List of wars 1945–89

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of wars 1945–1989)
Jump to: navigation, search

1945–1949[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1945 1946 War in Vietnam (1945–46) Viet Minh  United Kingdom
 British Raj
France
Japan
1945 1949 Indonesian National Revolution  Indonesia  Netherlands
 United Kingdom (until 1946)
 Japan (until 1946)
1945 1946 Iran crisis of 1946 Iran Republic of Mahabad
Azerbaijan People's Republic
1946 1954 First Indochina War Viet Minh
Pathet Lao
Khmer Issarak
United Issarak Front
 Soviet Union
 China
French Union
French Fourth Republic
State of Vietnam
 Cambodia
 Kingdom of Laos
 United States
1946 1949 Greek Civil War  Kingdom of Greece

 United Kingdom

Provisional Democratic Government

NOF partisans

1947 1947 Paraguayan Civil War (1947) Paraguayan Government
Military of Paraguay
Colorado Party
Liberal Party
PRF
PCP
1947 1948 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947  India  Pakistan
Tribal militias
Furqan Force
1947 1948 Malagasy Uprising  France Malagasy rebels
1947 1948 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine Jews of Palestine Arabs of Palestine
1948 1950 Pre-Korean War insurgency[1]  South Korea
1948 1949 1948 Arab–Israeli War  Israel  Egypt
 Iraq
 Transjordan
Syria
HWA
ALA
 Lebanon
1948 1948 Costa Rican Civil War National Liberation Army Government of Costa Rica
1948 Ongoing Internal conflict in Burma Union government (1948–1962)

Military governments (1962–2011)

Burma Current government (since 2011)

DKBA (1994–2010)

Anti-government factions:

KNU (since 1949)

Mujahideen
Communist Party (1948–1988)

MNDAA (since 1989)
NDAA (since 1989)
SSA (since 1988)

SSNA (1995–2005) WNA (1975–1988)
UWSP (since 1988)

KIO (since 1961)

PNO (1949–1991)
MTA (1985-1996)
God's Army (1997–2006)
ABSDF (Since 1980s-)
SSVF (1967–1980)
Supported by:
ROC (1948–1980s)
 Thailand
 United States
China PRC

1948 1960 Malayan Emergency  United Kingdom
 Australia
 New Zealand
Federation of Malaya
 Southern Rhodesia
 Fiji
King's African Rifles
Nepali Gurkhas
CPM
MRLA
1948 1948 Operation Polo  India Royal State of Hyderabad
1949 1949 Palace Rebellion  Thailand Supporters of Pridi Phanomyong

1950–1959[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1950 1950 Battle of Chamdo  People's Republic of China  Tibet
1950 1953[2] Korean War
1950 1958 Kuomintang Islamic insurgency  People's Republic of China  Republic of China
1951 1951 Manhattan Rebellion  Thailand Rebel naval units
1952 1960 Mau Mau Uprising  United Kingdom Mau Mau
1953 1959 Cuban Revolution 26th of July Movement Batista Government
1953 1975 Laotian Civil War Pathet Lao
 North Vietnam
 Kingdom of Laos
 United States
 Thailand
 South Vietnam
1954 1959 Jebel Akhdar War Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
  • Ibriyin tribe
Imamate of Oman
1954 1962 Algerian War FLN
MNA
PCA
 France
OAS
FAF
1955 1972 First Sudanese Civil War SSLM
AZL
Anyanya
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Republic of the Sudan
Democratic Republic of the Sudan
1955 1975 Vietnam War North Vietnam
FNL
Khmer Rouge
Khmer Issarak
Pathet Lao
 North Korea
 South Vietnam
 United States
 South Korea
 Thailand
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Kingdom of Laos
 Khmer Republic
 Turkey (Medical Support)
1956 1956 Hungarian Revolution of 1956  Soviet Union
State Protection Authority
Hungarian revolutionaries
1956 1956 Suez Crisis  Israel[5]
 United Kingdom
France
Egypt[6]
1957 1958 Ifni War  Spain
 France
 Morocco
1958 1958 14 July Revolution Iraq Free Officers Arab Federation Arab Federation
1958 1959 North Vietnamese invasion of Laos
Part of the Vietnam War and the Laotian Civil War
 North Vietnam  Kingdom of Laos
1958 1961 Permesta  Indonesia Permesta rebels
1959 1959 1959 Mosul uprising Iraq Iraq United Arab Republic Arab nationalist rebels
1959 1959 1959 Tibetan uprising  People's Republic of China  Tibet

