helsinki Finland 2010 Clash of Clans
Hay Day
Boom Beach
Clash Royale
Subsidiary of Tencent
Supermassive Games Guildford England United Kingdom 2008 Until Dawn Acquired by Nordisk Games, a subsidiary of Nordisk Film, in 2022
Supergiant Games San Francisco California United States 2009 Hades
SuperVillain Studios Orange County California United States 2004 Order Up! acquired by Nicalis in 2017
Survios Los Angeles California United States 2013
Studio Wildcard Kirkland Washington United States 2014 Ark: Survival Evolved
Swordfish Studios Birmingham England United Kingdom 2002 Brian Lara International Cricket 2005 Acquired by Vivendi Games in 2005 and then acquired by Codemasters in 2008; defunct in 2010
Swingin' Ape Studios Aliso Viejo California United States 2000 Metal Arms: Glitch in the System Acquired by Blizzard Entertainment
StormRegion Budapest Hungary 2001 S.W.I.N.E.
Codename: Panzers series
Acquired by 10tacle Studios AG in 2007 and then defunct in 2008
Sunstorm Interactive Indianapolis Indiana United States 1995 Deer Hunter series Defunct in 2003
Syn Sophia Tokyo Japan 1995 WCW/nWo Revenge
SimCity DS series
Style Savvy series
Pretty Series franchise
SystemSoft Beta Tokyo Japan 1999 Daisenryaku series Subsidiary of Nippon Ichi Software, successor of SystemSoft Alpha[47]
Taito Shinjuku, Tokyo Japan 1953 Space Invaders
Bubble Bobble series
Developer/publisher; acquired by Square Enix
Tango Gameworks Minato, Tokyo Japan 2010 The Evil Within series
Ghostwire: Tokyo
Hi-Fi Rush
Acquired by ZeniMax Media in 2010, and founded by Shinji Mikami.
Tag Games Dundee Scotland United Kingdom 2006 Acquired by Scopely in 2023[48]
TaleWorlds Entertainment Ankara Turkey 2005 Mount & Blade series
Tamsoft Asakusa Japan 1992 OneeChanbara series
Senran Kagura series
Captain Tsubasa: Rise of New Champions
T&E Soft Aichi Japan 1982 Hydlide series Merged into Spike Chunsoft in 2013
Tantalus Media Melbourne Victoria Australia 1994 mostly acquired by Keywords Studios in 2021
Tarsier Studios Malmö Sweden 2004 Little Nightmares Acquired by Embracer Group in 2019.[49]
Tate Multimedia Warsaw Poland 2002 Kao the Kangaroo series
Urban Trial Freestyle
Team17 Ossett England United Kingdom 1990 Alien Breed series
Worms series
The Escapists series
Overcooked series
Team Asobi Tokyo Japan 2012 (as division of Japan Studio)
2021 (as Team Asobi)
The Playroom, Astro Bot Rescue Mission, Astro's Playroom Division of SIE Worldwide Studios
Team Bondi Sydney New South Wales Australia 2003 L.A. Noire Closed in 2011
Team Ico Tokyo Japan 1997 Ico
Shadow of the Colossus
Division of Japan Studio; Their staffs moved to genDESIGN [ja]
Team Ninja Tokyo Japan 1995 Ninja Gaiden series
Dead or Alive franchise
Nioh series
Marvel Ultimate Alliance 3
Division of Koei Tecmo Games; formerly a division of Tecmo
Techland Wrocław, Warszawa Poland 1991 Chrome series
Call of Juarez series
Dead Island series
Dying Light
Developer/publisher; mostly acquired by Tencent[50]
Tecmo Tokyo Japan 1967 Ninja Gaiden series
Dead or Alive franchise
Monster Rancher series
Gallop Racer series
Fatal Frame series
Tecmo and Koei co-founded Koei Tecmo Holdings in 2009 and Tecmo was merged into Koei Tecmo Games in 2010
Telltale Games San Rafael California United States 2004 Sam & Max episodic series
The Walking Dead series
The Wolf Among Us
Tales from the Borderlands
