List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. The list covers the name of the event, location and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
There is often large uncertainty about the number of deaths. The tables are initially sorted by the geometric mean, meaning the square root of the product of the lowest and highest estimate. For example, .
Wars and armed conflicts
This section lists all wars in which the highest estimated casualties exceed 100,000, this includes deaths of both soldiers, civilians, etc from causes both directly and indirectly caused by the war, which includes combat, disease, famine, massacres, suicide, and genocide.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes, see also|
|World War II||60,000,000||120,000,000||85,000,000||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years and 1 day||See also: World War II casualties.|
|Mongol conquests||20,000,000||57,000,000||41,352,146||Eurasia||1206||1405||199 years||The Mongol invasions/conquests were not a single war, but a series of wars fought by the Mongols over a span of two centuries. See: Destruction under the Mongol Empire|
|Taiping Rebellion||10,000,000||100,000,000||31,622,777||China||1850||1864||14 years||A civil war in China. See also: Qing dynasty, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom|
|Transition from Ming to Qing||25,000,000||25,000,000||25,000,000||China||1618||1683||65 years||Civil war. See also: Qing dynasty|
|Second Sino-Japanese War||20,000,000||25,000,000||22,360,680||China||1937||1945||8 years||Part of World War II|
|An Lushan Rebellion||13,020,000||36,000,000||21,633,308||China||755||763||8 years||A civil war in Ancient China. Also known as the An–Shi rebellion.|
|World War I||17,500,000||40,000,000+||23,568,559||Worldwide||1914||1918||4 years, 3 months, 1 week|
|Conquests of Timur||8,000,000
||12,649,111||Central Asia, Middle East and South Asia||1370||1405||35 years||Deaths due to Timur's conquests were primarily massacres. Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.|
|Dungan Revolt||8,000,000||12,000,000||9,797,959||Qing dynasty||1862||1877||15 years||Civil war in China. See also: Qing dynasty|
|Chinese Civil War||8,000,000||11,692,000||9,671,401||China||1927||1949||22 years|
|Reconquista||7,000,000||7,000,000||7,000,000||Iberian Peninsula||711||1492||781 years||Note: cannot be considered a single war|
|Russian Civil War||5,000,000
||9,000,000||6,708,204||Russia||1917||1921||5 years||See also: Russian Revolution, List of civil wars|
|Thirty Years' War||3,000,000||11,500,000
||5,873,670||Holy Roman Empire, Europe||1618||1648||30 years||Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, it became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.|
|Mughal–Maratha Wars||5,600,000||5,600,000||5,600,000||India||1680||1707||27 years|
|Napoleonic Wars||3,500,000||7,000,000||4,949,747||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1803||1815||13 years||See also: Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|Yellow Turban Rebellion||3,000,000||7,000,000||4,582,576||China||184||205||22 years||Part of the Three Kingdoms War|
|Second Congo War||2,500,000||5,400,000||3,674,235||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||6 years|
|Korean War||1,500,000||4,500,000||2,598,076||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||4 years||Part of the Cold War.|
|French Wars of Religion||2,000,000||4,000,000
||2,828,427||France||1562||1598||37 years||Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants).|
|Hundred Years' War||2,300,000||3,300,000||2,754,995||Western Europe||1337||1453||116 years||Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–1453)|
|Vietnam War||966,000||3,800,000||2,383,000||Southeast Asia||1955||1975||21 years||Cold War and First Indochina War|
||2,000,000||Holy Land, Europe||1095||1291||196 years||Christian military excursions in the Middle East.|
|Nigerian Civil War||1,000,000||3,000,000
||2,000,000||Nigeria||1966||1970||4 years||Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.|
|Mfecane||1,500,000||2,000,000||1,750,000||Southern Africa||1816||1828||13 years||Ndwandwe–Zulu War|
|Punic Wars||1,250,000||1,850,000||1,520,691||Mediterranean||264 BC||146 BC||118 years||See also: Carthage, Roman Republic|
|Second Sudanese Civil War||1,000,000||2,000,000||1,414,214||Sudan||1983||2005||23 years||First Sudanese Civil War|
|Qin's wars of unification||2,000,000||2,000,000||2,000,000||China||230 BC||221 BC||9 years||See also: History of China|
|Seven Years' War||868,000||1,400,000||1,102,361||Worldwide||1756||1763||7 years|
|Indian Rebellion of 1857||800,000||3,000,000||2,828,427||India||1857||1858||1 year|
||1,095,445||Afghanistan||1980||1988||9 years||Part of the War in Afghanistan. Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.|
|Japanese invasions of Korea||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Korea||1592||1598||7 years|
|French Revolutionary Wars||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Worldwide||1792||1802||10 years|
|Deaths of Indians after the 1857 Indian Rebellion||100,000||10,000,000||1,000,000||India||1857||1867||10 years||Between "hundreds of thousands" and 10,000,000 Indians died during the 10 years after the 1857 Indian Rebellion. Sources disagree whether migration or other factors are responsible for the depopulation seen, though many were killed in reprisals.|
|Mexican Revolution||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Mexico, United States||1911||1920||10 years||Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.|
|Italian conquest of the Horn of Africa||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Horn of Africa||1924||1940||16 years|
|Wars of the Three Kingdoms||876,000||876,000||876,000||British Isles||1639||1651||12 years|
|Conquests of Mehmed the Conqueror||873,000||873,000||873,000||Eastern Europe||1451||1481||30 years|
|Ethiopian Civil War||500,000||1,500,000||866,025||Ethiopia||1974||1991||17 years|
|Jewish–Roman wars||350,000||2,000,000||836,660||Roman Empire||66||136||70 years||See also: Roman Empire|
|American Civil War||650,000||1,000,000||800,000||Southeastern United States and Pennsylvania||1861||1865||4 years||See also: United States|
|Bangladesh Liberation War||200,000||3,000,000||774,596||East Pakistan||1971||1971||1 year||See also: 1971 Bangladesh genocide|
|Algerian War||350,000||1,500,000||724,569||Algeria||1954||1962||7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks, and 4 days|||
|War of the Spanish Succession||400,000||1,251,000||707,389||Europe, North America, South America||1702||1714||12 years|
|Spanish Civil War||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Spain||1936||1939||4 years|
|Eighty Years' War||230,000||2,000,000||678,233||The Low Countries, South America, Caribbean Sea, East and Southeast Asia||1568||1648||80 years|
||1,000,000||632,445||France||58 BC||50 BC||9 years||See also: Roman Empire|
|Spanish American wars of independence||600,000||600,000||600,000||Americas||1808||1833||25 years|
|Paraguayan War||300,000||1,200,000||600,000||Southern Cone||1864||1870||7 years||Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias|
|Iran–Iraq War||289,220||1,100,000||564,041||Iran–Iraq border||1980||1988||8 years||Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians|
|French invasion of Russia||540,000||540,000||540,000||Russia||1812||1812||5 months, 2 weeks and 6 days||Part of the Napoleonic Wars|
|Syrian civil war||500,000||570,000||535,000||Syria||2011||Present||10 years|
|English Civil War||356,000||735,000||511,527||England||1642||1651||9 years||Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms|
|Angolan Civil War||504,158||504,158||504,158||Angola||1975||2002||27 years|
|First Sudanese Civil War||500,000||500,000||500,000||Sudan||1955||1972||17 years|
|War on Terror||480,000||507,000||493,500||Worldwide||2001||Present||years||Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–2021), and War in North-West Pakistan.|
|Albigensian Crusade||200,000||1,000,000||447,214||Southern France||1208||1229||21 years|
|First Congo War||250,000||800,000||447,214||Zaire||1996||1997||1 year|
|Maratha invasions of Bengal||400,000||400,000||400,000||India||1741||1751||10 years|
|First Indochina War||400,000||400,000||400,000||Southeast Asia||1946||1954||8 years||Also known as the Indochina War|
|Continuation War||387,333||387,333||387,333||Northern Europe||1941||1944||3 years||Part of World War II|
|Somali Civil War||300,000||500,000||387,298||Somalia||1986||Present||35 years|
|Crimean War||356,000||410,000||382,047||Crimea||1853||1856||3 years|
|Iraq War||268,000||461,000||364,500||Iraq||2003||2011||8 years||Part of the War on Terror. See also: Casualties of the Iraq War|
|Cuban War of Independence||362,000||362,000||362,000||Cuba||1895||1898||3 years|
|Great Northern War||350,000||350,000||350,000||Northern and Eastern Europe||1700||1721||21 years|
|Italian Wars||300,000||400,000||346,410||Southern Europe||1494||1559||65 years||Also known as the Great Wars of Italy|
|French conquest of Algeria||300,000||300,000||300,000||Algeria||1829||1847||18 years|
|Burundian Civil War||300,000||300,000||300,000||Burundi||1993||2005||12 years|
|War in Darfur||178,258||461,520||286,827||Sudan||2003||Present||18 years|
|Second Italo-Ethiopian War||278,350||278,350||278,350||Ethiopia||1935||1936||1 year||Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War|
|Papua conflict||150,000||400,000||244,949||New Guinea||1963||Present||58 years|
|Ten Years' War||241,000||241,000||241,000||Cuba||1868||1878||10 years||Also known as the Great War|
|Philippine–American War||234,000||234,000||234,000||Philippines||1899||1912||13 years||Also known as the Philippine War|
|Yemeni Civil War (2014–present)||233,000+||233,000+||233,000+||Yemen||2014||Present||6 years|
|Venezuelan War of Independence||228,000||228,000||228,000||Venezuela||1810||1823||13 years||Part of the Spanish American wars of independence|
|Ugandan Bush War||100,000||500,000||223,607||Uganda||1981||1986||5 years||Also known as the Luwero War|
|Lord's Resistance Army insurgency||100,000||500,000||223,607||Central Africa||1987||Present||34 years|
|Franco-Dutch War||220,000||220,000||220,000||Western Europe||1672||1678||6 years||Also known as the Dutch War|
|Colombian conflict||220,000||220,000||220,000||Colombia||1964||Present||57 years|
|Iraqi–Kurdish conflict||138,800||320,100||210,784||Iraq||1918||2003||85 years|
|Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent||200,000||200,000||200,000||Eastern Europe, Middle East and North Africa||1521||1566||25 years|
|Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)||200,000||200,000||200,000||Western Europe||1635||1659||24 years|
|Carlist Wars||200,000||200,000||200,000||Spain||1820||1876||56 years|
|La Violencia||192,700||194,700||193,697||Colombia||1948||1958||10 years|
|Internal conflict in Myanmar||130,000||250,000||180,278||Myanmar||1948||Present||73 years|
|Winter War||153,736||194,837||173,071||Finland||1939||1940||1 year||Part of World War II|
|Greek Civil War||158,000||158,000||158,000||Greece||1946||1949||3 years|
|North Yemen Civil War||100,000||200,000||141,421||Yemen||1962||1970||8 years|
|1991 Iraqi uprisings in Iraq||85,000||235,000||141,333||Iraq||1991||1991||1 month and 4 days|
|Balkan Wars||140,000||140,000||140,000||Balkans||1912||1913||1 year|
|Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)||138,285||138,285||138,285||Europe and Americas||1585||1604||19 years|
|Saint-Domingue Expedition||135,000||135,000||135,000||Haiti||1802||1803||1 year|
|Yugoslav Wars||130,000||140,000||134,907||Balkans||1991||2001||10 years|
|Lebanese Civil War||120,000||150,000||134,164||Lebanon||1975||1990||15 years|
|Sierra Leone Civil War||50,000||300,000||122,474||Sierra Leone||1991||2002||11 years|
|Kalinga War||150,000||200,000||173,250||India||262 BC||261 BC||2 years|
|Great Turkish War||120,000||120,000||120,000||Eastern Europe||1683||1699||16 years||Also known as the War of the Holy League|
|Thousand Days' War||120,000||120,000||120,000||Colombia||1899||1902||3 years|
|Moro conflict||120,000||120,000||120,000||Philippines||1969||Present||52 years|
|Arab–Israeli conflict||116,074||116,074||116,074||Middle East||1948||Present||73 years|
|Mexican drug war||106,800||106,800||106,800||Mexico||2006||Present||15 years||Also known as the Mexican War on Drugs|
|Aceh War||97,000||107,000||101,877||Indonesia||1873||1914||41 years||Also known as the Infidel War|
