List of video game magazines

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This is a list of video game magazines. The primary focus of the magazines in this list is or was video game journalism for at least part of their run. For general computing magazines that may also cover games, consult the list of computer magazines.


Journalist reporting and evaluation of video games in periodicals began from the late 1970s to 1980 in general coin-operated industry magazines like Play Meter[1] and RePlay,[2] home entertainment magazines like Video,[3] as well as magazines focused on computing and new information technologies like InfoWorld or Popular Electronics.[4]

However, dedicated magazines focusing primarily on video game journalism wouldn't appear until late in 1981, when several magazines where launched independently of each other at about the same time. Computer and Video Games premiered in the U.K. in November 1981.[5] It was soon followed by Electronic Games in the US, founded by Bill Kunkel, Arnie Katz and Joyce Worley, who had previously written the "Arcade Alley" column in Video.[6] While Electronic Games covered arcade and console games as well as computer software, Computer Gaming World was focused entirely on the latter.[7] The video game crash of 1983 badly hurt the market for North American video game magazines. Computer Gaming World, founded in 1981, stated in 1987 that it was the only survivor of 18 color magazines for computer games in 1984.[8]

Meanwhile, in Japan, the first magazines entirely dedicated to video games began appearing from 1982, beginning with ASCII's LOGiN, followed by several SoftBank publications and Kadokawa Shoten's Comptiq. The first magazine dedicated to console games, or a specific video game console, was Tokuma Shoten's Family Computer Magazine, which began in 1985 and was focused on Nintendo's Family Computer (Nintendo Entertainment System in the West). This magazine later spawned famous imitators such as Famitsu in 1986 and Nintendo Power in 1988.[9]

In the mid-2000s, the popularity of print-based magazines started to wane in favor of web-based magazines.[10] In 2006, Eurogamer's business development manager Pat Garratt wrote a criticism of those in print games journalism who had not adapted to the web, drawing on his own prior experience in print to offer an explanation of both the challenges facing companies like Future Publishing and why he believed they had not overcome them.[11]


Name[a] Founded[b] Defunct[c] Country[d] Publisher[e] Topics[f] Refs[g]
Ação Games 1991 2002 Brazil Editora Abril, Editora Azul General video gaming [additional citation(s) needed]
ACE 1987 1992 United Kingdom Future Publishing (1987-1989)
EMAP (1989-1992)
Atari ST, Amiga, C64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, and newly released machines [12]
Amiga Action 1989 1996 United Kingdom Europress Amiga games magazine which merged with Amiga Computing in 1996. [13]
Amiga Force 1992 1994 United Kingdom Europress Impact Amiga games magazine [14]
Amiga Power 1991 1996 United Kingdom Future Publishing Amiga games magazine [15][16]
Amtix 1985 1987 United Kingdom Newsfield Publications Ltd. Amstrad CPC games magazine; merged with Computing With The Amstrad. [17][12]
Atari Age 1982 1984 United States The Atari Club Atari related topics [18]
Bazinama 2002 Iran ? Iranian video game magazine
CD-Action 1996 Poland Bauer Video games [19]
Commodore Force 1993 1994 United Kingdom Europress Impact Commodore 64 games [20]
Computer and Video Games 1981 2004 United Kingdom Future Publishing Home computing, arcade games, video games; web-based magazine defunct as of February 2015. [21][12]
Electronic Games /
Computer Entertainment
1981 1985 United States Reese Communications
(Previously: Reese Publishing Company [1981-1983])
Video, computer and arcade games [22][18]
Computer Gaming World 1981 2006 United States Ziff Davis PC game topics, occasional console game topics
Crash 1983 1992 United Kingdom Newsfield & Europress Sinclair Spectrum [12]
CU Amiga
(Previously: Vic Computing [1982-1983]; Commodore User [1983-1990])
1983 1998 United Kingdom EMAP Commodore computers; started as computer magazine; by 1985 mostly games coverage. [23]
Diànzǐ Yóuxì Ruǎnjiàn 1994 2012 People's Republic of China China Association for Science and Technology China's first video game magazine. Covered PC and console gaming, anime, music, etc.
