List of volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain

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Raised-relief map of the Pacific basin, showing seamounts and islands trailing the Hawaiʻi hotspot in a long line terminating near the Russian island of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.
The Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain. The two sections, the Emperor and Hawaiian strands, are separated by a large L-shaped bend.

The Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain is a series of volcanoes and seamounts extending across the Pacific Ocean. The chain has been produced by the movement of the ocean crust over the Hawaiʻi hotspot, an upwelling of hot rock from the Earth's mantle. As the oceanic crust moves the volcanoes farther away from their source of magma, their eruptions become less frequent and less powerful until they eventually cease to erupt altogether. At that point, erosion of the volcano and subsidence of the seafloor cause the volcano to gradually diminish. As the volcano sinks and erodes, it first becomes an atoll island and then an atoll. Further subsidence causes the volcano to sink below the sea surface, becoming a seamount and/or a guyot.[1] This list documents the most significant volcanoes in the chain, ordered by distance from the hotspot; however, there are many others that have yet to be properly studied.

The chain can be divided into three subsections. The first, the Hawaiian archipelago (also known as the Windward isles), consists of the islands comprising the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi (not to be confused with the island of Hawaiʻi). As it is the closest to the hotspot, this volcanically active region is the youngest part of the chain, with ages ranging from 400,000 years[2] to 5.1 million years.[3] The island of Hawaiʻi is comprised by five volcanoes, of which two (Kilauea and Mauna Loa) are still active. ʻihi Seamount continues to grow offshore, and is the only known volcano in the chain in the submarine pre-shield stage.[1]

The second part of the chain is composed of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, collectively referred to as the Leeward isles, the constituents of which are between 7.2 and 27.7 million years in age.[3] Erosion has long since overtaken volcanic activity at these islands, and most of them are atolls, atoll islands, and extinct islands. They contain many of the most northerly atolls in the world; one of them, Kure Atoll, is the northern-most atoll in the world.[4] On June 15, 2006, U.S. President George W. Bush issued a proclamation creating Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument under the Antiquities Act of 1906. The national monument, meant to protect the biodiversity of the Hawaiian isles,[n 1] encompasses all of the northern isles, and is one of the largest such protected areas in the world. The proclamation limits tourism to the area, and calls for a phase-out of fishing by 2011.[5]

The oldest and most heavily eroded part of the chain are the Emperor seamounts, which are 39[6] to 85 million years in age.[7] The Emperor and Hawaiian chains are separated by a large L-shaped bend that causes the orientations of the chains to differ by about 60°. This bend was long attributed to a relatively sudden change in the direction of plate motion, but research conducted in 2003 suggests that it was the movement of the hotspot itself that caused the bend.[8] The issue is still currently under debate.[9] All of the volcanoes in this part of the chain have long since subsided below sea level, becoming seamounts and guyots (see also the seamount and guyot stages of Hawaiian volcanism). Many of the volcanoes are named after former emperors of Japan. The seamount chain extends to the West Pacific, and terminates at the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench, a subduction zone at the border of Russia.[10]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Hawaiian archipelago[edit]

Name Island Last eruption Coordinates Age (years) Notes
ʻihi Seamount Seamount 1996 (active)[2] 18°32′N 155°16′W / 18.54°N 155.27°W / 18.54; -155.27 400,000[2] The seamount is a submarine volcano approximately 35 km (22 mi) southeast of Hawaiʻi. It will eventually breach sea level and become the newest Hawaiian island.[2]
Kīlauea Big Island Erupting[11] 19°25′N 155°17′W / 19.417°N 155.283°W / 19.417; -155.283 300,000–600,000[11] Kīlauea is considered one of the most active volcanoes on Earth.[12]

Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cinder cone of Kīlauea, has been erupting continuously since January 3, 1983, making it the longest-lived rift-zone eruption of the last six centuries.[13]