Chushi Gangdruk

1959 1965 Escambray Rebellion  Cuba Anti-communist guerrillas
1959 2011 Basque conflict  Spain
GAL
AAA
BVE
 France
ETA
Basque National Liberation Movement
ETA (pm)
Iparretarrak

1960–1969[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1960 1961 Campaign at the China–Burma Border  People's Republic of China
 Burma
National Revolutionary Army
1960 1965 Congo Crisis 1960–63:

Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo

Supported by:
 Soviet Union (1960)

1964-65:
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Supported by:
 United States
 Belgium

1960–63:

 Katanga
 South Kasai

Supported by:
 Belgium
 France
 Union of South Africa
 Rhodesia
1960–62:
Democratic Republic of the Congo Stanleyville government
1964–65:
Simba and Kwilu rebels

Supported by:
1960 1996 Guatemalan Civil War Guatemalan military URNG
1960 Ongoing South Thailand insurgency  Thailand National Revolution Front (BRN)
Runda Kumpulan Kecil (RKK)
Pattani Islamic Mujahideen Movement (GMIP)
United Mujahideen Front of Pattani (BBMP)
Islamic Front for the Liberation of Pattani (BIPP)
Patani United Liberation Organisation (PULO)
Jemaah Islamiyah (JI)
BNPP
1961 1990 Nicaraguan Revolution FSLN Contras
Somoza government
1961 1970 First Iraqi–Kurdish War KDP Republic of Iraq
Syrian Arab Republic
1961 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion  Cuba  United States
Cuban exiles
1961 1961 Bizerte crisis  France  Tunisia
1961 1962 Operation Trikora  Indonesia  Netherlands
1961 1991 Eritrean War of Independence EPLF
ELF
Ethiopia
 Cuba
 Soviet Union
 South Yemen
1961 1961 Indian annexation of Goa  India  Portugal
1961 1975 Angolan War of Independence
Part of the Portuguese Colonial War
FNLA
UNITA
MPLA
FLEC
 Portugal
 South Africa
1962 1964 Tuareg rebellion (1962–64)  Mali Tuareg guerrillas
1962 1970 North Yemen Civil War  Yemen Arab Republic
 Egypt (until 1967)
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
Supported by:
 Saudi Arabia
 Jordan
 United Kingdom
1962 1962 Sino-Indian War  China  India
1962 1990 Sarawak Communist Insurgency  United Kingdom
 Malaysia
North Kalimantan Communist Party
1962 1976 Dhofar Rebellion  Oman
Iran
 United Kingdom
 Jordan
DLF (1962–1968)
PFLOAG (1968–1974)
NDFLOAG (1969–1971)
PFLO (1974–1976)
1963 1963 Sand War  Morocco  Algeria
1963 1963 Ramadan Revolution Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party Iraq Iraq
Iraqi Communist Party
1963 1963 November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état Iraq Nasserist rebels Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
1963 1963 1963 Syrian coup d'état Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region Syria Syria
1963 1966 Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation  Malaysia
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Indonesia
1963 1967 Shifta War  Kenya Northern Frontier District Liberation Movement
 Somalia
1963 1974 Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
Part of the Portuguese Colonial War
PAIGC  Portugal
1963 1967 Aden Emergency NLF
FLOSY
 United Kingdom
Federation of South Arabia Federation of South Arabia
1964 1979 Rhodesian Bush War ZANU
FRELIMO
ZAPU
MK
 Rhodesia
 Zimbabwe Rhodesia
1964 Ongoing Colombian conflict (1964–present)  Colombia FARC
ELN
EPL
IRAFP
M-19
MOEC
MAQL
ERC
GRA
PRT
1964 1974 Mozambican War of Independence
Part of the Portuguese Colonial War
FRELIMO  Portugal
1964 Ongoing Insurgency in Northeast India  India In nagaland.png NSCN
PREPAK
Ulfa logo.svg ULFA
In tpdf.gif ATTF
1964 1964 Zanzibar Revolution Afro-Shirazi Party
Umma Party
 Sultanate of Zanzibar
1965 1965 Dominican Civil War (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center
(SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service
 United States
(IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force
Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists
PRD partisans
1965 1966 American occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66)  United States
Inter-American Peace Force:
Brazil
 Honduras
 Paraguay
 Nicaragua
 Costa Rica
 El Salvador
 Dominican Republic
1965 1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965  India[7][8][9]  Pakistan
1965 1983 Communist insurgency in Thailand  Thailand Communist party of Thailand
1965 1979 Chadian Civil War (1965–79) Flag of Frolinat.svg FROLINAT
Chad GUNT
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya
 Chad
 France
1966 1969 Korean DMZ Conflict (1966–69) South Korea
 United States
 North Korea
1966 1967 Ñancahuazú Guerrilla War  Bolivia
 United States
Ejército de Liberación Nacional
1966 1989 South African Border War  Angola
 Cuba
SWAPO
 Zambia
Umkhonto we Sizwe
 South Africa
UNITA
1966 1990 Namibian War of Independence
Part of the South African Border War
SWAPO  South Africa
1967 1967 Six-Day War  Israel  Egypt
 Syria
 Jordan
Arab Expeditionary Forces:
Iraq
 Saudi Arabia
 Morocco
 Algeria
 Libya
 Kuwait
 Tunisia
Sudan
 PLO
1967 2014 1967 Spanish Emporium wars on Portuguese Africa Spain Spain Africans: Guinea and Western Sahara
1967 1968 1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran Iran Iran Kurdish tribeman
1967 1974 Araguaia Guerrilla War Brazil Brazilian military government PCdoB.gif Communist Party of Brazil
1967 1975 Cambodian Civil War National United Front of Kampuchea
Khmer Rouge
 North Vietnam
Viet Cong
 Khmer Republic
 United States
 South Vietnam
1967 1970 Nigerian Civil War  Nigeria  Biafra
1967 1970 War of Attrition  Israel  Egypt
 Soviet Union
 Cuba
PLO
 Jordan
 Syria
1967 Ongoing Naxalite–Maoist insurgency  India Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Naxalbari

