List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (May 2018)
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
- 1 Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 1,000,000 or more
- 2 Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethnic/religious persecution
- 3 Political purges and repressions (politicides)
- 4 Forced labor, slavery, internment/extermination camps, and slave trades
- 5 War crimes and ancient war atrocities
- 6 List of dictatorships by death toll
- 7 Anthropogenically exacerbated famine, mass starvation, and illness or disease
- 8 Riot or political unrest
- 9 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 10 Anthropogenic floods, drownings, and landslides
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 1,000,000 or more
These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration (years)||Notes, see also|
|World War II||15,843,000||118,357,000||36,696,798||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years and 1 day|
|Mongol conquests||30,000,000||34,641,016||Eurasia||1206||1368||163||Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire|
|European colonization of the Americas||8,400,000||138,000,000||34,047,026||Americas||1492||1691||199||Death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which might never be accurately determined. The 90% death rate was mainly caused by disease.[a]|
|Spanish colonization of the Americas||15,000,000||70,000,000||32,403,703||Americas||1492||1542||50||Most of the population decline was caused by infectious disease. Violence was also a minor significant cause of the death toll. Part of European colonization of the Americas.|
|Manchu conquest of China||25,000,000||25,000,000||25,000,000||China||1618||1683||65||Qing dynasty|
|Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire||24,300,000||24,300,000||24,300,000||Mexico||1519||1532||13||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Taiping Rebellion||5,000,000||100,000,000||22,360,680||China||1851||1864||14||Qing dynasty|
|Second Sino-Japanese War||20,000,000||25,000,000||22,360,680||China||1937||1945||8||Part of World War II: China|
|World War I||8,545,800||21,000,000||13,396,335||Worldwide||1914||1918||4 years, 3 months, 1 week|
|Conquests of Timur||12,649,111||Central, East and South Asia||1300s||1400s||35||Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.|
|Dungan Revolt||8,000,000||12,000,000||9,797,959||Qing dynasty||1862||1877||15||Qing dynasty|
|Chinese Civil War||8,000,000||11,692,000||9,671,401||China||1927||1949||22||List of civil wars|
|Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire||8,400,000||8,400,000||Peru||1533||1620||87||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Russian Civil War||9,000,000||6,708,204||Russia||1917||1921||5||Russian Revolution, List of civil wars|
|Thirty Years' War||3,000,000||11,500,000||5,673,870||Holy Roman Empire, Europe||1618||1648||30||Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, it became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.|
|7,000,000||4,949,747||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1803||1815||13||Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|Yellow Turban Rebellion||3,000,000||7,000,000||4,582,576||China||184||205||22||Part of Three Kingdoms War|
|Second Congo War||2,500,000||5,400,000||3,674,235||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||6||First Congo War|
|French Wars of Religion||2,000,000||4,000,000||2,828,427||France||1562||1598||37||Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants)|
|Indian Rebellion of 1857||800,000||10,000,000||2,828,427||India||1857||1858||1|
|Hundred Years' War||2,300,000||3,300,000||2,754,995||Western Europe||1337||1453||116||Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–1453)|
|Vietnam War||800,000||3,800,000||1,743,560||Southeast Asia||1955||1975||21||Cold War and First Indochina War|
|Crusades||1,000,000||3,000,000||1,732,051||Holy Land, Europe||1095||1291||196||Christian military excursions in the Middle East.|
|Mfecane||1,500,000||2,000,000||1,732,051||Southern Africa||1816||1828||13||Ndwandwe–Zulu War|