|Bosnian War||97,214||104,732||100,903||Bosnia and Herzegovina||1991||1995||4 years||Part of the Yugoslav Wars|
|Deaths of Hindus by Muhammad of Ghor||100,000||100,000||100,000||India||1173||1202||29 years||This is mentioned by Persian historian Hasan Nizami in his Taj-ul-Ma'sir.|
|German Peasants' War||100,000||100,000||100,000||Germany||1524||1525||1 year||Also known as the Great Peasants' War|
|Kurdish rebellions in Turkey||100,000||100,000||100,000||Middle East||1921||Present||100 years|
|Congo Crisis||100,000||100,000||100,000||Republic of the Congo||1960||1965||5 years|
|Insurgency in Laos||100,000||100,000||100,000||Laos||1975||2007||32 years|
|Kivu conflict||100,000||100,000||100,000||Democratic Republic of the Congo||2004||Present||17 years||Part of the Second Congo War|
|Annexation of Hyderabad||100,000||500,000||100,000||India||1948||1948||5 days||Also known as Operation Polo|
|Kashmir conflict||80,000||110,000||93,808||North India, Pakistan||1947||Present||74 years|
|Algerian Civil War||44,000||200,000||93,808||Algeria||1991||2002||11 years|
|Angolan War of Independence||82,991||102,991||92,452||Angola||1961||1974||13 years|
|Sri Lankan Civil War||80,000||100,000||89,443||Sri Lanka||1983||2009||26 years|
War crimes, massacres and ancient war atrocities
This section lists non-combatant deaths during wars that were committed or caused by military or quasi-military forces. They may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political groups but are usually part of a military strategy that disregards civilian lives, or they may be arbitrary acts of cruelty.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|War crimes during World War II||29,000,000||30,500,000||29,074,054||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years||See also: World War II casualties.|
|Japanese war crimes||3,000,000 (lowest estimate to include soldier deaths, famine or disease caused by Japanese imperialism)||14,000,000+||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1931||1945||14 years||Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. If total casualties for these conflicts are assigned exclusively to Japanese aggression, the toll could reach some 30 million deaths. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust and Japanese war atrocities. Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.|
|Three Alls Policy||2,700,000||2,700,000||2,700,000||China||1940||1942||2 years||In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched-earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.|
|War crimes during the Chinese Civil War||1,800,000||3,500,000||2,509,980||China||1927||1950||23 years||During the war, both Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.|
|War crimes during the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars||2,000,000||2,000,000||2,000,000||Sudan||1956||2005||49 years|||
|War crimes during the Soviet–Afghan War||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Afghanistan||1979||1989||10 years||Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet invasion as a genocide; however, those killed were on the basis of political alignment, making it a politicide.|
|War crimes of Zhang Xianzhong||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Sichuan, China||1644||1646||2 years||Committed during a bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.|
|War crimes during Warlord Era China||910,000||910,000||910,000||China||1900||1927||27 years|||
|War crimes during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War||62,000
||173,407||Ethiopia||1935||1941||6 years||Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War 1935–1941 (1965), cites a 1945 memorandum from Ethiopia to the Conference of Prime Ministers, which tallies 760,300 natives dead; of them: battle deaths: 275,000, hunger among refugees: 300,000, patriots killed during occupation: 78,500, concentration camps: 35,000, February 1937 massacre: 30,000, executions: 24,000, civilians killed by air force: 17,800.|
|Mongol sacking after the Siege of Baghdad (1258)||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||Baghdad||January 29, 1258||February 10, 1258||12 days||Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age".|
|Biological warfare and human experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II||400,000||580,000||481,664||Parts of Russia and China, especially Manchuria||1931||1945||14 years||See also: Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust.|
|War crimes during the Maratha invasions of Bengal||400,000||400,000||400,000||Bengal and Bihar regions of Indian subcontinent||1741||1751||10 years||Maratha Empire invaded Bengal Subah, occupied the western Bengal and Bihar regions, and perpetrated atrocities against the local population.|
|War crimes during La Violencia||200,000||300,000||244,949||Colombia||1948||1958||10 years||
La Violencia was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948 to 1958, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside. Death toll may include non-civilian victims.
|Manila Massacre||100,000||500,000||223,607||Manila, Philippines||1945||1945||1 month|||
|War crimes during the Colombian conflict||177,307||177,307||177,307||Colombia||1964||present||54 years|||
|War crimes during the War in the Vendée||100,000||250,000||158,114||France during the French Revolution||1793||1796||3 years||Described as genocide by some historians, but this claim has been widely discounted. See also: French Revolution.|
|War crimes during the First and Second Chechen Wars||55,000||330,000||134,722||Chechnya||1994||2009||15 years|||
|War crimes during the Iran–Iraq War||61,000||282,000||131,156||Iran and Iraq||1980||1988||8 years||11,000 to 100,000 civilians killed on both sides, plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.|
|War crimes committed by South Vietnam during the Diem era and Vietnam War||57,000||284,000||127,232||Vietnam||1954||1975||21 years|||
|War crimes during the Syrian Civil War||106,390||110,218||108,287||Syria||2011||present||7 years||See also: List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War|
|War crimes of the Viet Cong||36,725||227,000||91,305||Vietnam||1955||1975||20 years|
|War crimes during the Second Italo-Senussi War||80,000||125,000||100,000||Libya||1923||1932||9 years||Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children, women, and the elderly; rape and disembowelment of women; throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death, running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, and bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs, beginning in 1930.|
|War crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army||100,000||100,000||100,000||Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo||1986||2009||23 years||The Guardian reported in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.|
|War crimes of the National Islamic Front||100,000||100,000||100,000||Sudan||1964||1999||35 years||Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.|
|War crimes during the Papua conflict||100,000||100,000||100,000||West Papua||1963||present||55 years||Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963, the population of West Papua has recorded more than 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.|
|War crimes during the Kashmir Conflict||47,000||100,000||68,556||Kashmir||1947||present||71 years||See also: Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir|
|The Rape of Nanking||
||Nanking, China||1937||1938||1 year||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. See: Death toll of the Nanking Massacre.|
|War crimes during the Internal conflict in Peru||61,007 [see notes]||77,552[see notes]||68,784[see notes]||Peru||1980||2000||20 years||In the late 20th century, the Peruvian government (armed forces and civil rondas) fought against communist terrorists in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved and other paramilitary entities. Peru's Truth and Reconciliation Commission reached a figure of approx. 68,784 deaths and disappearances, of which 54% were ascribed to Shining Path, 1.5% to Tupac Amaru and 37% to State officials, who were also responsible for 83% of reported cases of sexual violence, and systematic use of torture. An academic research published in 2019 contests the commission's methodology, reaching a total figure of approx. 47,849, of which 27,872 were victims of State officials, 18,341 of the Shining Path, and 1,636 by all other actors.|
|War crimes during the Sheikh Said rebellion||15,000
|Turkey||1925||1925||1 month||The Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System, and used elements of Kurdish nationalism for recruiting. It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers, known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".|
|Violations of Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory||Many tens of thousands||Many tens of thousands||Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Libya, Philippines, Nigeria and sporadic terrorism worldwide||2014||present||7 years||ISIS has existed as an active terrorist organization in one form or another since at least 2003. Many tens of thousands of casualties in the Iraqi wars of the 21st century can be attributed to them and their parent organizations. See also the death tolls from 2014 onwards in International military intervention against ISIL|
|War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War||7,000||20,000||16,733||Sri Lanka||1983||2009||26 years||There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers. See also: Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War|
|Sack of Thessalonica (904)||15,000||15,000||15,000||Byzantine Empire||904||904||?||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed, the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|Use of child soldiers in Iran during the Iran–Iraq War||6,000||18,000||10,392||Iran||1980||1988||8 years||3% of two to six hundred thousand casualties.|
|Massacres during the Algerian Civil War||10,000||10,000||10,000||Algeria||1991||2002||11 years|||
|War crimes during the Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war||6,856||8,651||7,701||Syria||September 2015||present||4 years|| See also: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.|
|War crimes during the Balochistan conflict||7,628||7,628||7,628||Balochistan, Pakistan||1937||present||81 years|||
|September 11 attacks||2,977||2,977||2,977||United States||September 11, 2001||September 11, 2001||1 day|||
|War crimes during the War in Donbas||2,000||2,000||2,000||Donbas, Ukraine||2014||Present||7 years|||
|Sabra and Shatila massacre||460||3,500||1,269||West Beirut, Lebanon||September 16, 1982||September 18, 1982||2 days||Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.|
|Vukovar massacre||260||260||260||Croatia||November 20, 1991||November 20, 1991||1 day||Massacre of Croatian prisoners of war by Serb paramilitaries.|
|Fort Pillow massacre||235||235||235||Lauderdale County, Tennessee||April 12, 1864||April 12, 1864||1 day||Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. U.S. dead includes those both killed in combat and murdered by the Confederates afterwards.|
|Lawrence massacre||204||204||204||Douglas County, Kansas||August 21, 1863||August 21, 1863||1 day||Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. Deadliest terrorist attack in U.S. history until the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995.|
Genocides, ethnic cleansing, religious persecution
This section lists events that entail the mass murder (or death caused by the forced eviction) of individuals on the basis of race, religion, or ethnicity.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas||2,000,000||137,750,000||16,613,248||America||1492||1996||504 years||While the overall toll of man made deaths of Amerindians is unknown, there have been a few known events in which many Amerindians perished.
90% of Amerindians are believed to have died from diseases (smallpox) that were spread both due to natural contact and intentionally. Thousands to millions more killed in forced labor, wars and massacres; Covers both North and South America Unknown number of Apache killed for bounty
|Generalplan Ost (World War II civilian casualties of the Soviet Union)||7,420,135||13,684,448||10,076,728||German-occupied Europe and Russia||1939||1945||6 years||Germany's extermination of civilian citizens of the Soviet Union.