Donya ye Bazi 2005 2014 Iran Donyaye Bazi Organization First Official Iranian Game Magazine [24]
EDGE 1993 United Kingdom Future Publishing Console, PC, Arcade, Mobile games [25]
Electronic Gaming Monthly 1989 2009 United States Sendai Publishing (1989-1996)
Ziff Davis (1996-2009)
Video game journalism [26][27]
Electronic Gaming Monthly 2010 United States EGM Media Video game journalism [28]
Electronic Fun with Computers & Games 1982 1984 United States Fun & Games Publishing Inc. Video, computer and arcade games [18]
Expert Gamer
(Formerly EGM² [1994-1998])
1994 2001 United States Sendai Publishing (1994-1996)
Ziff Davis (1996-2001)
video game strategy guides and cheat codes
(Shūkan Famicom Tsūshin (週刊ファミコン通信, "Weekly Famicom News") [1991-96]
Famicom Tsūshin (ファミコン通信, "Famicom News") [86-91]
1986 Japan ASCII (1986-2000)
Enterbrain, Inc.(2000–)
Multiformat video game news
FUN! Online Games Magazine 2009 United States Beckett Media Children's online games [29]
Game Developer 1994 2013 United States UBM Tech The premier magazine for working (and aspiring) video game creators [30]
Game Industry Report Magazine ? 2006 United States GNB News Group All aspects of the video game industry in the USA [31]
GameFan (Formerly Diehard GameFan) 1992 2000 United States DieHard Gamers Club (1992-1996)
Metropolis Media (1996-1998)
Shinno Media (1999-2000)
Video game news –focus on Anime and RPG games, Dave Halverson first video game publication [32]
Game Informer 1991 United States Funco (1991-2000)
GameStop (2000-present)
Articles, news, strategy, and reviews of video games and associated consoles. [33][34]
Game Zero Magazine 1992 1998 United States ? First online gaming (WWW) magazine as well as print; News, articles, reviews for console games. [35][36][additional citation(s) needed]
GameNOW 2001 2004 United States Ziff Davis Spinoff of EGM geared to younger audience
Game Players[h] 1989 1998 United States GP Publications (1989–96)
Imagine Publishing (1996–98)
Video game journalism [37]
GamePro 1989 2011 United States IDG (1989-2008)
GamePro Media (2008-2011)
General video gaming [38][39]
Games for Windows: The Official Magazine 2006 2008 United States Ziff Davis Windows Games in partnership with Microsoft [40][41]
Gamers' Republic 1998 2001 United States Millennium Publications Multiplatform video games, Music, Anime
Halverson's second publicatioon after Diehard GameFan that's more mainstream
GamesMaster 1993 United Kingdom Future plc (1993-2003)
Summit Media (2003-2006)
Multiformat video games
GameStar 1997 Germany IDG Entertainment Media PC games [42]
gamesTM 2002 United Kingdom ? UK-based computer and video games magazine
Gameworld 1990 1997 Republic of Korea Mirae Sidae Console games, later PC games [43][44][additional citation(s) needed]
Giochi per il mio computer 1997 2010 Italy ? Italian video game magazine
Hobby Consolas 1991 Spain First Hobby Press, then Axel Springer Spanish video game magazine specialized in console gaming [45]
Hoog Spel 1990 2000 The Netherlands Rangeela B.V. Dutch gaming magazine [46]
LeveL 1995 Czech Republic ? PC, PS3, Xbox 360, Wii, PSP, Nintendo DS
LeveL 1997 Turkey ? Turkish edition of Czech magazine
Micromanía 1985 Spain HobbyPress (1985-1998)
Axel Springer AG (1998-2012)
BlueOcean Publishing (2012–present)
PC Games [47][48][49][50][45]
MyM 2012 United Kingdom MCM Central 3DS, PC, PS3, PS4, PS Vita, Wii, Xbox 360, Xbox One [51]
NEXT Generation 1995 2002 United States Imagine Media 32-bit consoles, covers the industry rather than the games themselves
Nintendo Gamer
(Previously: NGamer [2006-2011])
2006 2012 United Kingdom Future Publishing British magazine covering Nintendo products [52]
Nintendo Dream (originally 64 Dream) 1996 Japan Mainichi [53][additional citation(s) needed]
Nintendo Force 2013 United States MagCloud/NF Publishing LLC Nintendo games [54]
Nintendo Fun Club News 1987 1988 United States Nintendo of America Official Nintendo consoles coverage. Started in 1987 as a newsletter; discontinued in favor of Nintendo Power
Nintendo La Rivista Ufficiale 2002 2013 Italy Sprea Media Italy Italian Nintendo related topics
Nintendo Magazine System (Australia) 1993 2000 Australia Catalyst Publishing Australian Nintendo related topics
Nintendo Power 1988 2012 United States Nintendo of America (1988-2007)
Future U.S. Publishing (2007-2012)