|Nigerian Civil War||1,000,000||1,732,051||Nigeria||1966||1970||4||Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.|
|War in Afghanistan||1,240,000||2,000,000||1,620,000||Afghanistan||1978||present||40||Soviet–Afghan War, Taliban era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2 million) and 2000 (1.5 million and 2 million).|
|Punic Wars||1,250,000||1,850,000||1,520,691||Mediterranean||264BC||146BC||118||Carthage, Roman Republic|
|Spanish conquest of Yucatán||1,460,000||1,460,000||1,460,000||Central America||1519||1595||76||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Second Sudanese Civil War||1,000,000||2,000,000||1,414,214||Sudan||1983||2005||23||First Sudanese Civil War|
|Warring States period||1,200,000||1,500,000||1,341,641||China||475BC||221BC||255||Ancient China|
|Korean War||1,200,000||1,200,000||1,200,000||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||4||Categorized as part of the Cold War.|
|Seven Years' War||868,000||1,400,000||1,102,361||Worldwide||1756||1763||7|
|Soviet–Afghan War||600,000||2,000,000||1,095,445||Afghanistan||1980||1988||9||Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War. Part of War in Afghanistan|
|Japanese invasions of Korea||1,000,000||1,000,000||Korea||1592||1598||7|
|French Revolutionary Wars||1,000,000||1,000,000||Worldwide||1792||1802||10|
|Mexican Revolution||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Mexico, United States||1911||1920||10||Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.|
|Italian conquest of the Horn of Africa||1,000,000||1,000,000||Horn of Africa||1924||1940||16|
|Ethiopian Civil War||500,000||1,500,000||866,025||Ethiopia||1974||1991||17|
|Jewish–Roman wars||350,000||2,000,000||836,660||Roman Empire||66AD||136AD||70||Roman Empire|
|American Civil War||650,000||1,000,000||800,000||Southeastern United States and southern Pennsylvania||1861||1865||4||United States|
|Algerian War||350,000||1,500,000||724,569||Algeria||1954||1962||7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks, and 4 days|||
|War of the Spanish Succession||400,000||1,251,000||707,389||Europe, North America, South America||1702||1714||12|
|Spanish Civil War||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Spain||1936||1939||4|
|Eighty Years' War||230,000||2,000,000||678,233||The Low Countries, South America, Caribbean Sea, East and Southeast Asia||1568||1648||80|
|Gallic Wars||1,000,000||632,445||France||58BC||50BC||9||Roman Empire|
|Paraguayan War||300,000||1,200,000||600,000||Southern Cone||1864||1870||7||Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias|
|War on Terror||272,000||1,260,000||585,423||Worldwide||2001||2013||12||Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.|
|Iran–Iraq War||289,220||1,100,000||564,041||Iran–Iraq border||1980||1988||8||Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians|
|Albigensian Crusade||200,000||1,000,000||447,214||Southern France||1208||1229||21|
|Iraq War||176,913||1,100,000||445,132||Iraq||2003||2011||8||See Casualties of the Iraq War. Part of the "War on Terror".|
|Bangladesh Liberation War||26,000||3,000,000||279,285||East Pakistan||1971||1971||1||See Bangladeshi Genocide casualties|
|Kalinga War||150,000||200,000||173,205||India||262 BC||261 BC||2||Maurya Empire vs. State of Kalinga|
Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethnic/religious persecution
These are events that entail the intentional mass murder of individuals on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or race, or death caused by the forced eviction of individuals on the basis of race, religion or ethnicity.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|World War II casualties of the Soviet Union||13,684,700||40,000,000||23,396,324||German-occupied Europe and Russia||1939||1945||Germany's extermination of Slavic peoples and citizens of the Soviet Union. Figure given is both as intentional genocide and overall civilian war casualties.|
|Japanese war crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||East Asia||1937||1945||The systematic mass murders directed towards Korean and Chinese civilians by Japan and its puppet states. Most people were killed by forced labor, guns, bayonets, and biological weapons.