Numbers include Jewish victims and overlap with The Holocaust.
|The Holocaust||4,200,000||7,400,000||5,143,928||German-occupied Europe||1941||1945||4 years||The systematic and bureaucratic genocide of European Jews by Germany, and its collaborators, exterminated approximately 1/3 of the global Jewish population, 2/3 of local European. Most commonly cited figures are between approximately 5.9 to 6.3 million killed.|
|Holodomor||2,711,000||7,811,000||4,601,698||Ukraine||1932||1933||1 year||The term "Ukrainian Genocide" usually refers to the man-made famine of 1932 through 1933, called the Holodomor, in which the grain of Ukrainians was confiscated to the point where they could not survive off the amount of grain they had, and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp.
Data from after the opening of the Soviet archives records deaths at 2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,000 during the purge, and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.
– Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33
|Nazi crimes against the Polish nation||2,770,000||2,770,000||2,770,000||German-occupied Poland||1941||1945||4 years||Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Germany.|
|Three Alls Policy||2,700,000||2,700,000||2,700,000||China||1940||1942||2 years||In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.– Part of the Japanese war crimes|
|Cambodian genocide||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge.
Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.
These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide.
According to Samuel Totten 1,325,000 ethnic Khmers were killed.
|Rwandan and Burundian genocides||905,000||1,595,000||1,234,190||Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire||1959||1997||38 years||Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.
Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.
Violence peaked in the hundred days between April 7, 1994, and July 15, 1994, during which time between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people were killed.
|Population transfer in the Soviet Union||1,124,203||1,912,392||1,466,259||Soviet Union||1920||1951||31 years||May include casualties of decossackization.|
|Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Eastern Europe||1944||1950||6 years||Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.|
|Kazakh famine of 1932–33||1,500,000||2,300,000||1,857,418||Kazakhstan||1932||1933||1 year||– Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33|
|Armenian genocide||800,000||1,700,000||1,100,000||Ottoman Empire||1914||1918||4 years||The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.|
|Persecution of Hazara people during the 1888–1893 Uprisings of Hazaras||400,000||2,500,000||1,000,000||Afghanistan||1888||1893||5 years||Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.|
|Punti–Hakka Clan Wars||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||China||1850||1867||17 years||After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution done during the Taiping Rebellion. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.|
|French conquest of Algeria||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Algeria||1827||1875||48 years||Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people.|
|Partition of India||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||India||1947||1957||10 years||In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.|
|Dzungar genocide||480,000||600,000||536,656||Dzungar Khanate||1755||1758||3 years||The mass extermination of Dzungar Mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.|
|Greek genocide||289,000||750,000||465,564||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||9 years||Violent ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.|
|Circassian genocide||600,000||2,000,000||1,547,214||Russian-occupied Circassia||1864||1867||3 years||90%–97% of total Circassian population killed or deported by the Russian forces.|
||447,214||Languedoc, France||1209||1229||20 years||Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term "genocide", referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".|
|Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil||235,000||800,000||433,590||Brazil||1900||1985||85 years|||
|Occupation of Tibet||144,000||1,200,000||415,692||Tibet||1950||present||68 years||In 1960, the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began.[full citation needed] The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the Soviets, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.[need quotation to verify]|
|Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia||200,000||500,000||350,000||Independent State of Croatia||1941||1945||4 years||Genocide of Serbs by the Ustaše government of the Independent State of Croatia|
|Romani Genocide||220,000||500,000||331,662||Nazi occupied Europe||1941||1945||4 years||The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.|
|1971 Bangladesh genocide||
|3,000,000||279,285||East Pakistan||March 21, 1971||December 16, 1971||8 months, 2 weeks and 3 days||See also: Bangladesh Liberation War, Operation Searchlight, List of massacres in Bangladesh, Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War|
|Chinese genocide under Khmer Rouge||215,000
||225,000||219,943||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.– Part of the Cambodian genocide|
|Assyrian genocide||150,000||300,000||212,132||Ottoman Empire||1914||1920||6 years||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Cham genocide under Khmer Rouge||90,000||500,000||212,132||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves.
According to Ben Kiernan, Cham were subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.
– Part of the Cambodian genocide
|Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War||200,000||220,000||209,762||Zaire||1996||1997||1 year||During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred; however, Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces. The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.|
|Extermination of the Wu Hu||200,000||200,000||200,000||Northern China||350||351||1 year||Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.|
|Cromwellian conquest of Ireland||200,000||200,000||200,000||Ireland||1649||1653||4 years||The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland. The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists. These arguments, in turn, have been challenged by others.|
|Caste War of Yucatán||200,000||200,000||200,000||Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico||1847||1901||54 years||The Caste War of Yucatán against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote, "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon||1915||1918||3 years||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Third Punic War||150,000||250,000||193,649||Tunisia||149 BC||146 BC||3 years||This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.|
|Destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign||87,500||388,100||184,279||Iraq||1977||1991||14 years||87,500 to 388,100 Kurds were killed in the destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign including: 2,500 to 12,500 in the Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq, 10,000 to 25,000[clarification needed] were killed during the Feyli Kurds operation, 5,000 to 8,000 Kurds were disappeared in the
1983 Barzani killings, 50,000 to 100,000 (although Kurdish sources have cited a higher figure of 182,000) more Kurds were massacred in the Anfal genocide, and at least 20,000 were killed during the 1991 Iraqi uprising notwithstanding an additional 48,400 to 140,600 Kurdish refugees that starved to death along the Iranian and Turkish borders.
||Darfur, Sudan||2003||present||15 years||The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.|
|Polish Operation of the NKVD||110,000||250,000||165,831||Soviet Union||1937||1938||1 year||The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.|
|Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush||123,000||200,000||156,843||Soviet Union||February 1944||March 1944||1 month||Expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia.|
|Hamidian massacres||80,000||300,000||154,919||Ottoman Empire||1894||1896||2 years||Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian genocide.|
|Indonesian occupation of East Timor||60,000||308,000||135,941||East Timor||1974||1999||25 years||The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness, resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.|
|Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia||60,000||300,000||134,164||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||1 year||Genocide of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).|
|1972 Genocide of Burundian Hutus||80,000||210,000||129,615||Burundi||1972||1972||?||Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.|
|Pogroms in the Russian Empire||52,000||254,500||115,039||Russian Empire||1903–1906||1917–1922||19 years||The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906 and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.|
|Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey||33,835||357,000||109,905||Turkey||1921||present||97 years||All casualties from the various Kurdish uprisings against the Turkish state.|
|Deportation of the Crimean Tatars||100,000||100,000||100,000||Soviet Union||1944||1945||1 year||Often considered an ethnic cleansing, and Ukraine considers the event genocide.|
|Massacres of European colonists during the rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari||100,000||100,000||100,000||Present day Peru||1780||1782||2 years||The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).|
|Spanish repressions of Dutch Protestants||100,000||100,000||100,000||The Low Countries||1566||1609||43 years||100,000 massacred under Charles V and Philip II during the Eighty Years' War.|
|Al-Anfal genocide||50,000||182,000||95,394||Iraq||1986||1989||3 years||The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein.|
|Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War||50,000||150,000||86,603||Algeria||1962||?||?||The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.|
|Aktion T4||70,273||93,521||81,068||Nazi Germany||1939||1941||2 years||A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.|
|Italian Pacification of Libya||80,000||80,000||80,000||Libya||1923||1932||9 years|||
|Guatemalan genocide||35,000||166,000||76,223||Guatemala||1960||1996||36 years||According to the Historical Clarification Commission, 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared, and at least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War, of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.
– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
|Racial violence during the Rwandan Revolution||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||Burundi and Rwanda||1959||1962||3 years|||
|Annexation of Hyderabad||27,000||200,000||73,485||Hyderabad State, India||1948||1948||5 days|||
|Genocide against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks||50,000||68,000||56,500||Kingdom of Yugoslavia||1941||1945||4 years|||
|Decossackization||5,000||1,000,000||70,711||Former Russian Empire||1917||1933||16 years||Violent class purge, ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolsheviks.|
|Effacer le tableau||60,000||70,000||64,807||Democratic Republic of Congo||1998||2003||5 years||Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.|
|Herero and Namaqua genocide||34,000||110,000||61,156||German South-West Africa||1904||1907||3 years||Genocides of the Herero and Nama peoples by the German Empire during the Herero Wars.|
|Bosnian Genocide and other ethnic cleansings during the Yugoslav Wars||52,856||64,917||58,577||Yugoslavia and successor states||1991||2001||10 years||All civilians killed in the Yugoslav Wars including events such as the Srebrenica massacre, Vukovar massacre, Gospić massacre, and other atrocities.|
|Massacres of Polish civilians during the Warsaw Uprising||50,000||60,000||54,772||Occupied Poland||August 5, 1944||August 12, 1944||1 week||Polish fatalities in districts of Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising|
|1993 ethnic violence in Burundi||50,000||50,000||50,000||Burundi||1993||1993||?||Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.|
|Witch trials in the early modern period||20,000||100,000||44,721||Europe||1400||1800||300 years|||
|British concentration camps during the Second Boer War||26,000||40,000||32,249||Transvaal||1900||1902||2 years||Lord Kitchener led the British army against the Boer Republics in the Second Boer War in Southern Africa. In an attempt to pacify Boer guerrillas, he targeted their families, and 116,000 Boer women and children were captured and jailed by the British, Within 2 years, 22,074 children died and 4,177 women died due to deliberate neglect by the British. 115,000 black people were separately jailed, of whom 15,000 died in prison camps.|
|Foibe Massacres||11,000||3,000||5,744||Istria||1943||1945||3 years||The foibe massacres were mass killings both during and after World War II, mainly committed by Yugoslav Partisans against the local ethnic Italian population, mainly in Venezia Giulia, Istria and Dalmatia. The term refers to the victims who were often thrown alive into foibas (deep natural sinkholes; by extension, it also was applied to the use of mine shafts, etc. to hide the bodies).|
|Great fire of Smyrna||10,000||100,000||31,623||Smyrna, Ottoman Empire||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||15 days||A fire began in Smyrna four days after the Turkish military captured the city on 9 September, effectively ending the Greco-Turkish War, more than three years after the Greek army had landed troops at Smyrna on 15 May 1919. 10,000 to 100,000 Greeks and Armenians died in the fire and accompanying massacres committed by the Turks. The responsibility for the fire is a controversial issue; some sources blame Turks, and some sources blame Greeks or Armenians.|
|Massacres of Kyrgyz people during the Central Asian revolt of 1916||3,000||270,000||28,460||Russian Empire, Kyrgyzstan||1916||1916||7 months||In 1916, there was an uprising and crackdown of Kyrgyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun.|
|Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam||10,000||65,000||25,495||Canara||1784||1799||15 years||A 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.|
|1988 Burundian massacre of Hutus||25,000||25,000||25,000||Burundi||1988||1988||?|| – Part of the Rwandan and Burundian genocides|
|Parsley massacre||17,000||35,000||24,393||Dominican Republic||October 2, 1937||October 8, 1937||6 days||Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil (Spanish: "parsley") in a French accent in order to determine if they are Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.|
|Australian frontier wars||22,000||22,500||22,249||Australia||1788||1934||146 years||Wars between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which killed about 20,000 aboriginal and 2,500 settlers in combat or massacres.See also: List of massacres of Indigenous Australians|
|Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia||17,000||28,000||21,817||Abkhazia and Georgia||1992||1993||1 year||The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia", and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia" Refers to ethnic cleansing, massacres and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians|
|Dersim rebellion||7,594||40,000||17,429||Dersim, Turkey||1937||1937||8 months||The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province. The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government. As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.