Communist Party of United States of India
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) New Democracy
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) (Mahadev Mukherjee)
Centre of Indian Communists (until 1977)
People's Liberation Army of Manipur
Tamil Nadu Liberation Army
Purbo Banglar Communist Party

1968 1989 Communist Insurgency War  Malaysia
 Thailand
Malayan Communist Party
1968 1998 The Troubles  United Kingdom PIRA
1968 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union
People's Republic of Bulgaria
 East Germany
People's Republic of Hungary
People's Republic of Poland
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
1969 Ongoing Civil conflict in the Philippines Philippines Philippines
Support:
 United States
 Australia
Indonesia Government of Indonesia
Malaysia Government of Malaysia
Communists:
Communist Party of Vietnam flag.svg Communist Party

Moro people:

Islamists:

1969 Ongoing Insurgency of the Communist Party of the Philippines Philippines Philippines
 United States[10]
Anti-communist militia
Communist Party of Vietnam flag.svg CPP
* NPA
Hukbalahap flag.svg MLPP- RHB [11]
Hukbalahap flag.svg APP [11]
Hukbalahap flag.svg RPA [11]
Hukbalahap flag.svg ABB [11]
Hukbalahap flag.svg CPLA [11]


Support:
 People's Republic of China (1969–1976)[12]
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1980s–2011)[13][14]
 North Korea (Alleged)[15]
 Vietnam (1980s)[16]

1969 2014 Moro insurgency in the Philippines
1969 1969 Football War  El Salvador  Honduras
1969 1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict  Soviet Union  China
1969 Ongoing Papua conflict  Indonesia