Game of Thrones
Minecraft: Story Mode
Founded by former employees of LucasArts, defunct in 2018; their assets were acquired by LCG Entertainment
Tencent Shenzhen China 1998 Developer, publisher, online services company
Tencent Games Shenzhen China 2003 Ring of Elysium Division of Tencent Interactive Entertainment
Tequila Works Madrid Spain 2009 Deadlight
Terminal Reality Lewisville Texas United States 1994 Monster Truck Madness series Closed in 2013
Tetris Online Honolulu Hawaii United States 2006 Tetris Friends Closed in 2019
Teyon Kraków Poland 2006 Heavy Fire series
Thatgamecompany Santa Monica California United States 2006 Journey
The Chinese Room Brighton England United Kingdom 2007 Amnesia: A Machine For Pigs Subsidiary of Sumo Digital
The Coalition Vancouver Canada 2010 Gears of War series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
The Farm 51 Gliwice Poland 2005 Get Even
The Initiative Santa Monica California United States 2018 Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
THQ Agoura Hills California United States 1989 Developer/publisher; defunct in 2013; their assets were acquired by Nordic Games, 505 Games, or Gearbox Software[51]
THQ Nordic Vienna Austria 2011 SpellForce 3 Developer/publisher; subsidiary of Embracer Group
Three Fields Entertainment Petersfield England United Kingdom 2014 Danger Zone series
Dangerous Driving series
Founded by the founders of Criterion Games
Three Rings Design San Francisco California United States 2001 Doctor Who: Worlds in Time
TimeGate Studios Sugar Land Texas United States 1998 Kohan series
Section 8 series
TiMi Studios Shenzhen China 2008 Call of Duty: Mobile
Pokémon Unite
Subsidiary of Tencent Games
Toaplan Tokyo Japan 1984 Snow Bros. Developer of arcade games; went bankrupt and closed in 1994
Toby Fox United States 2015 Undertale
Toca Boca Stockholm Sweden 2010 Toca Life series Subsidiary of Spin Master
ToeJam & Earl Productions San Francisco California United States 1989 (as Johnson Voorsanger Productions) ToeJam & Earl series Founded by Mark Voorsanger and Greg Johnson; became defunct in 2003
Tokyo RPG Factory Tokyo Japan 2014 I Am Setsuna
Lost Sphear
Subsidiary of Square Enix
Toolworks Novato California United States 1980 Chessmaster 2000
Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing
Mario Is Missing!
Acquired by Pearson plc
TopWare Interactive Karlsruhe Germany 1995 Publisher (developing in Reality Pump Studios division)
Torpex Games Bellevue Washington United States 2005 Schizoid
Torus Games Bayswater Victoria Australia 1994 Scooby-Doo! First Frights
Scooby-Doo! and the Spooky Swamp
Shrek Smash n' Crash Racing
Monster Jam
Tose Kyoto Japan 1979 The Legendary Starfy series
Dragon Quest Monsters series
Slime series
World of Final Fantasy
Super Princess Peach
Toys for Bob Novato California United States 1989 Skylanders series
Crash Bandicoot 4
Spyro Reignited Trilogy
Subsidiary of Activision
Trapdoor Montreal Quebec Canada 2010 Warp
Transmission Games Melbourne Victoria Australia 1996 Heroes of the Pacific
Heroes Over Europe
Closed in 2009
Traveller's Tales Knutsford England United Kingdom 1990 Lego series
Crash Bandicoot: The Wrath of Cortex
Subsidiary of TT Games
Treyarch Santa Monica California United States 1996 Call of Duty series
Spider-Man (2002)
Acquired by Activision in 2001.