– Part of the Kurdish Rebellions in Turkey
|1966 anti-Igbo pogrom||10,000||30,000||17,321||Nigeria||May 29, 1966||October 1966||4 months, 2 days|||
|Indian massacres in the United States frontiers||16,349||16,349||16,349||What is now the United States||1511||1890||379 years||It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas|
|Persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh||1,000||150,000||12,247||Bangladesh||1971||1971||?||Most extreme episode of the massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs|
|Gukurahundi||3,750||30,000||10,607||Zimbabwe||1983||1987||5 years||Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.|
|Vietnamese genocide by Khmer Rouge||10,000||10,000||10,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide, according to Samuel Totten.
– Part of the Cambodian genocide
|Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge||8,000||8,000||8,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.
– Part of the Cambodian genocide
|1946 Bihar riots||2,000||30,000||7,746||Bihar, British India||October 30, 1946||November 7, 1946||8 days||Killings of Bihari Muslims by Bengali Hindus in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.|
|Noakhali riots||5,000||10,000||7,071||Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India||October 1946||November 1946||1 month||Killings of Bengali Hindus by Bengali Muslims in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.|
|Sétif and Guelma massacre||1,020||45,000||6,775||Algeria||1945||1945||?|||
|Deaths of indigenous children in the Canadian residential schools system||3,201||32,010||17,606||Canada||1876||1996||120 years||– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas|
|Genocide of native Tasmanians||3,000||15,000||6,708||Australia||1803||1905||102 years||After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.|
|Massacres of Arabs and Indians during the Zanzibar Revolution||2,000||20,000||6,325||Zanzibar||1964||1964||?||Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution|
|1964 East Pakistan riots||5,590||5,690||5,640||East Pakistan||January 2, 1964||March 28, 1964||2 months, 26 days||All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1964.
|Simele massacre||5,000||6,000||5,477||Simele, Kingdom of Iraq||August 7, 1933||August 11, 1933||4 days||The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.|
|1950 East Pakistan riots||4,803||4,833||4,818||East Bengal||February 1950||March 1950||1 month||All casualties from the various riots in East Pakistan during the year 1950.
|1984 anti-Sikh riots||2,800||8,000||4,733||India||October 31, 1984||November 3, 1984||1 month||A series of pogroms against Sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.|
|Nellie massacre||2,191||10,000||4,681||Assam, India||Six hours on February 18, 1983||Six hours on February 18, 1983||6 hours||Killings of 2191 Bengali Musims after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million Bengali Muslims in Assam the right to vote|
|Laotian genocide by Khmer Rouge||4,000||4,000||4,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||4 years||40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.– Part of the Cambodian genocide|
|Direct Action Day||4,000||4,000||4,000||India||August 16, 1946||August 18, 1946||2 days||Also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.|
|1804 Haiti massacre||3,000||5,000||3,873||Haiti||Early February 1804||April 22, 1804||?||Genocide of French people in Haiti.|
|Trail of Tears||2,000||6,000||3,464||United States||1830||1850||20 years||The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.
– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
|Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL||2,000||5,000||3,162||Sinjar, Iraq and Syria||2014||present||4 years||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL|
|Selk'nam genocide||2,500||3,900||3,122||Tierra del Fuego, Chile||Late 1800s||Early 1900s||?||Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.
– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
|Massacre of protesters at the Demolition of the Babri Masjid||2,000||2,000||2,000||Ayodhya, India||1992||1993||1 year||The destruction of a prominent mosque in India by Hindu extremists and killings of Muslim protesters.|
|2002 Gujarat riots||1,044||2,977||1,763||Gujarat, India||February 2002||March 2002||1 month||Minimum death toll includes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths. Maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead, and a higher 2,500 Muslim death toll.|
|Persecution of Shias by ISIL||Tens of thousands||Tens of thousands||Tens of thousands||Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan||2003||present||16 years||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shias by ISIL. One of the first instances was the Imam Ali Mosque bombing in Najaf|
|Conquest of the Desert||1,300||1,300||1,300||Argentina||Mid 1870s||1884||?||Military campaign, directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples.– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas|
|Persecution of Christians by ISIL||Thousands||Thousands||Thousands||Worldwide||2014||present||4 years||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL. In Iraq, the genocide started before 2014, as exemplified by the 2010 Baghdad church massacre|
|Black War||878||878||878||Australia||Mid 1820s||1832||?||– Part of the Genocide of native Tasmanians|
|Massacre of Salsipuedes||40||40||40||Uruguay||April 11, 1831||The same day||1 day||Largest event of extermination of the Charrúa people. Most of the tribe was either killed or then sold as slaves to human zoos in Europe that day.
– Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas
|Biological warfare at the Siege of Fort Pitt||?||?||?||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||June 22, 1763||August 10, 1763||1 months, 18 days||The death toll resulting from the event is unknown – Part of the Genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas|
Political purges and repressions
This section lists events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or political persuasion).
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong||200,000||28,000,000||2,366,432||People's Republic of China||1947||1951||5 years||Millions of landlords were allegedly killed during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.|
See also: Struggle session
|Cultural Revolution||400,000||10,000,000||2,000,000||People's Republic of China||1966||1976||10 years||The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.|
See also: Struggle session
|Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Indonesia||1965||1966||1 year||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965–66 by the Indonesian Army and associated death squads with support from Western powers such as the United States. Death tolls are difficult to estimate, but it is widely accepted by scholars that roughly 1 million people were killed.|
|Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries||712,000||2,000,000||1,193,315||People's Republic of China||1950||1951||1 year||The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; lit. 'suppressing counterrevolutionaries' or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.|
|Great Purge||681,692||1,704,230||1,077,850||Soviet Union||1936||1938||2 years||The Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.|
|White Terror (Spain)||150,000||400,000||244,949||Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War||1936||1945||9 years||In Spain, the White Terror (also known as "la Represión Franquista" or the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (October 1, 1936 – November 20, 1975)|
|Qey Shibir||30,000||750,000||150,000||People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||1977||1978||1 year||Violent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.|
|Bodo League massacre||100,000||200,000||141,421||Korea||1950||1950||?||Massacre of communists and suspected communists during the summer of 1950, at the start of Korean War.|
|German suppression of the Freemasons||80,000||200,000||126,491||German-occupied territory||1933||1945||12 years||The Nazi regime of Germany targeted Freemasons as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish conspiracy.|
|Red Terror||10,000||1,500,000||122,474||Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War||1918||1922||4 years||Political repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.|
|White Terror (Russia)||20,000||300,000||77,460||Former Russian Empire||1917||1923||6 years||Political repression by the White movement during the Russian Civil War.|
|1991 uprisings in Iraq||25,000||180,000||67,082||Iraq||March the 1st, 1991||April the 5th, 1991||1 month and 4 days||The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.|
|Operation Condor||50,000||90,000||67,082||South America||1975||1983||8 years||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States.|
|Red Terror (Spain)||38,000||72,344||52,432||Spain during the Spanish Civil War||1936||1939||3 years||The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo) is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".|
|Land Reform in Vietnam||13,500||200,000||51,962||North Vietnam||1954||1956||2 years|
|Reign of Terror||16,594||41,594||26,272||France during the French Revolution||1793||1794||1 year||The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".|
|1982 Hama massacre||2,000||40,000||20,000||Hama, Syria||February 2, 1982||February 28, 1982||26 days||The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.|
|1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre||10,000||40,000||20,000||El Salvador||January 22, 1932||July 11, 1932||6 months and 20 days||Many of the victims were indigenous people.|
|February 28 incident||10,000||30,000||17,320||Taiwan||1947||1947||?||Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.|
|Dirty War||9,000||30,000||16,432||Argentina||1976||1983||7 years||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
|Red and White terrors of the Finnish Civil War||11,650||11,650||11,650||Finland||1918||1918||3 months, 2 weeks and 4 days||Both sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.|
|1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners||4,482||30,000||11,596||Iran||1988||1988||5 months||Massacre of political prisoners in Iran.|
|White Terror (Taiwan)||3,000||4,000||3,464||Taiwan||1949||1987||38 years||An era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 were imprisoned, and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.|
|Extermination of the Patriotic Union party||2,000||5,000||3,162||Colombia||1984||1994|
|Human rights violations in Pinochet's Chile||1,200||3,200||1,960||Chile||1974||1990||16 years||1,200 to 3,200 alleged communists were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.|
|1989 Tiananmen Square protests crackdown||241||10,000||1,552||Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China||1989||1989||1 month, 2 weeks and 6 days||Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.|
Forced labor, abuse of workers, and slave trades
This section lists deaths caused by poor labor conditions, executions for not performing labor satisfactorily, and deaths caused by mistreatment of the workforce both in transit and at work locations.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Atlantic slave trade||2,000,000||60,000,000||10,954,451||Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic||1500s||1800s||200 years|
|Slavery in the Ottoman Empire||10,500,000||11,250,000||10,868,533||Eurasia, Middle East, North Africa||1450||1800||350 years||There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary slave trade.
The method many people use is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people taken as slaves. Scholars estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted. Includes Barbary slave trade.
|Trans-Saharan slave trade||3,500,000||6,000,000||4,320,000||Africa||5th century BC||1900s||2400 years|
|Laogai system||1,500,000||27,000,000||6,363,961||China||1945||1976||31 years||Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves. Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens. Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.|
|Indian Ocean slave trade||17,000,000||Africa, Middle East, South Asia||2500BC||1900s||4400 years|
|Atrocities in the Congo Free State||3,000,000[a]||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||23 years||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|Gulag system||1,053,829||6,000,000||2,514,552||Soviet Union||1930s||1950s||20 years||Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war. There is a growing consensus among scholars that, based on archival data, the number of deaths in the gulag system fall within the range 1.5 to 1.7 million.|
|Forced labor in North Korea||400,000||1,500,000||774,597||North Korea||1972||ongoing||49 years|||
|Hacienda peonage and chattel slavery||173,000||2,015,000||590,419||Mexico||1900||1920||20 years||R.J. Rummel, coiner of the word "Democide," estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage, a form of debt labor, by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time, coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.|
|Forced labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan||270,000||810,000||467,654||Korea and Manchuria||1939||1945||6 years|||
|Forced labour in the French colonial empire||14,000||200,000||52,915||Africa||1900||1940||40 years|||
|Forced labour in the Portuguese Empire||325,000||325,000||325,000||Portuguese Empire||1900||1925||25 years|||
|Barbary slave trade||245,000||380,000||305,123||Italy, Spain, and Portugal||1500s||1600s||100 years|| – Part of Slavery in the Ottoman Empire|
|Slavery during the Amazon rubber boom||250,000||250,000||250,000||Amazon, Brazil||1900||1912||12 years|||
|Construction of the Burma Railway||102,621||102,621||102,621||Burma||1943||1947||4 years||
Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.