Official Nintendo consoles coverage [18]
Nintendo World 1998 Brazil Editora Tambor Nintendo related [55]
Official Dreamcast Magazine (UK) 1999 2001 United Kingdom Dennis Publishing UK Dreamcast related topics
Official Dreamcast Magazine (US) 1999 2001 United States Imagine Media US Dreamcast related topics
Official Nintendo Magazine (UK) 2006 2014 United Kingdom Future Publishing UK Nintendo related topics
Official Nintendo Magazine (Australia) 2008 2013 Australia, New Zealand Future Publishing Australia & New Zealand Nintendo related topics
Official PlayStation Magazine (Australia) 2007 Australia Citrus Media Australian PlayStation related topics
Official UK PlayStation Magazine 1995 2004 United Kingdom Future Plc UK PlayStation related topics
Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine 1997 2007 United States Ziff Davis US PlayStation related topics, succeeded by Future's PlayStation: The Official Magazine
Official Xbox Magazine 2001 United States Future US Xbox related topics
Oyungezer 2007 Turkey Seti Publishing PC, PS3, Xbox 360, Wii, PSP, Nintendo DS
Page 6 1982 1998 United Kingdom Page 6 Publishing The Atari 8-bit range and Atari ST
Personal Computer Games 1983 1985 United Kingdom VNU PC games [12]
PC Gamer 1993 United Kingdom
United States
Future Publishing PC games
PC Games 1992 Germany Computec Media AG PC games
PC Games 1994 1995 United Kingdom EMAP PC games magazine launched in June/July 1994
PC Accelerator 1998 2000 United States Imagine Media Men's magazine-style PC games coverage
PC Mania 1998 2009 Bulgaria PC Mania PC games
PC Zone 1993 2010 United Kingdom Future plc PC games
Pelaaja 2002 Finland H-Town Oy Finnish gaming magazine.
Pelit 1992 Finland Fokus Media Finland Oy The oldest and most popular videogame magazine of Finland.
Pilot Video 1985 1985 Yugoslavia/Croatia Vjesnik Oldest magazine dedicated to Video Games in the former Yugoslavia. It was published by Vjesnik of Zagreb, only three issues were made before discontinuation. [56][additional citation(s) needed]
Planet PC 1999 2001 United Kingdom ? PC games
Play 1994 2013 People's Republic of China Science Popularization Publication China's first PC-gaming-specific magazine.
Play Meter 1974 United States Skybird Publishing Coin-op and arcade games.
Player One 1990 2000 France Média Système Édition Console games [57]
PlayStation Magazine Ufficiale 2002 Italy Play Media Company Italian PlayStation related topics
PlayStation Official Magazine (UK) 2006 United Kingdom Future Publishing UK PlayStation related topics
PlayStation: The Official Magazine 2007 2012 United States Future US PlayStation related topics, successor to Ziff Davis' OPM upon discontiuation of PSM
Power Unlimited 1993 The Netherlands Reshift Digital Dutch gaming magazine
PSM: Independent PlayStation Magazine (PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation 2 Magazine [2000-2005]
PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation Magazine [1997-2000])
1997 2007 United States Imagine Media (1998-2003)
Future Network USA (2003-2005)
Future US (2005-2007)
PlayStation family news
PSM3 2000 2012 United Kingdom Future Publishing Sony video game consoles and PlayStation games [58]
PNM (Pure Nintendo) 2011 United States MagCloud/Pure Media LLC All things Nintendo related
Retro Gamer 2004 United Kingdom Imagine Publishing Retro games from multiple platforms, often via an Emulator
Sankari 2015 Finland H-Town Oy Finnish gaming magazine for children aged 8-12.
Secret Service 1993 2001 Poland ProScript A Polish game magazine, Video games - all platforms
Secret Service 2014 2014 Poland Idea-Ahead A Polish game magazine, Video games - all platforms
Sega Force 1992 1993 United Kingdom Europress Impact Sega games magazine
Sega Power 1989 1997 United Kingdom ? ?
Sega Saturn Magazine 1994 1998 United Kingdom ? ?
Sega Visions 1990 1995 United States Sega of America (1987–89)
Sega/The Communique Group (1990–92)
Sega/Infotainment World (1992–95)
Official Sega magazine, competed with Nintendo Power [59]
Sinclair User 1982 1993 United Kingdom ? Sinclair Spectrum
SKOAR! 2003 India Jasubhai Digital Media Pvt. Ltd. An Indian game magazine
Świat Gier Komputerowych 1992 Poland ? Polish video game magazine
The Games Machine 1988 Italy Aktia Italian PC Game magazine. PC and Console gaming online.