Treasure Tokyo Japan 1992 Gunstar Heroes
Dynamite Headdy
Guardian Heroes
Alien Soldier
Sin and Punishment
Sin & Punishment: Star Successor
Gaist Crusher
tri-Ace Tokyo Japan 1995 Star Ocean franchise
Valkyrie Profile series
Acquired by Nepro Japan (currently NJ Holdings [ja]) in 2015
tri-Crescendo Tokyo Japan 1999 Digimon World Re:Digitize series
Trion Worlds Redwood City California United States 2006 Rift Defunct in 2018; their assets were acquired by Gamigo [de][52]
Tripwire Interactive Roswell Georgia United States 2005 Killing Floor series
Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45
Acquired by Embracer Group in 2022
Triumph Studios Delft Netherlands 1997 Age of Wonders series
Overlord series
Acquired by Paradox Interactive
Turn 10 Studios Redmond Washington United States 2001 Forza Motorsport series Subsidiary of Microsoft Studios
Turtle Rock Studios Lake Forest California United States 2002 Left 4 Dead series
Acquired by Tencent in 2021
Two Point Studios Farnham, Surrey England United Kingdom 2016 Two Point Hospital Formed by former employees of Lionhead Studios; acquired by Sega in 2019
Two Tribes Amersfoort Netherlands 2000 Toki Tori
Typhoon Games (HK) Hong Kong SAR China 2001 Subsidiary of Typhoon Entertainment (Asia)
Ubisoft Montreuil-sous-Bois France 1986 Rayman series
Assassin's Creed series
Just Dance series
Prince of Persia series
Far Cry series
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon series
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six series
Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell series
Beyond Good & Evil series
Ubisoft Blue Byte Düsseldorf Germany 1988 Battle Isle series
The Settlers series
Anno series
Acquired by Ubisoft
Ubisoft Leamington Leamington Spa England United Kingdom 2002 DJ Hero series
Guitar Hero Live
Acquired by Activision in 2008 and acquired by Ubisoft in 2017
Ubisoft Reflections Newcastle upon Tyne England United Kingdom 1984 Driver series
Destruction Derby series
Acquired by Ubisoft
UEP Systems Tokyo Japan 1985 Cool Boarders series Defunct in 2001
Ultimate Play the Game Ashby-de-la-Zouch England United Kingdom 1982 Jetpac
Lunar Jetman
Atic Atac
Sabreman series
Alien 8
Predecessor to Rare; Defunct in 1988
Undead Labs Seattle Washington United States 2009 State of Decay series Acquired by Microsoft Studios in 2018
Underground Development Foster City California United States 1994 Guitar Hero: Van Halen Acquired by Activision in 2002; dissolved in 2010
United Front Games Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2006 ModNation Racers
Sleeping Dogs
LittleBigPlanet Karting
Defunct in 2016
United Game Artists Tokyo Japan 1996 Space Channel 5 series
Subsidiary of Sega
Universomo Tampere Finland 2002 Defunct in 2010
Unknown Worlds Entertainment San Francisco California United States 2001 Natural Selection series
Subnautica series
Acquired by Krafton in 2021
Valhalla Game Studios Tokyo Japan 2008 Devil's Third
Momotaro Dentetsu 2017
Acquired by Wake Up Interactive in 2017 and merged into Wake Up Interactive by Tencent, its new parent company, in 2021
Valve Kirkland Washington United States 1996 Half-Life series
Portal series
Left 4 Dead series
Team Fortress 2
Dota 2
Counter-Strike series
Developer, publisher and distributor
Vanillaware Chūō-ku, Osaka Japan 2002 Odin Sphere
Muramasa: The Demon Blade
Dragon's Crown
13 Sentinels: Aegis Rim
Vanpool Tokyo Japan 1999 Tingle series
Super Kirby Clash
Kirby Fighters 2
Formed by former employees of Love-de-Lic
Venan Entertainment Cromwell Connecticut United States 2002 Ninjatown Their assets were acquired by Megaspace Industries.
VG Entertainment Kyiv Ukraine 2012 Survarium Vostok Games was founded in March 2012 by former employees of GSC Game World, following that firm's closing
Vic Tokai Shizuoka Japan 1984 Developer and publisher. Branch of Tokai Communications.
Vicarious Visions Albany (Menands) New York United States 1990 Guitar Hero series (Wii and DS version)
Tony Hawk series

Skylanders: SuperChargers
Crash Bandicoot series

Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2

Acquired by Activision in 2004; merged into Blizzard Entertainment in 2021.[53]
Vigil Games Austin Texas United States 2005 Darksiders series Subsidiary of THQ; defunct in 2013
Virtual Heroes Raleigh North Carolina United States 2004 Moonbase Alpha
Virtuos Singapore 2004 Monster Jam: Path of Destruction
Ghost Recon Predator
Visceral Games Redwood City California United States 1998 Dead Space series Formerly known as EA Redwood Shores, former in-house development studio and subsidiary of Electronic Arts, closed in 2017.