|Construction of the Suez Canal||30,000||120,000||67,082||Egypt, and Sudan||1859||1868||9 years||French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in 1854–56 to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000, but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue, and disease, especially cholera.|
|Forced labor of Chinese contract workers in Peru||40,000||50,054||44,746||Peru||1849||1874||26 years||80,000 to 100,000 Chinese contract laborers, 95% of which were Cantonese and almost all of which were male, were sent mostly to the sugar plantations from 1849 to 1874, during the termination of slavery. They were to provide continuous labor for the coastal guano mines and especially for the coastal plantations where they became a major labor force (contributing greatly to the Peruvian guano boom) until the end of the century. While the coolies were believed to be reduced to virtual slaves, they also represented a historical transition from slave to free labor. A third group of Chinese workers was contracted for the construction of the railway from Lima to La Oroya and Huancayo. Chinese migrants were barred from using cemeteries reserved for Roman Catholics, and were instead buried at pre-Incan burial sites. Between 1849 and 1874 half the Chinese population of Peru perished due to abuse, exhaustion, and suicide caused by forced labor.|
|Forced labor of Allied POWs during World War II||35,000||35,000||35,000||In and around the Pacific||1939||1945||6 years||According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps, where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).|
|FIFA World Cup related abuses of Human rights in Qatar||1,200||1,800||1,342||Qatar||2013||ongoing||8 years||Out of at least 100,000 laborers.|
|Rana Plaza Factory collapse||1,134||Dhaka, Bangladesh||2013||1134 workers in the garment factory where reported dead and over 2500 injured after it collapsed due to poor engineering and neglect of safety guidelines|
Anthropogenically exacerbated outbreaks of disease and famine
This section includes famines and disease outbreaks that were caused or exacerbated by human action.
Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Great Chinese Famine||11,600,000||55,000,000||25,258,662||China||1958||1962||4 years||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|All famines in India under British influence||12,000,000||51,000,000||24,750,000||India||1757||1947||190 years||Between 12 and 51 million Indians (or even more) died of starvation while India under British rule (East India Company and British Raj). Millions of tonnes of wheat were exported to Britain as famine raged.|
|Famine and disease caused by World War II||19,000,000||28,000,000||23,065,130||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years||See also: World War II casualties|
|Famine and disease caused by Japanese imperialism||8,136,000||14,936,000||11,023,579||Japanese Empire||1937||1945||8 years||Combined death tolls from famine and disease from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines.|
|Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879||9,000,000||13,000,000||10,816,650||China||1876||1879||3 years||ENSO famine.|
|Great Bengal famine of 1770||10,000,000||10,000,000||10,000,000||British Bengal||1769||1773||4 years||The famine killed a third of the Bengali population at the time. It is attributed to the policies of the ruling British East India Company.|
|Russian famine of 1921 –22||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,072||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||1 year||May have been exacerbated by War Communism policies, but it is debatable to which extent.
See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, and Russian Civil War, with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka.
|Famine and disease caused by the Second Sino-Japanese War||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,068||China||1937||1945||8 years||See also: World War II casualties.|
|Soviet famine of 1932–33||4,400,000||9,100,000||6,327,717||Soviet Union||1932||1933||1 year||The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.
1.8 – 4.8 million: Ukraine
600,000 – 2.3 million: Kazakhstan
2 million: Elsewhere
|Famine and disease caused by World War I||5,411,000||6,100,000||5,745,181||Worldwide||1914||1918||4 years||See also: World War I casualties.|
|Great Famine of 1876–1878||6,100,000||10,320,000||8,300,000
||British India||1876||1878||2 years||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|Famine and disease caused by the Second Congo War||3,800,000||5,400,000||4,529,901||Africa||1998||2004||6 years||Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.|
|Iranian famine of 1917–1919||2,000,000||10,000,000||4,472,136||Iran||1917||1919||3 years||The Persian famine of 1917–1919 was a period of widespread mass starvation and disease in Persia (Iran). The famine took place in the occupied territory of Iran that had declared neutrality. According to the estimates acknowledged, 2–10 million people died of hunger and disease. A variety of factors are commented to have caused and contributed to the famine such as war profiteering, and poor harvests but mainly requisitioning and confiscation of foodstuffs by the occupying Russian and British armies.|
|Famine and disease caused by Decommunization||4,000,000+||4,000,000+||4,000,000+||Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc||1991||2000||9 years||Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.|
|Bengal famine of 1943||3,000,000||4,000,000||3,464,100||British India||1943||1944||1 year||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports, however, war-related administrative policies in British India ultimately helped to cause the massive death toll.|
|Indian famine of 1896–97 and the Indian famine of 1899–1900||8,400,000||19,000,000||13,700,000||British India||1896||1900||4 years||ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|Famine and diseased caused by the Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War||2,000,000||3,000,000||2,449,490||Nigeria||1967||1970||3 years||More than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockades during the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands starved to death daily as the war progressed.|
|Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||2,400,000||2,400,000||2,400,000||Indonesia||1944||1945||1 year||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but the main cause was the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|Soviet famine of 1946–47||1,000,000||1,500,000||1,224,745||Soviet Union||1946||1947||1 year||Debated as to whether it was caused by war or government policy.|
|Great Irish Famine||750,000||1,500,000||1,060,660||Ireland||1846||1849||3 years||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland, where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food, was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors, which continue to remain the subject of historical debate.|
|Vietnamese famine of 1945||400,000||2,000,000||894,427||Vietnam||1944||1945||1 year||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|Cambodian Holocaust Famine||800,000||950,000||871,780||Cambodia||1975||1979||4 years||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor, and famine, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, nearly half of which was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia||400,000||1,000,000||632,456||Ethiopia||1983||1985||2 years||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, especially the one of 1983–1985, were in large part created by government policies.|
|Famine and disease during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines||336,000||336,000||336,000||Philippines||1942||1945||3 years||See also: World War I casualties.|
|North Korean famine||240,000||420,000||330,000||North Korea||1994||1998||4 years||The famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.|
|Cuban War of Independence Famine||300,000||300,000||300,000||Cuba||1895||1898||3 years||Most of dead in this war perished from famine and disease.|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire||1915||1918||3 years||Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000. The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets, and people were reported to be eating street animals, while some resorted to cannibalism.|
|1998 Sudan famine||70,000||70,000||70,000||Sudan||1998||1998||?||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
|Famine in Yemen (2016–present)||50,000 children||50,000 children||50,000 children||Yemen||2016||present||2 years||The famine was triggered by Saudi Arabia's intervention into the Yemeni Civil War, which is backed by Western powers including the United States. Around 13 million people, or roughly half of the country's population, is facing starvation in what the UN calls "the worst famine in the world in 100 years".|
Anthropogenically exacerbated floods and landslides
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|1931 China floods||2,500,000||3,700,000||3,041,381||China||1931||1931||?|
|1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||900,000||2,000,000||1,341,641||China||1887||1887||?|
|1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||500,000||700,000||591,608||China||1938||1938||?|
|Flight of the Boat People||200,000||560,000||334,664||Gulf of Thailand and Pacific Ocean||1978||1979||1 year|
|1935 Yangtze flood||145,000||145,000||145,000||China||1935||1935||?|
|St. Felix's flood, storm surge||more than 100,000||more than 100,000||100,000||Netherlands||1530||1530||?|
|Hanoi and Red River Delta flood||100,000||100,000||100,000||North Vietnam||1971||1971||?|
|1911 Yangtze river flood||100,000||100,000||100,000||China||1911||1911||?|
|The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina.||26,000||230,000||77,330||China||August 1975||August 1975||?|
|St. Lucia's flood, storm surge||50,000||80,000||63,246||Netherlands, England||1287||1287||?|
|Vargas Tragedy, landslide||10,000||50,000||22,361||Venezuela||1999||1999||?|
|North Sea flood, storm surge||2,400||2,400||2,400||Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium||January 31, 1953||January 31, 1953||1 day|
|Johnstown Flood||2,209||2,209||2,209||Pennsylvania||May 31, 1889||May 31, 1889||1 day|
Human sacrifice and suicide
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||20,000||5,000,000||316,228||Mexico||14th century||1521||200 years||Skull racks: 60,000 to 136,000 See also: Aztecs|
|Human sacrifice in Shang dynasty China||13,000
||13,000||13,000||China||1300 BC||1050 BC||250 years||Last 250 years of rule|
|Suicide bombings during the Iraq War||12,284||18,000+||14,870||Iraq||2003||2019||Ongoing||See also: Iraqi insurgency (2003–11) and Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)|
|Sati ritual suicides||7,941
|Kamikaze suicide pilots||3,912||3,912||3,912||Pacific theatre||1944||1945||1 year||See also: Empire of Japan|
|Mass suicide at Masada||967||967||967||Masada||Spring 73 CE||Spring 73 CE||?|
|Peoples Temple Agricultural Project ("Jonestown")||909||909||909||Guyana||November 18, 1978||November 18, 1978||Jim Jones|
|Palestinian suicide attacks||804||804||804||Israel and Palestine||July 6, 1989||April 18, 2016||27 years||May only include victims|
Riots and political unrest
Riots and incidents where at least 100 people died are listed here.
Prisons, concentration and extermination camps
This section lists deaths that occurred in particular prisons, concentration and/or extermination camps, deaths are from both the conditions within the camps and from the active murder/execution of prisoners.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Auschwitz concentration camp||800,000||1,500,000||1,095,445||Oświęcim, Poland||1940||1945||5 years|||
|Treblinka extermination camp||700,000||1,000,000||836,660||Treblinka, Poland||1942||1943||1 year|||
|Belzec extermination camp||480,000||600,000||536,656||Bełżec, Poland||1942||1943||1 year|||
|Kolyma||130,000||500,000||254,951||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932||1954||22 years|||
|Jasenovac concentration camp||77,000||100,000||88,500||Independent State of Croatia||1941||1945||4 years|||
|Stutthof concentration camp||85,000||85,000||85,000||Stutthof, Poland||1939||1945||6 years||See also: Second World War|
|Stara Gradiška concentration camp||12,790||75,000||30,972||Independent State of Croatia||1941||1945||4 years||Primarily for women and children.|
|Tuol Sleng||17,000||17,000||17,000||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975||1979||4 years|||
|Camp Sumter||13,171||13,171||13,171||Andersonville, Georgia, United States||1864||1865||1 year|||
|Crveni Krst concentration camp||12,000||12,000||12,000||Niš, Serbia||1941||1944||3 years|||
|Topovske Šupe concentration camp||4,300||4,300||4,300||Belgrade, Serbia||1941||1941||4 months|||
|Banjica concentration camp||3,849||3,849||3,849||Belgrade, Serbia||1941||1944||4 years|||
|Tammisaari prison camp||2,963||2,963||2,963||Tammisaari, Finland||1918||1918||4 months|
|Elmira Prison||2,963||2,963||2,963||Elmira, New York, U.S.||1864||1865||1 year|||
|Shark Island concentration camp||1,032||4,000||2,032||Luderitz, German South-West Africa||1905||1907||2 years||The minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people, and the maximum total includes those who died in the Luderitz area.|
|Goli Otok prison||400||4,000||1,265||Goli Otok, Yugoslavia||1949||1956||8 years|
List of political leaders and regimes by death toll
This section lists deaths attributed to certain political leaders, deaths are from both the conditions within the country due to national policy, and active killings by forces loyal to the leader in question.