Tilt 1982 1994 France Editions Mondiales S.A. PC and Console gaming [60]
Tips and Tricks 1995 2007 United States LFP (Larry Flynt Publications) Video game strategy guides, codes and walkthroughs [61]
Total! 1993 2000 United Kingdom MVL-Verlag (1993-1995)
X-Plain Verlag (1996-2000)
Nintendo games; brand licensed from UK magazine, but independent content [62]
Videogaming Illustrated 1982 1983 United States Ion International, Inc. Video games [18]
Xbox World 2003 2012 United Kingdom Future Publishing Xbox video game consoles and Xbox games [58]
Your Sinclair 1984 1993 United Kingdom Dennis Publishing (1984-1990)
Future Publishing (1990-1993)
Sinclair Spectrum [63]
Zzap!64 1985 1992 United Kingdom Newsfield Publications (1985-1991)
Europress Impact (1991-1992)
Commodore 64 games [12][20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Title of the publication; In case the title was changed during a magazine's run, older titles are attached in brackets.
  2. ^ The year of first publication
  3. ^ The last year of publication, if the magazine is defunct; If the print edition of a magazine brand is discontinued, the magazine is listed as defunct.
  4. ^ Country of publication; If a magazine was circulated in multiple countries, only the country of origin is given.
  5. ^ The name of the publisher; If the publisher changed during a publication's run, all publishers are given with their respective publication years in brackets.
  6. ^ Brief summary of the general range of topics, platforms and genres covered.
  7. ^ References for all used information
  8. ^ Game Players was renamed to Ultra Game Players in 1996, and then to Game Buyer in 1998.[37]


  1. ^ "Play Meter". Play Meter. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  2. ^ "About RePlay". Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  3. ^ Kunkel, Bill (2005). Confessions of the Game Doctor. Rolenta Press. p. 171. ISBN 0964384892.
  4. ^ Wolf (Ed.), Mark J.P. (2012). Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming. ABC-CLIO. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-313-37936-9.
  5. ^ "Computer & Video Games Magazine". April 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014.
  6. ^ Kohler, Chris (April 25, 2014). "Bill Kunkel, Original Gaming Journalist, Dies at 61". Wired. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  7. ^ Sipe, Russell (August 1988). "The Greatest Story Ever Told". Computer Gaming World. p. 6.
  8. ^ Sipe, Russell (December 1987). "Editorial". Computer Gaming World. p. 4.
  9. ^ Gifford, Kevin (April 27, 2008). "'Game Mag Weaseling': Japan Mag Roundup 2008". GameSetWatch. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  10. ^ "Further decline for print mags". Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
  11. ^ "Paper Trails". 18 August 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-03-27. Retrieved 2006-10-03.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Cox, Howard; Mowatt, Simon (2014). Revolutions from Grub Street: A History of Magazine Publishing in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-1996-0163-9.
  13. ^ "Amiga Action". Amiga History guide. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  14. ^ "Amiga Action". Amiga History guide. Archived from the original on 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  15. ^ "Amiga Power". Amiga History guide. Archived from the original on 2014-06-28. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  16. ^ Gillen, Kieron (April 24, 2008). "Amiga Power To The People". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  17. ^ "Amtix! Reviews List". CPC Game Reviews. Archived from the original on 2013-02-27. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  18. ^ a b c d e Arsenault, Dominic (2017). Super Power, Spoony Bards, and Silverware: The Super Nintendo Entertainment System. MIT Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-0-2623-4150-9.
  19. ^ "CD-Action – latest issue".
  20. ^ a b Dillon, Roberto (2014). Ready: A Commodore 64 Retrospective. SpringerLink. p. 118. ISBN 978-9-8128-7341-5.
  21. ^ "World's first gaming mag revived". Guardian. 2008-04-04. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  22. ^ Kohler, Chris (September 6, 2011). "Bill Kunkel, Original Gaming Journalist, Dies at 61". Wired. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  23. ^ "Commodore User". Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  24. ^ "About Us". Donyaye Bazi Organization. Archived from the original on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  25. ^ Newman, James (2008). Playing with Videogames. Routledge. pp. 29–31. ISBN 978-1-1341-7301-3.