A small number of people were also killed by human experiments inside unit 731. Japan's reasons for this were it was an enslavement policy towards subjugated peoples, a belief in the superior Japanese race, and a strong belief in superior Japanese values and State Shinto. Not genocide, but nonetheless extreme religious persecution of Chinese and Korean civilians in aggressive wars. Not organized in the same effective way as the holocaust, but more people inside the army took part in the atrocities committed, such as two Japanese soldiers that had a competition about who could murder the most Chinese civilians being described as heroes inside Japanese papers. Also, the intention was not to kill the Chinese people, but rather enslave them. While Imperial Japan killed more people in an aggressive war (17,000,000– 22,000,000), most dead were by bombings and indirect consequences by Japanese warfare. However, this note only counts massacres against civilians by the Japanese military and crimes against humanity.
|Holocaust||4,200,000||6,300,000||5,143,928||German-occupied Europe||1941||1945||The main systematic and bureaucratic genocide against European Jews by Germany and its puppet states.|
|Holodomor||2,711,000||7,811,000||4,601,698||Ukraine||1932||1933||The term "Ukrainian Genocide" usually refers to the man-made famine of 1932 through 1933, called the Holodomor, in which the grain of Ukrainians was confiscated to the point where they could not survive off the amount of grain they had, and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp. The term also includes the killing of Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Great Purge, especially the Orthodox Church. The main advocate for this view was Raphael Lemkin, creator of the word genocide. The first death toll is famine and second death toll is combined body count of famine and executions of Ukrainians, using data from after the opening of the Soviet archives. (2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,00 during the purge and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.)|
|Soviet famine of 1932–33||2,400,000||10,000,000||4,242,641||Soviet Union||1932||1933|||
|Nazi crimes against the Polish nation||2,770,000||2,770,000||2,770,000||German-occupied Poland||1941||1945||Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Germany.|
|Khmer Rouge Killing Fields||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.|
|Rwandan genocide and other massacres between Hutus and Tutsis||905,000||1,595,000||1,234,190||Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire||1959||1997||Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.
Includes the Burundian genocides.
Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.
Violence peaked in the hundred days between April 7, 1994 and July 15, 1994, during which time between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people were killed.
|Population transfer in the Soviet Union||1,000,000||1,500,000||1,224,745||Soviet Union||1920||1951||May include casualties of decossackization.|
|Flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Eastern Europe||1945||1950||Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.|
|Kazakh famine of 1932–1933||1,500,000||2,300,000||1,857,418||Kazakhstan||1932||1933||Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33.|
|Armenian Genocide||800,000||1,500,000||1,095,445||Ottoman Empire||1914||1918||The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.|
|Hakka genocide by Qing Empire||1,000,000||1,000,000||China||Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867||Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867||After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution during the Taiping Rebellion that killed 1,000,000. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.|
|Genocide of Amerindians||
Thousands to millions more in forced labor and unnumbered wars and massacres in Latin America. Covers both North and South America.
|North and South America||1492||1996||While the overall death toll of man made deaths of Amerindians is unknown, there have been a few events in which many Amerindians perished. The combined death toll is the one used in this table.
|Massacres of Algerians during the French conquest of Algeria||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Algeria||1827||1875||Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people.|
|Partition of India||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||India||1947||1957||In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.|
|Dzungar genocide||480,000||600,000||536,656||Dzungar Khanate||1755||1758||The mass extermination of Dzungar Mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.|
|Greek genocide||289,000||750,000||465,564||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||Violent ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.|
|Circassian genocide||400,000||500,000||447,214||Circassia||1864||1867||Deaths from mass expulsion of Circassians after Russian conquest.|
|Albigensian Crusade||200,000||1,000,000||447,214||Languedoc, France||1209||1229||Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term "genocide", referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".|
|1971 Bangladesh genocide||3,000,000||
(Geometric mean of all numbers listed to the left)
|East Pakistan||March 21, 1971||December 16, 1971||See also:|
|Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946)||260,000||750,000||441,588||Soviet Union and Poland||1937||1946|| Includes deaths from the Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38).|
|Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil||235,000||800,000||433,590||Brazil||1900||1985|||
|Occupation of Tibet||144,000||1,200,000||415,692||Tibet||1950||ongoing||In 1960, the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began. The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the Soviets, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.|
|Massacre and displacement of Hazaras||?||?||
|Afghanistan||1888||1893||Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.|
|The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia||379,000||397,000||387,896||Independent State of Croatia||1941||1945||Genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Romani by the Ustaše including between 322,000 and 340,000 Serbs, 25,000 Roma and 32,000 Jews; a relatively small but unspecified number of political dissidents (mostly ethnic Croats) were also murdered.|
|Decossackization||300,000||500,000||346,410||Former Russian Empire||1917||1933||Violent class purge, ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolsheviks.|
|Porajmos||220,000||500,000||331,662||Nazi occupied Europe||1941||1945||The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.|
|Chinese genocide under Khmer Rouge||215,000||225,000||219,943||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.|
|Assyrian genocide||150,000||300,000||212,132||Ottoman Empire||1914||1920||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Cham genocide under Khmer Rouge||90,000||500,000||212,132||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves. According to Ben Kiernan, Cham were subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.|
|Hutu refugee massacres during the First Congo War||200,000||220,000||209,762||Zaire||1996||1997||During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred; however, Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces. The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.|
|Wu Hu and Jie genocide||200,000||200,000||200,000||Northern China||350||351||Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.|
|Cromwellian conquest of Ireland||200,000||200,000||200,000||Ireland||1649||1653||The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland. The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists. These arguments, in turn, have been challenged by others.|
|Caste War of Yucatán||200,000||200,000||200,000||Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico||1847||1901||The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote, "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon||1915||1918||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Destruction of the Carthaginians||150,000||250,000||193,649||Tunisia||149 BC||146 BC||This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.|
||Darfur, Sudan||2003||Ongoing||The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.|
|Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38)||110,000||250,000||165,831||Soviet Union||1937||1938||The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.|
|Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush||123,000||200,000||156,843||Soviet Union||February 1944||March 1944||Expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia.|
|Hamidian Massacres||80,000||300,000||154,919||Ottoman Empire||1894||1896||Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian Genocide.|
|East Timorese genocide||60,000||308,000||135,941||East Timor||1974||1999||The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness, resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.|
|Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia||60,000||300,000||134,164||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||Genocide of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).|
|Burundian genocide of Hutus in 1972||80,000||210,000||129,615||Burundi||1972||1972||Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.|
|Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire||52,000||254,500||115,039||Russian Empire||1903–1906||1917–1922||The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906 and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.|
|Ethnic conflict against and with Kurds in Turkey||33,835||357,000||109,905||Turkey||1921||ongoing|
|Deportation of the Crimean Tatars||100,000||100,000||100,000||Soviet Union||1944||1945||Often considered an ethnic cleansing, and Ukraine considers the event genocide.|
|Rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari||100,000||100,000||100,000||Present day Peru||1780||1782||The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).|
|Spanish repressions of Dutch Protestants||100,000||100,000||100,000||The Low Countries||1566||1609||100,000 massacred under Charles V and Philip II. Part of the Eighty Years' War.|
|Al-Anfal campaign||50,000||182,000||95,394||Baathist Iraq||1986||1989||The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein|
|Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War||50,000||150,000||86,603||Algeria||1962||1962||The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.|
|Aktion T4||70,273||93,521||81,068||Nazi Germany||1939||1941||A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.|
|Ethnic cleansing of Cyrenaicans||80,000||80,000||80,000||Libya||1923||1932|||