Visual Concepts Novato California United States 1988 NFL 2K
NBA 2K series
MLB 2K series
NHL 2K series
WWE 2K20
Subsidiary of 2K
Volition Champaign Illinois United States 1996 Saints Row series
Red Faction series
Acquired by Koch Media in 2013 and managed by its Deep Silver division; transferred to the Gearbox Entertainment belonging to the same industrial group in 2022 and closed in 2023
VoxelStorm Manchester England United Kingdom 2012 AdvertCity
Wahoo Studios Orem Utah United States 2001
Warhorse Studios Prague Czech Republic 2011 Kingdom Come: Deliverance Acquired by Koch Media in 2019
Wargaming Nicosia
1998 World of Tanks
World of Warplanes
Lesta Studio (formerly Wargaming Saint Petersburg) Saint Petersburg Russia 1991 World of Warships Former subsidiary of Wargaming
Wargaming Seattle Redmond Washington United States 1998 Supreme Commander Subsidiary of Wargaming
Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment Chicago Illinois United States 1988 Batman: Arkham series
Lego series
F.E.A.R. series
Mortal Kombat series
Division of Warner Bros. Entertainment which is a subsidiary of WarnerMedia
WB Games Boston (formerly Turbine) Needham Massachusetts United States 1994 Asheron's Call series
Dungeons & Dragons Online
The Lord of the Rings Online
Subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
WB Games - Avalanche (formerly Avalanche Software) Salt Lake City Utah United States 1995 Disney Infinity series Subsidiary of Disney Interactive Studios; defunct in 2016
Relaunched by Warner Bros. in 2017.
Webfoot Technologies Chicago Illinois United States 1993 Dragon Ball Z: The Legacy of Goku
You Don't Know Jack! series[which?]
Deadly Rooms of Death
Creators of many Dragon Ball Z games for Atari; specializes in Nintendo platforms
WeMade Seoul South Korea 2000 The Legend of Mir series
Westone Bit Entertainment Tokyo Japan 1986 Wonder Boy series
Monster World series
Bankrupt and became defunct in 2014
Westwood Studios Las Vegas Nevada United States 1985 Eye of the Beholder
Dune II
The Legend of Kyrandia series
Monopoly (1995)
Lands of Lore series
Command & Conquer series
Acquired by Electronic Arts in 1998 and closed in 2003.
Wideload Games Chicago Illinois United States 2003 Stubbs the Zombie in Rebel Without a Pulse Subsidiary of Disney Interactive Studios; closed in 2014
Wildfire Studios Brisbane Queensland Australia 1995
Wizet studio (Nexon development 1st division) Seoul South Korea 1999 MapleStory Acquired by Nexon and became to its division
Wolfire Games Berkeley California United States 2003
World Forge Voronezh Russia 2004 Ancient Wars: Sparta Founded by Burut Creative Team employees.
Xbox Game Studios Redmond Washington United States 2002 Age of Empires series
Crackdown series
Forza Motorsport series
Gears of War series
Halo series
Microsoft Flight Simulator series
Zoo Tycoon series
First-party developer, publisher, and console manufacturer; established as Microsoft Game Studios
XPEC Entertainment Taipei Taiwan 2000 Bounty Hounds Developer/publisher
Yager Development Berlin Germany 1999 Spec Ops: The Line mostly acquired by Tencent in 2021
Yuke's Osaka Japan 1993 WWE 2K series (–2018)
Earth Defense Force: Iron Rain
ZeniMax Online Studios Hunt Valley Maryland United States 2007 The Elder Scrolls Online Subsidiary of ZeniMax Media Inc
Zen Studios Budapest Hungary 2003 Pinball FX series Acquired by Embracer Group in 2020.[18]
Zipper Interactive Redmond Washington United States 1995 SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs series
MechWarrior 3
Shut down in 2012 by Sony Computer Entertainment
Zombie Studios Seattle Washington United States 1994 Spec Ops: Rangers Lead the Way
Blacklight: Retribution
ZootFly Ljubljana Slovenia 2002 Marlow Briggs and the Mask of Death Acquired by Elektroncek
Zynga San Francisco California United States 2007 FarmVille
Zynga Poker
Social network game developer; acquired by Take-Two Interactive in 2022

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Embracer Group acquires multiple studios, including 4A Games. August 13, 2020.
  2. ^ Backflip Studios shutting down. October 24, 2019.
  3. ^ a b EG7 to acquire two Canadian studios – Mechwarrior dev Piranha Games & My Singing Monsters dev Big Blue Bubble. MCV/DEVELOP. November 26, 2020.
  6. ^ Rebellion acquires The Bitmap Brothers' classic games portfolio,, 25 November 2019
  8. ^ DayZ developer acquires new studio to work on standalone version - Update: Everything but the name, PC Gamer, March 28, 2014
  9. ^ Его краснодарское Величество (in Russian),, April 21, 2008
  10. ^ "Day 1 Studios". Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  11. ^ EG7 acquires Daybreak. December 1, 2020.
  12. ^ Focus Home Interactive acquires Deck13 Interactive. Gematsu. June 25, 2020.