Mauna Loa Big Island 1984 (active)[14] 19°28′46.3″N 155°36′09.6″W / 19.479528°N 155.602667°W / 19.479528; -155.602667 700,000–1 million[15] Largest volcano on Earth[14]
Hualālai Big Island 1801 (active)[16] 19°41′32″N 155°52′02″W / 19.69222°N 155.86722°W / 19.69222; -155.86722 > 300,000[16] Lies on the western edge of the Big Island[16]
Mauna Kea Big Island 4460 BP (dormant) 19°49′14.39″N 155°28′05.04″W / 19.8206639°N 155.4680667°W / 19.8206639; -155.4680667 ~1 million[17] World's tallest mountain if below-sea elevation is counted[18]
Kohala Big Island 120,000 BP (extinct)[19] 20°05′10″N 155°43′02″W / 20.08611°N 155.71722°W / 20.08611; -155.71722 ~ 120,000–1 million[19] Oldest volcano that remains part of the island of Hawaiʻi[19]
Māhukona Seamount 470,000 BP (extinct) 20°01′0″N 156°1′0″W / 20.01667°N 156.01667°W / 20.01667; -156.01667 K-Ar 298,000±25,000 and 310,000±31,000[20][n 2] Submerged, having long since disappeared into the sea[21]
Haleakalā Maui between A.D. 1480 and 1600, oldest currently active volcano in the Hawaiian - Emperor seamount chain[22] 20°42′35″N 156°15′12″W / 20.70972°N 156.25333°W / 20.70972; -156.25333 ~ 2 million[22] Forms more than 75% of Maui[22]
West Maui Maui less than 320,000 BP (extinct) 20°54′N 156°37′W / 20.900°N 156.617°W / 20.900; -156.617 K-Ar 1.32±0.04 million[3] Very eroded shield volcano that makes up the western quarter of Maui
Kahoʻolawe Kahoʻolawe ~1 MYA 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W / 20.550; -156.600 K-Ar > 1.03±0.18 million[3][23] Smallest of the 8 principal Hawaiian islands;[19] uninhabited[24]
Lānaʻi Lānaʻi 1.2 MYA 20°50′N 156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933 K-Ar date of 1.28±0.04 million[3] Sixth-largest island[25] The only town is Lānaʻi City, a small settlement.
East Molokai Molokaʻi 1.3 MYA 21°7′N 156°51′W / 21.117°N 156.850°W / 21.117; -156.850 K-Ar 1.76±0.04 million[3] The northern half of this volcano suffered a large collapse 1.5 million years ago.[26] Only the southern half remains above the sea today.[19]
West Molokaʻi Molokaʻi 1.76 MYA 21°9′N 157°14′W / 21.150°N 157.233°W / 21.150; -157.233 K-Ar date of 1.9±0.06 million[3]
Penguin Bank Seamount
20°55′N 157°40′W / 20.917°N 157.667°W / 20.917; -157.667 ~ 2.2 million[27] The seamount is a submarine volcano, southwest of Molokaʻi. The submarine volcano used to be part of Maui Nui, a prehistoric island made from seven shield volcanoes.
Koʻolau Range Oʻahu <32,000 BP (possibly dormant)[n 3] 21°19′N 157°46′W / 21.317°N 157.767°W / 21.317; -157.767 2.7 million[28] A fragmented remnant of the eastern or windward shield volcano, which also suffered a large collapse sometime before the Molokaʻi collapse[26]
Waiʻanae Range Oʻahu ~2.5 MYA[29] 21°30′N 158°9′W / 21.500°N 158.150°W / 21.500; -158.150 ~1.7–3.9 million; K-Ar 3.7±0.1 million[3][28][29] The eroded remains of a shield volcano that comprised the western half of the island[29]
Kaʻena Ridge Oʻahu <3.0 MYA[30] 21°42′N 158°22′W / 21.700°N 158.367°W / 21.700; -158.367[30] ~3.5–4.9 million[30] The eroded remains of a shield volcano west of Waiʻanae that has since subsided below sea level[30]
Kaʻula Kaʻula >2 MYA 21°39′N 160°32′W / 21.650°N 160.533°W / 21.650; -160.533 K-Ar 4.0±0.2 million[3] Tiny crescent-shaped barren island; uninhabited except for divers and fishermen[31]
Niʻihau Niʻihau 2 MYA 21°54′N 160°10′W / 21.900°N 160.167°W / 21.900; -160.167 K-Ar 4.89±0.11 million[3][32] Smallest inhabited island;[33]
Kauaʻi Kauaʻi 1.41 MYA[n 3] 22°05′N 159°30′W / 22.083°N 159.500°W / 22.083; -159.500 K-Ar 5.1±0.2 million[3][34] Oldest and fourth largest of the main islands, and home to Mount Waialeale, one of the wettest areas on Earth in terms of precipitation[35]