1970–1979[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1970 1971 Black September in Jordan  Jordan  PLO
 Syria
1971 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War Provisional Government of Bangladesh
 India
 Pakistan
1971 1972 1971 Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna Insurrection  Ceylon JVP
1971 1971 Indo-Pakistani War of 1971  India[17][18][19]  Pakistan
1972 1974 First Eritrean Civil War EPLF ELF
1973 1973 Yom Kippur War  Israel  Egypt
 Syria
Combat support:
1974 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus  Turkey  Cyprus
 Greece
1974 1991 Ethiopian Civil War EPRP
TPLF
MEISON
ANDM
EDUP
OLF
ONLF
WSLF
ALF
Ethiopian government
 Cuba
 East Germany
 Soviet Union
 North Korea
 Libya
1974 1975 Second Iraqi–Kurdish War Ba'athist Iraq KDP
1975 2002 Angolan Civil War MPLA
 Cuba
 Soviet Union
 East Germany
SWAPO
MK
 Vietnam
 Portugal
FNLA
UNITA
 South Africa
FLEC
 Zaire
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg United States
 China
1975 Ongoing Cabinda War  Angola
 Cuba
 East Germany
 Soviet Union
FLEC
1975 1991 Western Sahara War  Morocco
 Mauritania (1975–1979)
 France (1977–1978)
Polisario Front
 Algeria (1976)
1975 1979 PUK insurgency  Iraq PUK
KDP
1975 1990 Lebanese Civil War  Syria
PLA
ADF
LNM (until 1982)
LNRF (from 1982)
Amal
LCP
SSNP
 PLO (1978–1983)
Hezbollah
LF
 Syria (until 1976)
Tigers Militia
ALZ
 Israel (1982)
SLA
 United States
 France
 Italy
1975 1989 Cambodian–Vietnamese War  Vietnam
FUNSK
Democratic Kampuchea
 Thailand
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg United States
1975 2007 Insurgency in Laos  Laos
 Vietnam
Hmong insurgents
 United States
1975 1975 Indonesian invasion of East Timor  Indonesia FRETILIN / Falintil
1976 1983 Dirty War  Argentina Montoneros
ERP
1976 2005 Insurgency in Aceh  Indonesia Free Aceh Movement
1977 1992 Mozambican Civil War FRELIMO RENAMO
1977 1977 Libyan–Egyptian War  Egypt  Libya
1977 1978 Ethio-Somali War Ethiopia
 Cuba
South Yemen
 Soviet Union
 Somalia
1977 1997 Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict  Bangladesh Flag of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Shanti Bahini.svg Shanti Bahini
1977 1977 Shaba I  Zaire
 Morocco
 Egypt
 France
State of Katanga FNLC
1978 1978 Shaba II  Zaire
 France
 Belgium
 United States
State of Katanga FNLC
1978 1978 1978 South Lebanon conflict  Israel
SLA
 PLO
1978 1979 Uganda–Tanzania War  Tanzania
UNLA
 Mozambique
 Uganda
 Libya
 PLO
1978 1987 Chadian–Libyan conflict CAF
 France
FAN
FANT
 Libya
FROLINAT
GUNT
1978 Ongoing Turkey–PKK conflict  Turkey
KDP
PUK
PKK
KCK
PJAK
KDP/North
1978 1982 NDF Rebellion  North Yemen NDF
1979 1979 Grand Mosque seizure  Saudi Arabia al-Ikhwan
1979 1979 1979 Herat uprising Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Army mutineers
1979 1979 Yemenite War of 1979  North Yemen  South Yemen
NDF
1979 1979 1979 Khuzestan uprising  Iran APCO

DRFLA
PFLA
AFLA

1979 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War  Vietnam  China
1979 1990 Sino-Vietnamese conflicts 1979–90  Vietnam  China
1979 1982 Islamist uprising in Syria  Syria Flag of the Muslim Brotherhood.gif Muslim Brotherhood of Syria
1979 1983 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran  Iran KDP-I
1979 1988 Al-Ansar Insurgency  Iraq Iraqi Communist Party
1979 1989 Soviet war in Afghanistan Peshawar Seven
Tehran Eight
AMFFF
 Soviet Union
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1979 1992 Salvadoran Civil War Salvadoran government FMLN
RN