  13. ^ Digital Eclipse is back with a new mission: preserve classic games Gamasutra 2015年6月8日
  14. ^ Nordic acquires Digital Reality IP Imperium Galactica, Sine Mora, others, VG247, 2 February 2016
  15. ^ Focus Entertainment acquires Dovetail Games. April 20, 2023
  16. ^ Next Floor Invests on Studio 4LEAF Archived 2019-08-07 at the Wayback Machine. Tech for Korea. October 24, 2017.
  17. ^ エクサムが2020年2月末で全業務を休止すると発表。現行の業務などはTEAM ARCANAへ移管 (in Japanese). February 10, 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d e Embracer Group acquires 13 studios: Here's everything you need to know. November 18, 2020.
  19. ^ Disney sells mobile game studio FoxNext Games to Scopely TechCrunch January 22, 2020
  20. ^ Maximum Entertainment acquires Fun Labs - News-in-brief. March 15, 2023
  21. ^ Tencent bids to acquire 100% of Funcom. January 22, 2020
  22. ^ Makuch, Eddie (2015-10-05). "The Crew Reaches 3 Million Players, Ubisoft Acquires Developer". GameSpot. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  23. ^ Harry Potter Hot, Marvel Avengers Not in Jam City Game Plans, Bloomberg, June 29, 2018
  24. ^ Kiloo Games shutting down. June 15, 2023
  25. ^ Tencent acquires majority stake in Klei Entertainment. January 22, 2021.
  26. ^ Bigben spending spree continues with Kylotonn acquisition,, October 3, 2018
  27. ^ DISSOLUTION, California Secretary of State
  28. ^ Colopl acquires Mages. Gematsu. March 30, 2020.
  29. ^ Weeks After Releasing An Acclaimed Game, A 15-Year-Old Studio Is Shutting Down. GameSpot. August 29, 2023
  30. ^ Nexon merges NDoors and Nexon Red,, January 2, 2018
  31. ^ Nintendo acquires Next Level Games. January 5, 2021.
  32. ^ 김세정 블루사이드 대표 "7년간 800억원 투자한 '킹덤언더파이어2'...전 세계 흥행 자신감" (in Korean), ChosunBiz, November 28, 2016
  33. ^ Tropico publisher Kalypso acquires rights to Commandos series, Gamasutra, July 13, 2018
  34. ^ "ActRaiser got a remake, so now it's time for a Soul Blazer trilogy revival". Destructoid - Nintendo. 2021-09-24. Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  35. ^ Federal Corporation Information - 428888-2, Government of Canada
  36. ^ Facebook acquires Ready at Dawn. June 22, 2020.
  37. ^ SEGA sells Relic Entertainment, lays off 240 staff across European studios. Gematsu. March 28, 2024
  38. ^ TLM Partners acquires Heroes & Generals business operations. February 4, 2022
  39. ^ Embracer Group acquires Saber Interactive in $525m deal. February 19, 2020.
  40. ^ Facebook acquires Sanzaru Games. February 25, 2020.
  41. ^ "PlayStation Confirms Japan Studio Will be Re-Organized". 17 August 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  42. ^ シリコンスタジオ、コンテンツ事業を会社分割してC&R社に譲渡へ...新設会社スタジオリボルバーの株式の90%を譲渡 譲渡価額は概算で1億3700万円. (in Japanese) Social Game Info. June 18, 2018.
  43. ^ Codemasters buys Slightly Mad Studios for $30m,, 28 November 2019
  44. ^ Bigben Interactive acquires Spiders Games. Gematsu. July 25, 2019.
  45. ^ Azerion buys Spil Games' mobile game division. VentureBeat. June 20, 2019.
  46. ^ Azerion acquires remainder of Spil Games. February 12, 2020.
  47. ^ Nippon Ichi Software establishes SystemSoft Beta to succeed SystemSoft Alpha game division Gematsu 2020年1月6日
  48. ^ Scopely acquires Tag Games. June 29, 2023
  49. ^ Embracer Group acquires Little Nightmares dev Tarsier Studios for $10.5m. December 20, 2019.
  50. ^ Tencent to become majority shareholder of Techland. July 24, 2023
  51. ^ THQ auction results: Nordic Games takes Darksiders, Red Faction; 505 Games is Drawn to Life, Engadget, April 22, 2013
  52. ^ DGAP-Adhoc: gamigo AG: Übernahme des Spiele Unternehmens Trion Worlds zur weiteren Stärkung ihrer Marktposition im Spielemarkt. (in German), [de], October 22, 2018
  53. ^ Vicarious Visions merged into Blizzard. January 22, 2021.