Northwestern Hawaiian islands[edit]

Name Type Coordinates Age[36] Notes
Unnamed seamount Guyot 22°42′N 161°02′W / 22.700°N 161.033°W / 22.700; -161.033 5.1 to 7.2 million[n 4] at a depth of 40 metres (130 ft) below sea level
Nihoa Extinct Island 23°03′N 161°55′W / 23.050°N 161.917°W / 23.050; -161.917 K-Ar 7.2±0.3 million[3] Small rocky island which supported a small population around 1000 CE; features over 80 cultural sites, including religious places, agricultural terraces, and burial caves[37]
Unnamed seamount Guyot 22°59′N 162°14′W / 22.983°N 162.233°W / 22.983; -162.233 7.2 to 10.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 10 metres (33 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 23°14′N 162°37′W / 23.233°N 162.617°W / 23.233; -162.617 7.2 to 10.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 229 metres (751 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 23°14′N 162°57′W / 23.233°N 162.950°W / 23.233; -162.950 7.2 to 10.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 5 metres (16 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 23°12′N 163°10′W / 23.200°N 163.167°W / 23.200; -163.167 7.2 to 10.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 44 metres (144 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 23°18′N 163°16′W / 23.300°N 163.267°W / 23.300; -163.267 7.2 to 10.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 413 metres (1,355 ft) below sea level
Necker Island Extinct Island 23°34′35″N 164°42′0″W / 23.57639°N 164.70000°W / 23.57639; -164.70000 K-Ar 10.3±0.4 million[3] Small deserted island with Hawaiian religious shrines and artifacts[38]
French Frigate Shoals Atoll 23°52′08″N 166°17′10″W / 23.8689°N 166.2860°W / 23.8689; -166.2860 12 million[39] Largest atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian islands[40]
East Brooks Bank Guyot 23°59′N 166°42′W / 23.983°N 166.700°W / 23.983; -166.700 12 to 12.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 51 metres (167 ft) below sea level
Central Brooks Bank Guyot 24°07′N 166°49′W / 24.117°N 166.817°W / 24.117; -166.817 12 to 12.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 29 metres (95 ft) below sea level
West Brooks Bank Guyot 24°12′N 166°57′W / 24.200°N 166.950°W / 24.200; -166.950 12 to 12.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 24 metres (79 ft) below sea level
Saint Rogatien Bank Guyot 24°19′N 167°08′W / 24.317°N 167.133°W / 24.317; -167.133 12 to 12.3 million[n 4] at a depth of 20 metres (66 ft) below sea level
Gardner Pinnacles Atoll Island 25°01′N 167°59′W / 25.017°N 167.983°W / 25.017; -167.983 K-Ar 12.3±1.0 million[3] Two barren rock outcrops surrounded by a reef[41]
Unnamed seamount Guyot 25°33′N 169°27′W / 25.550°N 169.450°W / 25.550; -169.450 12.3 to 19.9 million[n 4] at a depth of 13 metres (43 ft) below sea level
Maro Reef Atoll 25°25′N 170°35′W / 25.417°N 170.583°W / 25.417; -170.583 12.3 to 19.9 million[n 4] Largest coral reef of the northwestern Hawaiian islands[42]
Laysan Atoll Island 25°46′03″N 171°44′00″W / 25.7675°N 171.7334°W / 25.7675; -171.7334 K-Ar 19.9±0.3 million[3] Originally named "Kauō" meaning egg, referring to its shape, and home to one of only five natural lakes in all of Hawaiʻi[43]
Unnamed seamount Guyot 25°22′N 172°03′W / 25.367°N 172.050°W / 25.367; -172.050 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 1 metre (3.3 ft) below sea level
Northampton Seamount Guyot 25°30′N 172°24′W / 25.500°N 172.400°W / 25.500; -172.400 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 25°39′N 172°56′W / 25.650°N 172.933°W / 25.650; -172.933 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 872 metres (2,861 ft) below sea level
Pioneer Tablemount Guyot 25°59′N 173°24′W / 25.983°N 173.400°W / 25.983; -173.400 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 5 metres (16 ft) below sea level
Lisianski Island Atoll Island 26°3′48.6564″N 173°57′57.346″W / 26.063515667°N 173.96592944°W / 26.063515667; -173.96592944 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] A small island surrounded by a huge coral reef nearly the size of Oahu;[44] named after a captain in the Russian navy whose ship ran aground there in 1805[45]
Unnamed seamount Guyot 26°18′N 174°32′W / 26.300°N 174.533°W / 26.300; -174.533 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 67 metres (220 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamounts Guyot 26°56′N 175°36′W / 26.933°N 175.600°W / 26.933; -175.600 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] pair of guyots at a depth of 115 metres (377 ft) and 1,207 metres (3,960 ft) below sea level
Unnamed seamount Guyot 27°09′N 176°10′W / 27.150°N 176.167°W / 27.150; -176.167 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 1,233 metres (4,045 ft) below sea level
Salmon Bank Guyot 26°56′N 176°25′W / 26.933°N 176.417°W / 26.933; -176.417 19.9 to 20.6 million[n 4] at a depth of 54 metres (177 ft) below sea level
Pearl and Hermes Atoll Atoll Island 27°48′N 175°51′W / 27.800°N 175.850°W / 27.800; -175.850 K-Ar 20.6±2.7 million[3] A collection of small, sandy islands, with a lagoon and coral reef; named after two whaling ships which were wrecked on the reef in 1822[46]
Unnamed seamount Guyot 28°05′N 176°54′W / 28.083°N 176.900°W / 28.083; -176.900 20.6 to 27.7 million[n 4] at a depth of 1,640 metres (5,380 ft) below sea level
Ladd Seamount Guyot 28°31′45″N 176°40′00″W / 28.52917°N 176.66667°W / 28.52917; -176.66667 20.6 to 27.7 million[n 4] at a depth of 64 metres (210 ft) below sea level
Midway Atoll Atoll Island 28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.200°N 177.350°W / 28.200; -177.350 K-Ar 27.7±0.6 million[3] Consists of a ring-shaped barrier reef and two large islets; named "Midway" because of its strategic location in the center of the Pacific Ocean, and was the site of a key battle during World War II[47]
Nero Seamount Guyot 27°57′55″N 177°57′50″W / 27.96528°N 177.96389°W / 27.96528; -177.96389 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4] at a depth of 67 metres (220 ft) below sea level
Kure Atoll Atoll 28°25′N 178°20′W / 28.417°N 178.333°W / 28.417; -178.333 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4] Northernmost coral atoll in the world[4]