1980–1989[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
1980 Ongoing Internal conflict in Peru  Peru
Rondas Campesinas
Shining Path
Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
1980 1988 Iran–Iraq War  Iraq
MEK
 Iran
1980 1981 Second Eritrean Civil War Eritrean People's Liberation Front Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961).svg Eritrean Liberation Front
1981 1981 Paquisha War  Peru  Ecuador
1981 1981 1981 Entumbane Uprising  Zimbabwe Zimbabwe African People's Union flag.png ZIPRA
1981 1986 Ugandan Bush War National Resistance Army Uganda National Liberation Army
1982 2014 Casamance conflict  Senegal
 Gambia
 Guinea-Bissau
Casamance Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance
1982 1982 Falklands War  United Kingdom
 Falkland Islands
 Argentina
1982 1982 Ndogboyosoi War  Sierra Leone SLPP
1982 1985 1982 Lebanon War  Israel
Lebanese Front
SLA
 PLO
 Syria
LNRF
1982 1982 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War  Somalia  Ethiopia
Somali Salvation Democratic Front
1983 1983 Invasion of Grenada  United States
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Barbados
 Dominica
 Jamaica
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Grenada
 Cuba
1983 2009 Sri Lankan Civil War  Sri Lanka
India (1987–1990)
Tamil Tigers
1983 2005 Second Sudanese Civil War SPLA
SPLA-Nasir
SSLM
Anyanya II
Eastern Coalition
Sudan
SSDF
Janjaweed
LRA
1983 1985 Kurdish rebellion of 1983
Part of the Iran–Iraq War
Iraq Kurdistan Democratic Party KDP
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan PUK
1984 1987 Siachen conflict  India[24][25][26]  Pakistan
1985 1985 Agacher Strip War  Mali  Burkina Faso
1986 1986 South Yemen Civil War People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Abdul Fattah Ismail's faction People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Ali Nasir Muhammad's faction
1986 1992 Suriname Guerrilla War  Suriname Junglecommando
1986 1989 Tucayana Amazonas Insurgency  Suriname Tucayana Amazonas
1987 1987 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish  India  China
1987 1988 Thai–Laotian Border War  Laos
 Vietnam
 Thailand
1987 Ongoing Lord's Resistance Army insurgency  Uganda
 South Sudan
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
United Nations MONUC
 Central African Republic
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army.svg Lord's Resistance Army
1988 1998 Bougainville Civil War Autonomous Region of Bougainville Bougainville Revolutionary Army  Papua New Guinea
1988 1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War  Nagorno-Karabakh
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
1989 1991 Mauritania–Senegal Border War  Mauritania  Senegal
1989 1990 United States invasion of Panama  United States  Panama
1989 1992 Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–92) Mujahideen Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1989 1989 Romanian Revolution of 1989 Anti-Ceauşescu protestors
Romanian Army
Dissident members of the Communist Party
Socialist Republic of Romania
Securitate and other loyalist forces
1989 1996 First Liberian Civil War National Patriotic Front of Liberia Armed Forces of Liberia
ULIMO
 United Nations
Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia
1989 1996 KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Iran Government of Iran KDP-I
1989 Ongoing Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir  India Flag of Jihad.svg Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami
Flag of Jihad.svg Lashkar-e-Taiba

Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Jaish-e-Mohammed
Flag of Jihad.svg Hizbul Mujahideen
Harakat flag.png Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Al-badr flag.png Al-Badr
Kashmir independent.svg Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frank, R.B.; Clark, W.K. (2007). MacArthur: A Biography. St. Martin's Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780230610767. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  2. ^ US State Department statement regarding "Korea: Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission" and the Armistice Agreement "which ended the Korean War."
  3. ^ "Cinnost CSLA za valky v Koreji... | Ross Hedvicek ... Nastenka AgitProp" (in Czech). Hedvicek.blog.cz. 27 July 1953. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "Romania's "Fraternal Support" to North Korea during the Korean War, 1950–1953". Wilson Centre. Retrieved 24 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Israel Routs Egypt"
  6. ^ "Nasser lost the war in military terms"
  7. ^ "Pakistan :: The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965". Library of Congress Country Studies, United States of America. April 1994. Retrieved 2 October 2010. 
  8. ^ Silent Guns, Wary Combatants, 1 October 1965, TIME Magazine
  9. ^ Hagerty, Devin. South Asia in world politics. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. ISBN 0-7425-2587-2. 
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference AcEh was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference TouL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ "Philippines (New Peoples Army) (1972– )" (PDF). Political Economy Research Institute. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  13. ^ "Libyan terrorism: the case against Gaddafi.". thefreelibrary.com. 
  14. ^ "WikiLeaks cable: Gaddafi funded, trained CPP-NPA rebels". Wikileaks. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "1990 Global Terrorism: State-Sponsored Terrorism". fas.org. 
  16. ^ Paul J. Smith (September 21, 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3. 
  17. ^ Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war and emergence of independent Bangladesh dramatically transformed the power balance of South Asia 
  18. ^ Kemp, Geoffrey (2010). The East Moves West India, China, and Asia's Growing Presence in the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8157-0388-4. However, India's decisive victory over Pakistan in 1971 led the Shah to pursue closer relations with India 
  19. ^ Byman, Daniel (2005). Deadly connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-521-83973-0. India's decisive victory in 1971 led to the signing of the Simla Agreement in 1972 
  20. ^ Shazly, p. 278.
  21. ^ Perez, Cuba, Between Reform and Revolution, pp. 377–379.
  22. ^ Gott, Cuba, A New History, p. 280.
  23. ^ Mahjoub Tobji (2006). Les officiers de Sa Majesté: Les dérives des généraux marocains 1956-2006. 107: Fayard. ISBN 978-2213630151. 
  24. ^ Kapur, S. Paul (Stanford University Press). Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia. Stanford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0804755504.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ "The Himalayas War at the Top Of the World". Time. July 31, 1989. 
  26. ^ Pervez Musharraf (2006). In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8344-9. (pp. 68–69)