|Leader(s)||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration||Notes|
|Mao Zedong||14,627,560||70,000,000+||31,998,894||People's Republic of China||1946||1976||30 years||Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform The estimate of the minimum death toll is the sum of the minimum estimate of famine dead (11.6 million), Laogai dead (1,500,000}, land reform dead (200,000), Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000), Sufan movement dead (53,000), Socialist Education Movement dead (77,560), and Cultural Revolution dead (400,000) plus the minimum killed in the 1959 Tibetan uprising (85,000 to 87,000)|
|Genghis Khan||40,000,000||60,000,000||53,000,000||Eurasia||1206||1405||199 years||Due to the lack or records and time span in which they occurred, estimates of the violence associated with the conquests of the Mongol Empire and its predecessor states vary considerably not including the spread of plague to Europe, West Asia, or China it is possible that between 20 and 40 million people were killed between 1206 and 1405 during the various campaign's of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, and Timur|
|Adolf Hitler||13,518,250||25,495,692+||18,564,944||German-occupied Europe||1934||1945||11 years||The estimate includes The Holocaust against the Jews, plus the genocide and mass murder of Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs, and the Jehovah's Witnesses
|Joseph Stalin||8,688,614||15,000,000||11,416,182||Soviet Union||1922||1953||31 years||The millions killed by the regime of Joseph Stalin through famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those not killed in famine which range from four to ten million Robert Conquest, writer of the book The Great Terror, first stated an estimate of 30 million, then a few years later lowering it to 20 million, and finally saying that no fewer than 15 million perished during the entire history of the USSR. Following the collapse of the USSR and the opening of the archives, scholars have reached lower death tolls.
The minimum death toll uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those killed in famine (5,500,000), Gulags, (1,053,829), executions (799,455), and deportations of Kulaks (389,521), ethnic minorities (450,000) batlic citizens, (45,809) and expelled Germans, (300,000) plus the Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946) (150,000).
Timothy D. Snyder in 2011 said that Stalin approximately killed 6 million to 9 million 
|Chiang Kai-Shek||5,965,000||18,522,000||10,511,124||Republic of China||1928||1946||18 years||Primarily from conscription campaigns but also grain confiscations and other atrocities.|
|Hirohito, various leaders||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1937||1945||8 years||If total casualties for these conflicts are assigned exclusively to Japanese aggression the toll could reach some 30 million deaths. See also: Japanese war crimes|
|Leopold II of Belgium||3,000,000[b]||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||23 years||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably due to the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924. See also: Atrocities in the Congo Free State|
|Ranavalona I||2,500,000||2,500,000||2,500,000||Madagascar||1829||1842||13 years||Putting an end to most foreign trade relationships, Ranavalona I pursued a policy of self-reliance, made possible through frequent use of the long-standing tradition of fanompoana—forced labor in lieu of tax payments in money or goods. Ranavalona continued the wars of expansion conducted by her predecessor, Radama I, in an effort to extend her realm over the entire island, and imposed strict punishments on those who were judged as having acted in opposition to her will. Due in large part to loss of life throughout the years of military campaigns, high death rates among fanompoana workers, and harsh traditions of justice under her rule, the population of Madagascar is estimated to have declined from around 5 million to 2.5 million between 1833 and 1839, and from 750,000 to 130,000 between 1829 and 1842 in Imerina. These statistics have contributed to a strongly unfavorable view of Ranavalona's rule in historical accounts.|
|Pol Pot||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Cambodia||1975||1979||4 years||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.See also: Cambodian genocide|
|The Young Turks||1,489,000||2,810,000||2,045,505||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||9 years||Under the Young Turks' regime that took power in 1908, the Ottoman Empire committed various genocides and ethnic cleansings. The death toll is derived from the sum of the death tolls of the Armenian genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian genocide (150,000 to 300,000), Greek genocide (289,000 to 750,000), ethnic cleansing of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913 (50,000 to 60,000), and the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).|
|Omar al-Bashir||1,063,000||2,530,000||1,639,936||Sudan||1989||2019||29 years||1 to 2 million: Second Sudanese Civil War|
|Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un||710,000||3,500,000||1,576,388||North Korea||1948||present||70 years||North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world. Over two-hundred thousand people are interned in concentrations camps for being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents. They are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation. See also: Human rights in North Korea|
|Suharto||240,500||3,418,000+||906,658+||Indonesia||1965||1998||33 years||65/66 Politicide: 78,500 to 3,000,000 "communists"|
East Timor Atrocities: 60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese
West Papua Atrocities: 100,000 papuans
Petrus Killings: 2,000 to 10,000 suspected criminals
|Mengistu Haile Mariam||225,000||2,000,000
|Saddam Hussein||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||Iraq||1979||2003||24 years||see Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq#Number of victims|
|Ante Pavelić and Nikola Mandić||300,000||1,088,000||571,314||Croatia||1941||1945||4 years||See also: Independent State of Croatia|
|Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong||145,225||1,082,000||396,401||Vietnam||1954||2000||46 years||95,000: re-education camps|
13,500–200,000: land reform
36,725 to 227,000: war crimes
200,000 to 560,000: boat people
The minimum death toll is the same of minimum estimates for war crimes, re-education camps, and land reform. The maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of land reform, war crimes, re-education camps and boat people, which may or may not be attributable to the regime.
|Benito Mussolini||158,000||628,000||314,998||Italy, Libya, Ethiopia, Yugoslavia, Greece||1922||1945||24 years|
|Francisco Franco||195,000||265,000||227,321||Spain, Austria, and Russia||1939||1975||36 years||Diseases and starvation: 130,000 (1939–1943)|
Repression: 30,000–100,000 (1939–1948)
Prison camps: 20,000 (1939–1943)
Spanish Maquis: 5,548 (1939–1965)
World War II: 5,000 (Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria)
Blue Division: Casualties in the Russo-German conflict totalled 22,700. In action against the Blue Division, the Red Army suffered 49,300 casualties.
|Idi Amin||100,000||500,000||223,607||Uganda||1971||1979||8 years||Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition, earning him the nickname "The Butcher of Uganda."|
|Josip Broz Tito||60,000||802,000||219,363||Yugoslavia||1944||1980||36 years|
|Communist rule in Romania, various leaders||60,000||435,000||161,555||Romania||1945||1989||44 years||Total does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies.|
|FRELIMO||83,000||250,000||144,049||Communist Mozambique||1975||1999||24 years||See also: Mozambican Civil War|
|King Salman||85,000||230,000+||139,821+||Saudi Arabia||2016||present||5 years||See also: Famine in Yemen|
|Bashar al-Assad||87,952||199,901||132,596||Syria||2011||present||9 years||See also: Syrian civil war|
|Ivan the Terrible||60,000
||260,000||124,900||Russian Empire||1533||1584||51 years|
|Siad Barre||50,000||200,000||100,000||Somalia||1988||1991||3 years||See also: Isaaq genocide|
|Communist rule in Bulgaria, various leaders||31,000||220,000||81,240||Bulgaria||1944||1989||45 years||Collectivization and political repression in Bulgaria.|
|Henry VIII||72,000||72,000||72,000||England||1509||1547||38 years|
|Vlad the Impaler||43,903||100,000||66,259||Wallachia||1456||1462||6 years|
|Communist rule in Czechoslovakia, various leaders||65,000[unreliable source?]||65,000[unreliable source?]||65,000||Czechoslovakia||1948||1968||20 years||See also: Communist repression in Czechoslovakia|
|Francisco Macías Nguema||50,000||80,000||63,246||Equatorial Guinea||1968||1979||11 years||Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Sources vary, but he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.|
|Ahmed Sékou Touré||50,000||50,000||50,000||Guinea||1958||1984||26 years|
|Rafael Trujillo||50,000||50,000||50,000||Dominican Republic||1930||1938||8 years|
|François Duvalier||30,000||60,000||42,426||Haiti||1957||1971||14 years||Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians, and the exile of many more.|
|Hissène Habré||40,000||40,000||40,000||Chad||1982||1990||8 years||In May 2016, Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery, and ordering the killing of 40,000 people. He was sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.|
|Communist rule in Cuba, various leaders||9,240||92,400||29,219||Cuba||1976||present||42 years||Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, which accuses the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses. This includes offenses such as arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution. See also: Human rights in Cuba|
|Ruhollah Khomeini and Ali Khemenei||10,482||48,000||22,431||Iran||1979||present||39 years||4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. massacre|
6,000 to 18,000 child soldiers killed
(refer to earlier tables on page)
|Communist rule in Poland, various leaders||22,000||22,000||22,000||Communist Poland||1945||1989||44 years||See also: Communist Repression in Poland|
|Nicolás Maduro||Almost 18,000||Almost 18,000||Almost 18,000||Venezuela||2016||present||5 years|
|Ferdinand Marcos||3,257||80,000||16,142||Philippines||1965||1986||21 years||The conservative estimate is recorded from 1975 to 1985, while the maximum estimate is recorded from 1965 to 1976. Also Includes those from the Moro conflict.|
|Tomás de Torquemada||2,000||124,621||15,787||Spanish Empire||1480||1498||18 years||Minimum death toll only includes lowest estimate of those burned at the stake, whereas the maximum death toll also includes those who died from hunger and torture.|
|Various leaders||7,000||27,000||13,748||Hungary||1948||1956||8 years||Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies. See also: Communist Repression in Hungary|
|Enver Hoxha||5,000||25,000||11,180||Albania||1941||1985||44 years|
||9,500||9,500||Ancient Rome||14||37||23 years|
|Caligula||9,000||9,000||9,000||Ancient Rome||37||41||4 years|
|Johnny Paul Koroma||6,000||6,000||6,000||Sierra Leone||1997||1998||1 year|
|Nero||5,750||5,750||5,750||Ancient Rome||54||68||14 years|
|Jean-Bédel Bokassa||100||90,000||3,000||Central African Republic||1966||1976||10 years||It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.|
|Claudius||2,935||2,935||2,935||Ancient Rome||41||54||13 years|
|Communist rule in East Germany, various leaders||327||1,500||929||East Germany||1949||1989||40 years||See also: Berlin Wall deaths|
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll
- List of ongoing armed conflicts
- List of school shootings in the United States
- List of disasters in Antarctica by death toll
- List of disasters in Australia by death toll
- List of disasters in Canada by death toll
- List of disasters in Croatia by death toll
- List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll
- List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll
- List of disasters in Poland by death toll
- List of disasters in the United States by death toll
- List of wars by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of unusual deaths
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- Lists of battles
- Lists of disasters
- Lists of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of fires
- List of invasions
- List of events named massacres
- List of tropical cyclone records
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Anti-communist mass killings
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocides in history (before World War I)
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- List of battles by casualties
- United States military casualties of war
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- Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987. Martin gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- Jacques Hussenet (dir.), "Détruisez la Vendée!" Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
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Sinclair said the total number of recorded residential school deaths in Canada — 3,201 — could be an underestimate given poor record keeping, and the real number of deaths could have been five to 10 times higher.