Emperor seamounts[edit]

Name Type Summit Depth Coordinates[48] Age Notes
East Windward Guyot 124 metres (407 ft) 28°54′N 178°37′W / 28.900°N 178.617°W / 28.900; -178.617 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4]
Academician Berg Guyot 182 metres (597 ft) 28°51′00″N 178°52′00″W / 28.85000°N 178.86667°W / 28.85000; -178.86667 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4]
West Windward Guyot 254 metres (833 ft) 28°49′50″N 179°07′50″W / 28.83056°N 179.13056°W / 28.83056; -179.13056 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4]
Helsley Guyot 159 metres (522 ft) 28°54′N 179°34′W / 28.900°N 179.567°W / 28.900; -179.567 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4] Named after Charles Helsley, a researcher at the University of Hawaii. Also named Zapadnaya Seamount.
East Townsend Cromwell Seamount 506 metres (1,660 ft) 29°41′N 179°20′E / 29.683°N 179.333°E / 29.683; 179.333 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4]
Townsend Cromwell Seamount 209 metres (686 ft) 29°47′N 179°03′E / 29.783°N 179.050°E / 29.783; 179.050 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4] Named after Townsend Cromwell, a prominent oceanographer.
Hancock Seamount 298 metres (978 ft) 30°15′N 178°50′E / 30.250°N 178.833°E / 30.250; 178.833 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4]
De Veuster Seamount 474 metres (1,555 ft) 30°22′30″N 177°34′00″E / 30.37500°N 177.56667°E / 30.37500; 177.56667 27.7 to 38.7 million[n 4] possibly named after Father Damien (born Jozef De Veuster), a Roman Catholic Priest in Hawaii during the late 19th century.
Colahan Seamount 232 metres (761 ft) 31°15′N 176°0′E / 31.250°N 176.000°E / 31.250; 176.000 K-Ar 38.7±0.2 million[6]
Abbott Seamount 1,680 metres (5,510 ft) 31°48′N 174°18′E / 31.800°N 174.300°E / 31.800; 174.300 K-Ar 41.5±0.3 million[6]
Daikakuji Guyot 1,050 metres (3,440 ft) 32°5.00′N 172°18′E / 32.08333°N 172.300°E / 32.08333; 172.300 K-Ar 42.4±2.3[3] and 46.7±0.1 million[6] Also the name of a Japanese temple
Kammu Guyot 319 metres (1,047 ft) 32°10′N 173°0′E / 32.167°N 173.000°E / 32.167; 173.000 42.4 to 43.4 million[n 4] Named after Emperor Kammu, former ruler of Japan (781-806)
Yuryaku Guyot 492 metres (1,614 ft) 32°40.20′N 172°16.20′E / 32.67000°N 172.27000°E / 32.67000; 172.27000 K-Ar 43.4±1.6 million[3] Named after Emperor Yūryaku, former ruler of Japan (~456-479)
Goshirakawa Guyot 3,203 metres (10,509 ft) 32°39′N 171°34′E / 32.650°N 171.567°E / 32.650; 171.567 ~40 million Named after Emperor Go-Shirakawa, former ruler of Japan (1155-1158)
Gosanjo Guyot 2,620 metres (8,600 ft) 32°54′N 171°34′E / 32.900°N 171.567°E / 32.900; 171.567 ~40 million Named after Emperor Go-Sanjō, former ruler of Japan (1068-1073)
Toba Guyot 963 metres (3,159 ft) 33°14′N 171°39′E / 33.233°N 171.650°E / 33.233; 171.650 ~40 million Named after Emperor Toba, former ruler of Japan (1107-1123)
Genji Seamount 2,550 metres (8,370 ft) 33°20′N 172°14′E / 33.333°N 172.233°E / 33.333; 172.233 ~40 million Named after Hikaru Genji, the protagonist of the classic Japanese work, The Tale of Genji.