|Guatemalan genocide||35,000||166,000||76,223||Guatemala||1960||1996||According to the Historical Clarification Commission, 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared, and at least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War, of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.|
|Rwandan Revolution||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||Burundi and Rwanda||1959||1962|||
|1948 massacre in Hyderabad||27,000||200,000||73,485||Hyderabad State, India||1948||1948|||
|Effacer le tableau||60,000||70,000||64,807||Democratic Republic of Congo||1998||2003||Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.|
|Ethnic cleansing and genocide from all sides of the Yugoslav Wars||52,856||64,917||58,577||Yugoslavia||1991||2001||All civilians killed in the Yugoslav Wars including events such as the Srebrenica Massacre, Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, Žepa Massacre, and other atrocities. 69.8% to 82% of civilian victims of the Bosnian War were Bosniak.|
|American Indian Wars of the United States||49,000||64,000||56,000||Now the United States||1511||1890||From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894): "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given ... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate ..."|
|Massacres of Polish civilians during the Warsaw Uprising||50,000||60,000||54,772||Occupied Poland||5 August 1944||12 August 1944||Polish fatalities in districts of Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising|
|Burundian genocide of Tutsis in 1993||50,000||50,000||50,000||Burundi||1993||1993||Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.|
|Herero genocide||24,000||100,000||48,990||German South-West Africa||1904||1907||Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.|
|Witch trials in the early modern period||20,000||100,000||44,721||Europe||1400||1800|||
|Great Fire of Smyrna||10,000||100,000||31,623||Smyrna, Ottoman Empire||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the massacre of their populations. After the attacks, 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.|
|Urkun||3,000||270,000||28,460||Russian Empire, Krygyzstan||1916||1916||In 1916, there was an uprising and crackdown of Krygyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun. A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 that killed 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis a genocide, though Russia rejected this characterization. Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.|
|Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam||10,000||65,000||25,495||Canara||1784||1799||A 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.|
|1988 Burundian Hutu massacre||25,000||25,000||25,000||Burundi||1988||1988|||
|Parsley massacre||17,000||35,000||24,393||Dominican Republic||October 2, 1937||October 8, 1937||Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil (Spanish: "parsley") in a French accent in order to determine if they are Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.|
|Australian frontier wars||22,000||List of massacres of Indigenous Australians22,500; see||22,249||Australia||1788||1934||Wars between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which about 20,000 aboriginal were massacred, along with two to 2,500 settlers dying in combat.|
|Ethnic cleansing of Georgians||17,000||28,000||21,817||Abkhazia and Georgia||1992||1993||The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia", and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia" — refers to ethnic cleansing, massacres and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.|
|Dersim Massacre||7,594||40,000||17,429||Dersim, Turkey||1937||1937||The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province. The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government. As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.|
|1966 anti-Igbo pogrom||10,000||30,000||17,321||Nigeria||May 29, 1966||October 1966|||
|Indian massacres||16,349||16,349+||16,349||Now the United States||1511||1890||It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.|
|Massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs||1,000||150,000||12,247||Bangladesh||1971||1971||Most extreme episode of the persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh|
|Gukurahundi||3,750||30,000||10,607||Zimbabwe||1983||1987||Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.|
|Vietnamese genocide by Khmer Rouge||10,000||10,000||10,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide, according to Samuel Totten.|
|Namaqua genocide||10,000||10,000||10,000||German South-West Africa||1904||1907||Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.|
|Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge||8,000||8,000||8,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian Genocide according to Samuel Totten.|
|1946 Bihar riots||2,000||30,000||7,746||Bihar, British India||October 30, 1946||November 7, 1946||Killings of Bihari Muslims by Bengali Hindus in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.|
|Noakhali riots||5,000||10,000||7,071||Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India||October 1946||November 1946||Killings of Bengali Hindus by Bengali Muslims in retaliation to the Direct Action Day riots.|
|Algerian massacres by the French||1,020||45,000||6,775||Algeria||1945||1945|||
|Canadian residential schools||3,201||32,010||17,605.5||Canada||1876||1996|
|Tasmanian extinction/Black War||