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The establishment and operation of residential schools were a central element of this policy, which can best be described as 'cultural genocide'.
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If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported.
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- 《晉書·卷一百七》 Jin Shu Original text 閔躬率趙人誅諸胡羯，無貴賤男女少長皆斬之，死者二十余萬，屍諸城外，悉為野犬豺狼所食。屯據四方者，所在承閔書誅之，于時高鼻多須至有濫死者半。
- John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell, p. 298. published 1900 and 2001; ISBN 978-1-4212-6707-4 "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) British National Archives web site. Retrieved March 2007; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 11, 2004. Retrieved January 17, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history". Retrieved March 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 11, 2004. Retrieved January 17, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Philip McKeiver in his 2007 work, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4 and Tom Reilly, 1999, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy; ISBN 0-86322-250-1
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- Friedman, Mark (2013). Genocide (Hot Topics). Raintree. p. 58. ISBN 9781406235081.
- Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
row 1313 and 1314
1,000,000 and 10,000 to 2,000,000 and 100,000 Kurds were displaced and killed respectively between 1963 and 1987; 250,000 of them in 1977 and 1978. If deaths are proportional to the displacement then 2,500 to 12,500 Kurds would of died during this period depending on the scale of overall displacement and deaths used.
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1983 The Missing Barzanis". Frontline World. PBS.
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- 1,000 deaths per day in April, May and June along Turkish border a - "Iraqi Deaths from the Gulf War as of April 1992," Greenpeace, Washington, D.C. See also "Aftermath of War: The Persian Gulf War Refugee Crisis," Staff Report to the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, May 20, 1991. The figure of nearly 1,000 deaths per day is also given in "Kurdistan in the Time of Saddam Hussein," Staff Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 1991, p.14. "hundreds" (100 to 900?) died per day along Iranian border b - Kurdish Refugees Straggle Into Iran, Followed By Tragedy, Associated Press, Apr 13, 1991 1,100 to 1,900 (a + b) deaths per day from at least April 13th (b) up to between May 1st and May 31st (a ); which suggests 44 to 74 days: 1,100(44)= 48,400 1,900(74)= 140,600 Routine calculations Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
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Czesław Partacz, Prawda historyczna na prawda polityczna w badaniach naukowych. Przykład ludobójstwa na Kresach Południowo-Wschodniej Polski w latach 1939–1946
Lucyna Kulińska "Dzieci Kresów III", Kraków 2009, p. 467
Józef Turowski, Władysław Siemaszko: Zbrodnie nacjonalistów ukraińskich dokonane na ludności polskiej na Wołyniu 1939–1945. Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce – Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Środowisko Żołnierzy 27 Wołyńskiej Dywizji Armii Krajowej w Warszawie, 1990 Hochspringen ↑ Władysław Siemaszko, Ewa Siemaszko : Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia 1939–1945. Borowiecky, Warszawa 2000; ISBN 83-87689-34-3, S. 1056.
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- Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
- Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, p. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
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Celebrating genocide is not what most would consider a modern Canadian value. While use of the term "genocide" to describe Canada's treatment of Indigenous peoples has created a great deal of debate, there has always been a recognition that, at minimum, Canada was guilty of "cultural genocide," even if individuals couldn't bring themselves to accept more sinister intentions. Former prime minister Paul Martin told the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) that it was time to call the residential schools policy what it was: "cultural genocide." Supreme Court of Canada Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin weighed in on Canada's dismal human rights record, saying that residential schools were attempts to commit "cultural genocide" against Indigenous peoples.
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New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and "inhumanity." The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953.
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- "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine", Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
- Digby, William (1901). 'Prosperous' British India. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 128. OCLC 6671095.
- "Nineteenth Century Death Tolls". necrometrics.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Katouzian 2013, p. 1934: "Russian Revolution of 1917 brought much relief to Iran after a century of imperial interference and intimidation. But it was followed by severe famine and the Spanish flu pandemic which, combined, took a high toll of around two million, mostly of the Iranian poor."
- Rubin 2015, p. 508: "Despite Iran's official neutrality, this pattern of interference continued during World War I as Ottoman-, Russian-, British-, and German-supported local forces fought across Iran, wreaking enormous havoc on the country. With farmland, crops, livestock, and infrastructure destroyed, as many as 2 million Iranians died of famine at the war's end. Although the Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the recall of Russian troops, and thus gave hope to Iranians that the foreign yoke might be relenting, the British quickly moved to fill the vacuum in the north, and by 1918, had turned the country into an unofficial protectorate."
- Winegard 2016, p. 85: "Between 1917 and 1919, it is estimated that nearly half (nine to eleven million people) of the Persian population died of starvation or disease brought on by malnutrition."
- Majd 2003, p. 72: "According to the American Charge d'Affaires, Wallace Smith Murray, this famine had claimed one-third of Iran's population. A famine that even according to British sources as General Dunsterville, Major Donohoe, and General Sykes had claimed vast numbers of Iranians".
- Majd 2003, p. 40. In the matter of tough custom regulations, Majd mentions incidents of unsuccessful importation of foodstuff recorded by the American embassy. He also refers to a letter by an American official saying "for the last two years practically all the importations have ceased"
- Rubin 2015, p. 508: "Despite Iran's official neutrality, this pattern of interference continued during World War I as Ottoman-, Russian-, British-, and German-supported local forces fought across Iran, wreaking enormous havoc on the country. With farmland, crops, livestock, and infrastructure destroyed, as many as 2 million Iranians died of famine at the war's end. Although the Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the recall of Russian troops, and thus gave hope to Iranians that the foreign yoke might be relenting, the British quickly moved to fill the vacuum in the north, and by 1918, had turned the country into an unofficial protectorate."
- Patnaik, Utsa. "The Republic of Hunger" (PDF). Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- Nicholas Tarling (ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp. 139–40
- Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill's Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II.
- Book review: Churchill's secret war in India, southasiarev.wordpress.com, April 12, 2011.
- "Notes from India". The Lancet. 157 (4055): 1430–1431. 1901. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)88925-X.
- Stevenson, "Capitol Gains" (2014), p. 314.
- "Biafra/Nigeria". eNotes.com. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
- "Nigerian Civil War". Polynational War Memorial. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) "Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950", MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp. 35–38. /
- Foster, R.F. Modern Ireland 1600–1972, Penguin Press, 1988. p. 324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473–88."
- Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
- Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978.
- Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
- Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4.
- Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate" Archived June 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Population and Development Review (December 1995).
- Koh, David (August 21, 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times. Singapore. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
- Marek Sliwiński (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
- de Waal, Alex (2002) . Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.
- "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine", BBC News, April 6, 2000.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
- Daniel Goodkind; Loraine West; Peter Johnson (March 28, 2011). "A Reassessment of Mortality in North Korea, 1993–2008". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Sheina, Robert L., Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899 (2003)
- COWP: Correlates of War Project, University of Michigan.
- Harris 2012, p.174
- Ghazal, Rym (April 14, 2015). "Lebanon's dark days of hunger: The Great Famine of 1915–18". The National. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009). Famine: a short history. Princeton University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- "Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily", CNN. Retrieveded May 25, 2006.
- "Yemen crisis: Half of population facing 'pre-famine conditions'". BBC. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Kristof, Nicholas (September 26, 2018). "Be Outraged by America's Role in Yemen's Misery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "Yemen could be 'worst famine in 100 years'". BBC. October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- The Associated Press of 1979
- Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
- 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFYi1998 (help)
- Cocker, Mark (1998). Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold.
- Prescott, William (1843). History of the Conquest of Mexico.
- Ruben Mendoza (2007) pp. 407–08.
- Harner (1977) p. 122
- National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Bagnall, Peter M; Spagat, Michael; Sloboda, John A (September 3, 2011). "Casualties in civilians and coalition soldiers from suicide bombings in Iraq, 2003–10: a descriptive study". The Lancet. 378 (9794): 906–14. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61023-4. PMID 21890055. S2CID 11493252.
- Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p. 2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- White, Matthew (July 2005). "Minor Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- "Emad Baghi : English" (no). emadbaghi.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Karatnycky, Adrian; Cavanaugh, Kathleen; Finn, James; Graybow, Charles; Payne, Douglas W.; Ryan, Joseph E.; Sussman, Leonard R.; Zarycky, George; Finn, James (1995). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights & Civil Liberties, 1994–1995 (PDF). New York: Freedom House. p. 521. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
During the first four months of 1994, the Human Rights Committee of South Africa reported that politically motivated killings occurred at a rate of nearly fourteen deaths per day.
- "An African Lysistrata in Togo – African Futures". September 23, 2012. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- "Death Toll in Kenya Exceeds 1,000, but Talks Reach Crucial Phase – The New York Times". October 5, 2018. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018.
- "500 killed in Togo electoral violence – UN". Independent Online. AFP. September 26, 2005. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- August 29, 2005. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). "Conclusions.""La mission d'établissement des faits chargée de faire la lumière sur les violences et les allégations de violations des droits de l'homme survenues au Togo avant, pendant et après l'élection présidentielle du 24 avril 2005" Archived December 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
- News, VOA. "Death Toll in Nicaraguan Protests Hits 317, OAS Says".
- "Sudan protest death toll hits 90: doctors committee". News24. May 6, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
- Walsh, Declan (July 4, 2019). "Sudan Power-Sharing Deal Reached by Military and Civilian Leaders". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
- "Sudan protests: Death toll reaches 11 after anti-military rallies". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
- Harding, Luke (September 29, 2006). "How one of the biggest rows of modern times helped Danish exports to prosper". the Guardian.
- Wellers, Georges. "Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp)", Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–59.
- Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates Archived March 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, vex.net. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Encyclopedia Americana
- Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 15, No. 3, Winter 2001; ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9.
- Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987; NCR 0-253-34293-7
- Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism. Retrieved January 18, 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved January 19, 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma.
- Official website of the Jasenovac Memorial Site
- Kolstø 2011, pp. 226–241. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKolstø2011 (help)
- Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. 2007. p. 74. ISBN 978-99950-60-04-6.
- The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
- "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. March 13, 2013. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Premerl 1988, p. 191. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPremerl1988 (help)
- Cohen 1996, p. 49. sfn error: no target: CITEREFCohen1996 (help)
- Ramet 2006, p. 131. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRamet2006 (help)
- Israeli 2013, p. 33. sfn error: no target: CITEREFIsraeli2013 (help)
- Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.[page needed]
- Erichsen 2005, p. 133. sfn error: no target: CITEREFErichsen2005 (help)
- Previšić, Martin (February 2015). "Broj kažnjenika na Golom otoku i drugim logorima za informbirovce u vrijeme sukoba sa SSSR-om (1948.-1956.)" [The Number of Convicts on Goli Otok and other Internment Camps during the Informbiro period (1948 – 1956)] (PDF). Historijski zbornik (in Croatian). 66 (1): 173–193. Retrieved 27 July 2018. p.190
- Fenby, J (2008). Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. Ecco Press. p. 351; ISBN 0-06-166116-3. "Mao's responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking"
- Patnaik, Utsa (January 2014). "On Famine and Measuring 'Famine Deaths'". Internet Archive. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- The Great Big Book of Horrible Things: The Definitive Chronicle of History's 100 Worst Atrocities by Matthew White
- Stavis, Benedict (1978). The Politics of Agricultural Mechanization in China. University of California: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1087-1.