Kimmei Seamount 222 metres (728 ft) 33°40.84′N 171°38.07′E / 33.68067°N 171.63450°E / 33.68067; 171.63450 K-Ar 39.9±1.2[3] and 47.9±0.2 million[6] Named after Emperor Kimmei, former ruler of Japan (539-571)
Unnamed Seamount Seamount 82 metres (269 ft) 34°57′00″N 171°35′40″E / 34.95000°N 171.59444°E / 34.95000; 171.59444 same as Koko Guyot
Koko Guyot 247 metres (810 ft) 35°15.00′N 171°35.00′E / 35.25000°N 171.58333°E / 35.25000; 171.58333 K-Ar 48.1±0.8,[3] 50.4±0.1 (south side),[6] and 52.6±0.8 (north side) million[6] Named after Emperor Kōkō, former ruler of Japan (884-887)
Unnamed Guyot Guyot 84 metres (276 ft) 36°47′45″N 171°21′50″E / 36.79583°N 171.36389°E / 36.79583; 171.36389 48.1 to 55.2 million[n 4]
Ojin Guyot 197 metres (646 ft) 37°58.20′N 170°22.80′E / 37.97000°N 170.38000°E / 37.97000; 170.38000 K-Ar 55.2±0.7 million[3] Named after Emperor Ōjin, former ruler of Japan (~270-310)
Jingu Guyot 588 metres (1,929 ft) 38°50′N 171°15′E / 38.833°N 171.250°E / 38.833; 171.250 K-Ar 55.4±0.9 million[49] Named after Empress Jingū, former ruler of Japan (~201-269)
Nintoku Guyot 589 metres (1,932 ft) 41°4.80′N 170°34.20′E / 41.08000°N 170.57000°E / 41.08000; 170.57000 K-Ar 56.2±0.6 million[3] Named after Emperor Nintoku, former ruler of Japan (~313-399)
Ninigi Seamount 1,549 metres (5,082 ft) 41°44′N 170°12′E / 41.733°N 170.200°E / 41.733; 170.200 56.2 to 59.6 million[n 4] Named after Ninigi-no-Mikoto, a god in Japanese mythology.
Godaigo Seamount 1,560 metres (5,120 ft) 41°51′N 170°33′E / 41.850°N 170.550°E / 41.850; 170.550 56.2 to 59.6 million[n 4] Named after Emperor Go-Daigo, former ruler of Japan (1318-1339)
Yomei Guyot 543 metres (1,781 ft) 42°18′N 170°24′E / 42.300°N 170.400°E / 42.300; 170.400 56.2 to 59.6 million[n 4] Named after Emperor Yōmei, former ruler of Japan (540-587)
Showa Guyot 387 metres (1,270 ft) 42°59′N 170°21′E / 42.983°N 170.350°E / 42.983; 170.350 56.2 to 59.6 million[n 4] Named after Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa), former ruler of Japan (1926-1989)
Soga Guyot 68 metres (223 ft) 43°24′N 169°59′E / 43.400°N 169.983°E / 43.400; 169.983 56.2 to 59.6 million[n 4] Named after Emperor Saga, former ruler of Japan (809-823)
Suiko Seamount 995 metres (3,264 ft) 44°35′N 170°20′E / 44.583°N 170.333°E / 44.583; 170.333 K-Ar 59.6±0.6 (southern),[3][50] 64.7±1.1 (central),[3][50] and 60.9±0.3[6] million Named after Empress Suiko, former ruler of Japan (592-628)
Winnebago Guyot 1,680 metres (5,510 ft) 48°10′N 168°20′E / 48.167°N 168.333°E / 48.167; 168.333 60-81 million[n 4]
Tenji Guyot 1,599 metres (5,246 ft) 48°50′N 168°30′E / 48.833°N 168.500°E / 48.833; 168.500 60-81 million[n 4] Named after Emperor Tenji, former ruler of Japan (661-672)
Detroit Seamount 1,498 metres (4,915 ft) 51°28.80′N 167°36′E / 51.48000°N 167.600°E / 51.48000; 167.600 ~ 81 million[7] Well-documented seamount, second-oldest. Rock from lava flows show that while Detroit Seamount was on the hotspot, activity coming from the volcano continued for the next 18 million years.
Meiji Seamount 2,720 metres (8,920 ft) 53°12′N 164°30′E / 53.200°N 164.500°E / 53.200; 164.500 85 million[7] Named after Emperor Meiji, former ruler of Japan (1867-1912); oldest known seamount in the chain

