List of volcanic eruptions by death toll

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Volcanic eruptions can be highly explosive, volatile, or neither. Certain volcanoes have undergone catastrophic eruptions, killing large numbers of humans, and this incomplete list attempts to document those volcanic eruptions by death toll.

Volcanic eruptions[edit]

Death toll Volcano Location Year Source(s)
1 71,000+ (regarded as having caused the Year Without a Summer creating famines in Europe and America) Mount Tambora Indonesia 1815 [1]
2 36,000+ Krakatoa Indonesia 1883 [2]
3 30,000 Mount Pelée Martinique 1902 [3]
4 23,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1985 [4]
5 15,000 Mount Unzen Japan 1792 [5]
6 13,000+ Mount Vesuvius Italy 79 [6]
7 10,000+ (particulate and sulphur emissions caused widespread deaths and famines throughout Europe and Africa) Grímsvötn Iceland 1783 [7]
10,000 Kelud Indonesia 1586
9 6,000 Santa Maria Guatemala 1902 [8]
10 5,000 Kelud Indonesia 1919 [9]
11 4,011 Mount Galunggung Indonesia 1822 [10]
12 3,500 El Chichón Mexico 1982
13 3,360 Mount Vesuvius Italy 1631
14 2,942 Mount Lamington Papua New Guinea 1951
15 2,000 Tseax Cone Canada 1700~
16 1,680 Soufrière St. Vincent 1902
17 1,584 Mount Agung Indonesia 1963
18 1,500 (atmospheric particulates may have contributed to the Russian famine of 1601–03) Huaynaputina Peru 1600 [11][12]
1,500 Mount Etna Italy 1669
20 1,369 Mount Merapi Indonesia 1930
21 1,335 Mount Mayon Philippines 1897
22 1,151 Mount Asama Japan 1783
23 1,000 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1845
Cotopaxi Ecuador 1877
25 847 Mount Pinatubo Philippines 1991
26 600 Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 1595
27 400+ Kilauea Kingdom of Hawai'i 1790 [13]
28 353 Mount Merapi Indonesia 2010
29 245 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002
30 159 Volcán de Fuego Guatemala 2018 [14]
31 151 Mount Ruapehu New Zealand 1945
32 150 Mount Tarawera New Zealand 1886
Tori-shima Japan 1902 [15]
34 144 (official confirmed) Mount Tokachi Japan 1926 [16]
35 87 Volcán Arenal Costa Rica 1968
36 70 Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 1977
37 63 Mount Ontake Japan 2014 [17]
38 57 Mount St. Helens United States 1980
39 43 Mount Unzen Japan 1991
40 31 Nabro Volcano Eritrea 2011 [18]
41 19 Soufrière Hills Montserrat 1997 [19]
42 18 Galunggung Indonesia 1982
43 16 Sinabung Indonesia 2014 [20]
44 9 Galeras Colombia 1993 [21]
45 5 Mount Hudson Chile 1971
46 4 Jebel at Tair Yemen 2007 [22]
47 3 Pacaya Guatemala 2010
48 1 Eldfell Iceland 1973 [23][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (1 June 2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. pp. 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. 
  2. ^ "Krakatoa Volcano: Facts About Deadly Eruption". Live Science. 
  3. ^ "Benchmarks: May 8, 1902: The deadly eruption of Mount Pelée | EARTH Magazine". www.earthmagazine.org. 
  4. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY | 13 | 1985: Volcano kills thousands in Colombia". news.bbc.co.uk. 
  5. ^ "Mount Unzen eruption of 1792 | Japanese history". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  6. ^ "Vesuvius erupts - Aug 24, 79 - HISTORY.com". history.com. 
  7. ^ "Local and Global Impacts of the 1783-84 Laki Eruption in Iceland". Wired. 
  8. ^ "What is the largest eruption ever? | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu. 
  9. ^ "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Erupts : Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 14 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "Galunggung | Volcano World | Oregon State University". volcano.oregonstate.edu. 
  11. ^ "Firing the sky". www.thehindu.com. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2018. 
  12. ^ Zijlstra, Albert (30 June 2017). "The winter of Huaynaputina". volcanocafe.org. Retrieved 9 Feb 2018. 
  13. ^ Israel, Brett. "Kilauea Volcano's Deadliest Eruption Revealed". Live Science. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  14. ^ "Guatemala volcano death toll hiked to 159, 256 people still missing". Al Dia Culture. EFE. Retrieved 4 August 2018. 
  15. ^ "INHABITANTS OF ISLAND ALL KILLED BY VOLCANO:; The 150 Japanese Residents of Torishima Dead -- Eruption Still Proceeding" (PDF). 
  16. ^ [ja:十勝岳#噴火史#大正噴火] Retrieved 19 June, 2018.
  17. ^ "Ontake victims mourned a month after eruption as tourism industry scrambles to recover". The Japan Times Online. 27 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "Thousands need aid after volcano eruption". IRIN. 6 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "The victims of Montserrat's volcano tragedy deserve an investigation". The Guardian. 25 June 2012. 
  20. ^ "Indonesian volcano Mount Sinabung eruption causes 16 deaths". The Independent. 2 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Eruption: A Survivor's Tale | Scholastic.com". Scholastic Teachers. 
  22. ^ Siebert, L.; et al. (2010). Volcanoes of the World (3rd edition). Smithsonian Institution and University of California Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7. 
  23. ^ "Deadly Gases". Oregon State University. 
  24. ^ "Which Way The Wind Blows - The Reykjavik Grapevine". The Reykjavik Grapevine. 26 September 2014.