List of volcanic eruptions by death toll

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Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive, volatile, or neither. Certain volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans, and this incomplete list attempts to document those volcanic eruptions by death toll.

Volcanic eruptions[edit]

Death Toll Volcano Location Year
5,000,000~[1][better source needed] about 1 million in France,[2]
many in the rest of northern Europe and in Egypt,
9,350 people in Iceland, about 25% of the island's population.[1]
Laki (Grímsvötn) Iceland 1783
2,000,000 max, or one-third of the population of Russia;
see Russian famine of 1601–1603
Huaynaputina Peru 1600
71,000+[3] Mount Tambora Indonesia 1815
36,000+[4] Krakatoa Indonesia 1883
30,000[5] Mount Pelée Martinique 1902
23,000[6] Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1985
15,000[7] Mount Unzen Japan 1792
10,000 Kelud Indonesia 1586
6,000[8] Santa Maria Guatemala 1902
5,000[9] Kelud Indonesia 1919
4,011[10] Mount Galunggung Indonesia 1822
3,500 El Chichón Mexico 1982
3,360 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1631
2,942 Mount Lamington Papua New Guinea 1951
2,000+[11] Mount Vesuvius Italy 79
2,000 Tseax Cone Canada 1700~
1,680 Soufrière St. Vincent 1902
1,584 Mount Agung Indonesia 1902
1,369 Mount Merapi Indonesia 1930
1,335 Mount Mayon Philippines 1897
1,151 Mount Asama Japan 1783
1,500 Mount Etna Italy 1669
1,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1845
1,000 Cotopaxi Ecuador 1877
847 Mount Pinatubo Philippines 1991
600 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1595
353 Mount Merapi Indonesia 2010
245 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002
151 Mount Ruapehu New Zealand 1945
150 Mount Tarawera New Zealand 1886
150[12] Tori-shima Japan 1902
87 Volcán Arenal Costa Rica 1968
70 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977
57 Mount St. Helens United States 1980
57[13] Mount Ontake Japan 2014
43 Mount Unzen Japan 1991
31[14] Nabro Volcano Eritrea 2011
19[15] Soufrière Hills Montserrat 1997
18 Galunggung Indonesia 1982
16[16] Sinabung Indonesia 2014
9[17] Galeras Colombia 1993
5 Mount Hudson Chile 1971
4[18] Jebel at Tair Yemen 2007
1[19][20] Eldfell Iceland 1973

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "How the Earth Was Made Full Episodes, Video & More | HISTORY". history.com. 
  2. ^ "The summer of acid rain". The Economist. 19 December 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  3. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (1 June 2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. pp. 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. 
  4. ^ "Krakatoa Volcano: Facts About Deadly Eruption". Live Science. 
  5. ^ "Benchmarks: May 8, 1902: The deadly eruption of Mount Pelée | EARTH Magazine". www.earthmagazine.org. 
  6. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY | 13 | 1985: Volcano kills thousands in Colombia". news.bbc.co.uk. 
  7. ^ "Mount Unzen eruption of 1792 | Japanese history". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  8. ^ "What is the largest eruption ever? | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu. 
  9. ^ "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Erupts : Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 14 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "Galunggung | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu. 
  11. ^ "Vesuvius erupts - Aug 24, 79 - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. 
  12. ^ "INHABITANTS OF ISLAND ALL KILLED BY VOLCANO:; The 150 Japanese Residents of Torishima Dead -- Eruption Still Proceeding.". 
  13. ^ "Ontake victims mourned a month after eruption as tourism industry scrambles to recover". The Japan Times Online. 27 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "Thousands need aid after volcano eruption". IRIN. 6 July 2011. 
  15. ^ "The victims of Montserrat's volcano tragedy deserve an investigation". The Guardian. 25 June 2012. 
  16. ^ "Indonesian volcano Mount Sinabung eruption causes 16 deaths". The Independent. 2 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Eruption: A Survivor's Tale | Scholastic.com". Scholastic Teachers. 
  18. ^ Siebert, L.; et al. (2010). Volcanoes of the World (3rd edition). Smithsonian Institution and University of California Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7. 
  19. ^ "Deadly Gases". Oregon State University. 
  20. ^ "Which Way The Wind Blows - The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. 26 September 2014.