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ All of the islands in this part of the chain are administrated by Hawaii state, save for Midway Atoll, which is administrated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
  2. ^ The error estimate is given for two standard deviations (95% of data contained within this range). Each of the dates is an average of dates from each of two separate volcanic cones that are part of Māhukona.
  3. ^ a b These volcanos experienced a 'rejuvenation' phase significantly after their primary eruptions ended, for reasons unknown. Ko'olau originally erupted from 2.5-1.7 MYA, before entering into a dormancy period until roughly 500,000 years ago, and may possibly remain active. Kaua'i similarly erupted mainly 5 MYA, with a notably short period of secondary eruptions 1,430,000 to 1,410,000 years ago.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap The age of the volcano is unknown, but will be somewhere between the ages of the volcanoes on either side of it in the chain.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes". Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS). September 8, 1995. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d Michael O. Garcia; Jackie Caplan-Auerbanch; Eric H. De Carlo; M.D. Kurz; N. Becker (September 20, 2005). "Geology, geochemistry and earthquake history of Lōʻihi Seamount, Hawaiʻi" (PDF). Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry. This is the pre-press version of a paper that was published on 2006-05-16 as "Geochemistry, and Earthquake History of Lōʻihi Seamount, Hawaiʻi's youngest volcano", in Chemie der Erde – Geochemistry (66) 2:81–108. University of Hawaii – School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. 66 (2): 81–108. Bibcode:2006ChEG...66...81G. doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2005.09.002. Pre-press version
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Rubin, Ken. "The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands". Hawaii Center for Vulcanology. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
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External links[edit]

  • This abstract contains preliminary data for several of the seamount dates; these dates are revised in the subsequent paper (as reported above):