  26. ^ "ZIFF-DAVIS ACQUIRES SENDAI AND DECKER". PR Newswire. 1996-05-09. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  27. ^ Edge Staff (2009-01-07). "EGM Closed; 1Up Sold". Future Publishing. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  28. ^ Brice, Kath (2009-12-22). "Electronic Gaming Monthly to relaunch in March". Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
  29. ^ "Beckett's FUN! Online Games Magazine Features KingsIsle Entertainment's Wizard101". Gamasutra. November 19, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  30. ^ Farokhmanesh, Megan (April 9, 2013). "Game Developer magazine shuttering, Gamasutra evolving". Polygon. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  31. ^ [citation needed]
  32. ^ Szczepaniak, John (July 25, 2012). "History of Diehard GameFAN Magazine". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  33. ^ "10 Years of Game Informer". Game Informer. GameStop: 42. August 2001. In August 1991, Funcoland began publishing a six-page circular to be handed out free in all of its retail locations.
  34. ^ "Game Informer". GamingMagz. Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  35. ^ "INTERNET YELLOWPAGES Volume 6: Game( 1995年7月号 )". Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  36. ^ "Game Zero - NewJour (Directory of E-Journals)". Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-04-29.
  37. ^ a b Gifford, Kevin (July 22, 2006). "'Game Mag Weaseling': Unraveling Game Players". GameSetWatch. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  38. ^ Reilly, Jim (2011-11-30). "GamePro Magazine Closes". GameInformer. Archived from the original on 2014-06-07. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  39. ^ No more CGW? The CGW editors explain all in this Very Special Podcast[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ "Ziff Davis Media's Official "Games for Windows" Press Release". Ziff Davis. 2006-08-02. Archived from the original on 2006-08-22.
  41. ^ Orland, Kyle (April 8, 2008). "Games for Windows Magazine goes online-only". Joystiq. Archived from the original on February 10, 2014.
  42. ^ "Die Geschichte der Legendären Zeitschrift". Gamestarfan. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  43. ^ Cite error: The named reference gamemeca-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  44. ^ Cite error: The named reference hg101 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  45. ^ a b Rivera, Abraham (Dec 2, 2016). "'Hobby Consolas': cuando Sonic vendía más que Julio Iglesias - Imposible imaginarse los noventa sin esta cabecera mítica para jugadores de Sega, Nintendo o hasta Neo Geo. Entrevistamos a sus creadores y nos recuerdan anécdotas curiosas como el suceso de la katana". El País. Spain. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  46. ^ "Hoog Spel 1990-2000" (in Dutch). Rangeela B.V. Archived from the original on 2011-09-08. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  47. ^ Marcos Sagrado (27 May 2014). "RetroMadrid 2014: Lo antiguo vuelve con fuerza - 30 Años de Micromanía" [RetroMadrid 2014: The old comes back strong - 30 years of Micromanía] (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: Tek’n’Life - The Unnamed Project S.L.L. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  48. ^ "Editorial de presentación en el que no decimos a nadie el hueco que venimos a llenar" [Introduction editorial in which we tell no one the niche that we come to fill]. Micromania (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain. 1: 5. 1985.
  49. ^ "Axel Springer anuncia a su plantilla el cierre de cinco revistas" [Axel Springer announces to its employees the closing of five magazines]. El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. 14 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  50. ^ V. Navarro / B. Louviers (1 August 2011). "Las 10 cosas que nunca olvidarás de los videojuegos de los 80" [The 10 things you will never forget from the videogames of the 80s]. La Informacion (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  51. ^ "MyM magazine Issue 43 featuring Dragon Quest Heroes is out now!". 2015-10-16. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  52. ^ Crossley, Rob (2012-08-30). "Future Publishing closes Nintendo Gamer magazine". CVG. Archived from the original on 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  53. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  54. ^ Rougeau, Michael (2012-12-21). "New Magazine 'Nintendo Force' Aims to Continue the 'Nintendo Power' Legacy". Complex Gaming. Archived from the original on 2012-12-26. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  56. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-16. Retrieved 2015-07-19.
  57. ^ "Player One". Abandonware Magazines. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  58. ^ a b Robinson, Andy (November 13, 2012). "Xbox World and PSM3 magazines to close". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  59. ^ "Sega Vision". Retromags.
  60. ^ Blanchet, Alexis (2015). "France". In Wolf, Mark J.P. Video Games Around the World. MIT Press. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-0-2625-2716-3.
  61. ^ Frederick, Logan (June 27, 2007). "Tips & Tricks Magazine Trimmed". The Escapist. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  62. ^ McFerran, Damien (August 5, 2011). "Feature: The Making of TOTAL! Magazine". Nintendo Life. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  63. ^ Hopkins, Ben (July 8, 2015). "How 'Your Sinclair' Magazine Changed Gaming Journalism Forever". Vice. Retrieved October 26, 2017.