- Luo, William (March 30, 2018). 半资本主义与中国 （Semi-Capitalism in China） (in Chinese). 世界华语出版社. ISBN 978-1-940266-12-1.
- Chen, Zhaonan (June 9, 2018). "遇到中共就失憶！國民黨還能騙自己多久？". www.storm.mg (in Chinese). Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Yang, Jishen (July 4, 2017). 天地翻覆: 中国文化大革命历史 (in Chinese). 天地图书.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count". necrometrics.com. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- m, Angus (1998). Development Centre studies Chinese economic performance in the long run. Development Centre studies Chinese economic performance in the long run.
- HO, Ping-ti (1970). An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song Series 1, No 1. pp. 33, 53.
- Reitlinger, Gerald (1953). The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945. New York City: Beechhurst Press.
- Early efforts by scholars to determine the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis were limited by a lack of access to pertinent records. The genocide seldom entered Western discourse, both due to ignorance and to the Cold-War politics which made West Germany a new ally of the United States.The first significant work on the subject published in English was Gerald Reitlinger's Final Solution (1953), which, relying almost exclusively on German documentation, estimated 4.9 million dead. This figure is now considered extremely conservative. Raul Hilberg's 1961 The Destruction of the European Jews became a classic in the field of Holocaust literature and made the genocide of the Jews known to the wider public, Hilberg estimated its victims to be 5.1 million lives, or 4.9 – 5.4 million broadly construed. The trial of Adolph Eichmann further raised awareness of the genocide, Eichmann also provided documentation and testimony which revised the number of the dead.The first work to arrive at a figure comparable to modern estimates was Lucy Dawidowicz's The War Against the Jews, published in 1975, the book provided detailed listings by country of the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust which are still used as a reference in modern Holocaust studies. Dawidowicz researched birth and death records in many cities of prewar Europe to come up with a death toll of 5,933,900 Jews. After the opening of Soviet records, scholarship arrived at a death toll of about 6 million Jews. Gutman and Rozett's Encyclopedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990 and estimated slightly over 5.9 million Jews were murdered.Wolfgang Benz's The Holocaust: A German Historian Examines the Genocide, published 1995, gave a toll of 6.2 million.
- Davies, Norman (2012). God's Playground [Boze igrzysko]. Otwarte (publishing). p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. Polish edition, second volume. "To, co robili Sowieci, bylo szczególnie mylace. Same liczby bylSacramentsie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywaly fakt, ze ofiary w przewazajacej liczbie nie byly Rosjanami, ze owe miliony obejmowaly ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz ze wsród ludnosci cywilnej najwieksze grupy stanowili Ukraincy, Polacy, Bialorusini i Zydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes."
- Zemskov, Viktor N. (2012). "О масштабах людских потерь CCCР в Великой Отечественной Войне" [The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Military Historical Archive (Военно-исторический архив) (in Russian). 9: 59–71 – via Demoskop Weehly vol. 559–560 (2013)
Excludes: * Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2) * 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2016..
- Includes: * Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379-(see: ????????? 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.) * Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131.) * Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000-(see: Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.) Excludes: * Excludes the 2,500,000 million Jewish civilians killed in Soviet Territories-(see: Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2) * 30,000 to 35,000 Roma killed in Porajmos-(see: Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9. "European Romani (Gypsy) Population". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
- Richard Overy, Russia's War (1997): "an estimated 500,000 Soviet citizens died from German bomb attacks."
- "Imperial War Museum - Invasion of the Soviet Union display". www.berkeleyinternet.com. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- "Polish Victims". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- POLSKA 1939-1945 - STRATY OSOBOWE I OFIARY REPRESJI POD DWIEMA OKUPACJAMI Tomasz Szarota; Wojciech Materski, eds. (2009). Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami [Poland 1939–1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression under two Occupations]. Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. – Janusz Kurtyka; Zbigniew Gluza. Preface.: "ze pod okupacja sowiecka zginelo w latach 1939–1941, a nastepnie 1944–1945 co najmniej 150 tys [...] Laczne straty smiertelne ludnosci polskiej pod okupacja niemiecka oblicza sie obecnie na ok. 2 770 000. [...] Do tych strat nalezy doliczyc ponad 100 tys. Polaków pomordowanych w latach 1942–1945 przez nacjonalistów ukrainskich (w tym na samym Wolyniu ok. 60 tys. osób [...] Liczba Zydów i Polaków zydowskiego pochodzenia, obywateli II Rzeczypospolitej, zamordowanych przez Niemców siega 2,7– 2,9 mln osób." Translation: "It must be assumed losses of at least 150.000 people during the Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1944 to 1945 [...] The total fatalities of the Polish population under the German occupation are now estimated at 2,770,000. [...] To these losses should be added more than 100,000 Poles murdered in the years 1942–1945 by Ukrainian nationalists (including about 60,000 in Volhynia [...] The number of Jews and Poles of Jewish ethnicity, citizens of the Second Polish Republic, murdered by the Germans amounts to 2.7–2.9 million people." – Waldemar Grabowski. German and Soviet occupation. Fundamental issues.: "Straty ludnosci panstwa polskiego narodowosci ukrainskiej sa trudne do wyliczenia," Translation: "The losses of ethnic Poles of Ukrainian nationality are difficult to calculate." Note: Polish losses amount to 11.3% of the 24.4 million ethnic Poles in prewar Poland and about 90 percent of the 3.3 million Jews of prewar times. The IPN figures do not include losses among Polish citizens of Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnicity.
- Niewyk, Donald L. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0-231-11200-9.
- "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945". encyclopedia.ushmm.org. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- "Croatia" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Yad Vashem. Glišic, Venceslav (January 12, 2006). "Žrtve licitiranja – Sahrana jednog mita, Bogoljub Kocovic". NIN (in Serbian). Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.
- "Knjižara". August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- Voglis, Polymeris (2006). "Surviving Hunger: Life in the Cities and the Countryside during the Occupation". In Gildea, Robert; Wievorka, Olivier; Warring, Anette. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe. Oxford: Berg. pp. 16–41. ISBN 978-1-84520-181-4.
- Baranowski, Shelley (2010). Nazi empire : German colonialism and imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-67408-9.
- "Aktuelles Archive". Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "Euthanasia Program" (PDF). Yad Vashem. 2018. Chase, Jefferson (January 26, 2017).
- "Remembering the 'forgotten victims' of Nazi 'euthanasia' murders | DW | 26.01.2017". DW.COM. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- Hodapp, Christopher (2013). Freemasonry for Dummies, 2. Edition. Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 1118412087.
- Peter Hoffmann "The History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945"p.xiii
- "The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year-long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Contemporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council" (PDF). Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- van der Zee, Henri A (1998), The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–1945, University of Nebraska Press, pp. 304–5.
- Barnouw, David (1999). De hongerwinter. ISBN 978-9065504463.
- Pike, David Wingeate. Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, the horror on the Danube; Editorial: Routledge Chapman & Hall ISBN 978-0-415-22780-3. London, 2000.
- The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
- Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
- Getty G.T. V.N., J.A. Rittersporn Zemskov (1993). "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". American Historical Review (During 1921–53, the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences, 4,060,306; death penalties, 799,473; camps and prisons, 2,634397; exile, 413,512; other, 215,942. In addition, during 1937–52 there were 14,269,753 non-political sentences, among them 34,228 death penalties, 2,066,637 sentences for 0–1 year, 4,362,973 for 2–5 years, 1,611,293 for 6–10 years, and 286,795 for more than 10 years. Other sentences were non-custodial). 98: 315–345. doi:10.2307/2166597. JSTOR 2166597. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008.
- Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings 1930-1945" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. p. 1334.
- Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930-45". Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (8): 1319–1353. doi:10.1080/09668139608412415. JSTOR 152781.
- Conquest, Robert. (1990). The great terror : a reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195055802. OCLC 20133978.
- Conquest, Robert (2008). The Great Terror: A Reassessment. Oxford University Press. p. xvi. ISBN 9780195316995.
- Snyder, Timothy. (2010). Bloodlands : [Europe between Hitler and Stalin]. Blackstone Audio, Inc. p. 384. ISBN 9781441761507. OCLC 1014318956.
- Davies,; Wheatcroft (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931-1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 401. ISBN 9780230238558.
- "Seumas Milne: The battle for history". September 12, 2002.
- Pohl, J. Otto (1999). Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937–1949. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30921-2. LCCN 98-046822. p. 46
- Buckley, Cynthia J.; Ruble, Blair A.; Hofmann, Erin Trouth (September 9, 2008). Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. ISBN 9780801890758.
- Pettai, Vello (2015). Transitional and Retrospective Justice in the Baltic States. Cambridge University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-1070-4949-9.
- Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945–1978. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28 Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewälte Erlebenisberichte, Bonn 1989, pp. 40–41, 46–47, 51–53)
- Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski (2009), Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Excerpt reproduced in digital form)
- Snyder, Timothy (January 27, 2011). "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was Worse?" [The total number of noncombatants killed by the Germans—about 11 million—is roughly what we had thought. The total number of civilians killed by the Soviets, however, is considerably less than we had believed. We know now that the Germans killed more people than the Soviets did . . . All in all, the Germans deliberately killed about 11 million noncombatants, a figure that rises to more than 12 million if foreseeable deaths from deportation, hunger, and sentences in concentration camps are included. For the Soviets during the Stalin period, the analogous figures are approximately six million and nine million. These figures are of course subject to revision, but it is very unlikely that the consensus will change again as radically as it has since the opening of Eastern European archives in the 1990s.]. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- R.J.Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".
- Campbell, Gwyn (October 1991). "The state and pre-colonial demographic history: the case of nineteenth century Madagascar". Journal of African History. 23 (3): 415–45. doi:10.1017/S0021853700031534.
- Laidler (2005)
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- R.J.Rummel. "Statistics Of North Korean Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE.
- de Waal, Alex. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. London: Africa Watch / Human Rights Watch, 1991, p. 110.
- White 2011, pp. 455–456: "For those who prefer totals broken down by country, here are reasonable estimates for the number of people who died under Communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats: China: 40,000,000 Soviet Union: 20,000,000 North Korea: 3,000,000 Ethiopia: 2,000,000 Cambodia: 1,700,000 Vietnam: 365,000 (after 1975) Yugoslavia: 175,000 East Germany: 100,000 Romania: 100,000 North Vietnam: 50,000 (internally, 1954–75) Cuba: 50,000 Mongolia: 35,000 Poland: 30,000 Bulgaria: 20,000 Czechoslovakia: 11,000 Albania: 5,000 Hungary: 5,000 Rough Total: 70 million (This rough total doesn't include the 20 million killed in the civil wars that brought Communists into power, or the 11 million who died in the proxy wars of the Cold War. Both sides probably share the blame for these to a certain extent. These two categories overlap somewhat, so once the duplicates are weeded out, it seems that some 26 million people died in Communist-inspired w