|After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.|
|Zanzibar Revolution||2,000||20,000||6,325||Zanzibar||1964||1964||Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution|
|1964 East Pakistan riots||5,590||5,690+||5,640||East Pakistan||January 1964||January 1964|
|Simele massacre||5,000||6,000||5,477||Simele, Kingdom of Iraq||August 7, 1933||August 11, 1933||The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.|
|1950 Barisal Riots||+ 3?4,803||+ 3?4,833||+ 3?4,818||East Bengal||February 1950||March 1950||
|1984 Sikh Massacre||2,800||8,000||4,733||India||October 31, 1984||November 3, 1984||A series of pogroms against Sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.|
|Nellie massacre||2,191||10,000||4,681||Assam, India||Six hours on February 18, 1983||Six hours on February 18, 1983||Killings of 2191 Bengali Musims after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's decision to give 4 million Bengali Musilms in Assam the right to vote|
|Laotian genocide by Khmer Rouge||4,000||4,000||4,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.|
|Direct Action Day||4,000||4,000||4,000||India||August 16, 1946||August 18, 1946||Also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.|
|1804 Haiti massacre||3,000||5,000||3,873||Haiti||Early February 1804||April 22, 1804||Genocide of French people in Haiti.|
|Trail of Tears||2,000||6,000||3,464||United States||1830||1850||The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.|
|Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL||2,000||citation needed]5,000+[||3,162||Sinjar, Iraq and Syria||2014||ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL|
|Selknam genocide||2,500||3,900||3,122||Tierra del Fuego, Chile||Late 1800s||Early 1900s||Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.|
|Demolition of the Babri Masjid and massacre of protesters||2,000||2,000||2,000||Ayodhya, India||1992||1993||The destruction of a prominent mosque in India by Hindu extremists and killings of Muslim protesters.|
|2002 Gujarat riots||1,044||2,977||1,763||Gujarat, India||February 2002||March 2002||Minimum death toll includes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths. Maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead, and a higher 2,500 Muslim death toll.|
|Genocide of Shias by ISIL||1,566||1,566+||1,566||Iraq, Syria||2014||ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shiass by ISIL|
|Conquest of the Desert||1,300||1,300||1,300||Argentina||Mid 1870s||1884||Military campaign, directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples.|
|Genocide of Christians by ISIL||1,000||1,000+||1,000||Iraq, Syria, and Libya||2014||Ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL|
|Biological warfare at the siege of Fort Pitt||?||?||?||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||1763||1763||The death toll resulting from the event is unknown but here are some statistics that may allow for some extrapolations: The Fort Pit outbreak hit the Lenni Lenape and Shawnee. The population of these two groups in 2008 were 16,000 and 14,000 respectively. The US's population in 2008 was likely about 305 million as it was 281,421,906 in 2000 and grew by 1.9 million each year afterwards, meaning the two tribes were likely about one ten thousandth of the population. The population of the aforementioned tribes is unknown but the non-native population of the United States in 1760 was 1,593,625 and in 1770 was 2,148,076,. Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860, but in 2010 Native Americans made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population. The native populations grow at slower rates then non-native and sometimes even decreased. The mortality rates of disease on indigenous people can be as high as 90%.|
Political purges and repressions (politicides)
This section includes events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or just someone protesting the government) in what are sometimes called "Red" or "White" Terrors depending on who is committing them and the type of opposition they target (Red = Communist, White = Anti-Communist/Nationalist). Another term used to refer to these types of killing is politicide. This list is incomplete; please help by adding to it. See also Red Terror (disambiguation), White Terror, and Politicide.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong||800,000||28,000,000||4,732,864||People's Republic of China||1947||1951|||
Millions of landlords were killed during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.
|The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution||400,000||10,000,000||2,000,000||People's Republic of China||1966||1976||The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.|
See: Struggle session
|Cambodian Autogenocide||1,325,000||1,325,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979|||
Some have referred to the mass killing of ethnic Khmer people under the Khmer Rouge as a genocide despite the fact the mass killings were committed by fellow Khmer and the Khmer were killed less in proportion to their population, according to Samuel Totten, then other victims of the Khmer Rouge making it more of a politicide. These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide. The death toll used here is the combined death of rural and urban Khmer according to Samuel Totten. Note this is not the total number of people killed in the Cambodian genocide just the number of ethnic Khmers killed.
|Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries in China||712,000||2,000,000||1,193,315||People's Republic of China||1950||1951||The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; literally: "suppressing counterrevolutionaries" or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.|
|Great Purge in the Soviet Union||681,692||1,704,230||1,077,850||Soviet Union||1936||1938||The Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.|
|Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Indonesia||1965||1966||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965-66 by the Indonesian Army and associated death squads with support from Western powers such as the United States. Death tolls are difficult to estimate, but it is widely accepted by scholars that roughly 1 million people were killed.|
|White Terror (Russia)||300,000||300,000||300,000||Former Russian Empire||1917||1923||White movement equivalent to the Red Terror.|
|White Terror (Spain)||150,000||400,000||244,949||Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War||1936||1945||In Spain, the White Terror (also known as "la Represión Franquista" or the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (1 October 1936 – 20 November 1975)|
|Qey Shibir||30,000||750,000||150,000||People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||1977||1978||Violent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.|
|Bodo League Massacre||100,000||200,000||141,421||Korea||Summer 1950||Summer 1950||Massacre of communists and suspected communists during the Korean War.|
|Holocaust of the Freemasons||80,000||200,000||126,491||Nazi occupied territory||1933||1945||The Nazis targeted Freemasons as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish conspiracy.|
|Red Terror during the Russian Civil War||10,000||1,500,000||122,474||Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War||1918||1922||Political repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.|
|1991 uprising in Iraq||25,000||180,000||67,082||Iraq||March the 1st, 1991||April the 5th, 1991||The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.|
|Operation Condor||50,000||80,000||63,246||South America||1975||1983||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States.|
|Red Terror (Spain)||38,000||72,344||52,432||Spain during the Spanish Civil War||1936||1939||The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo) is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".|
|North Vietnamese Land Reform||13,500||200,000||51,962||North Vietnam||1954||1956|
|The Reign of Terror||16,000||42,000||25,923||France during the French Revolution||1793||1794||The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".|
|1982 Hama Massacre||10,000||40,000||20,000||Hama, Syria||February 2, 1982||February 28, 1982||The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.|
|1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre||10,000||40,000||20,000||El Salvador||January 22, 1932||July 11, 1932||Many of the victims were indigenous people.|
|February 28 Incident||10,000||30,000||17,320||Taiwan||1947||1947||Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.|
|Dirty War||9,000||30,000||16,432||Argentina||1976||1983||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
|Red and White Terrors of the Finnish Civil War||11,650||11,650||11,650||Finland||1918||1918||Both sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.|
|1988 Iranian P.O.C. Massacre||4,482||30,000||11,596||Iran||1988||1988
(5 months after starting of executions.)
Massacre of political prisoners in Iran.
|White Terror (Taiwan)||3,000||4,000||3,464||Taiwan||1949||1987||An era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 where imprisoned, and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.|
|Massacre of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989||241||10,000||3,000||Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China||1989||1989||Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.|
|Chilean Politicide||1,200||3,200||1,960||Chile||1974||1990||1,200 to 3,200 alleged communists were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.|
Forced labor, slavery, internment/extermination camps, and slave trades
This table includes deaths caused by the poor labor conditions of the systems, executions for not performing the labor satisfactorily, and killing from trying to accumulate the work force.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
"reform through labor" system
|15,000,000||27,000,000||20,124,610||People's Republic of China||1945||1976||Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves. Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens. Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.|
|Atlantic Slave Trade||11,400,000||11,600,000||11,499,565||Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic||1500s||1700s|||
|European enslavement under the Ottoman Turks||10,500,000||11,250,000||10,868,533||Southern Europe, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Grand Duchy of Moscow||1450||1800||Slave raids carried out by Muslims from Ottoman Empire on European nations. There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary Slave Trade. The method many people use is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people took as slaves. White estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted. Includes Barbary Slave Trade.|
|Congo Horrors||[b]3,000,000||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|Muslim slave trade of Africans||4,300,000||4,600,000||4,447,471||Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa||1500s||1700s|||
|Gulag labor system||1,053,829||6,000,000||2,514,552||Soviet Union||1930s||1950s||Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war. There is a growing consensus among scholars that, based on archival data, the number of deaths in the gulag system fall within the range 1.5 to 1.7 million.|
|Forced labor in North Korea||400,000||1,500,000||774,597||North Korea||1972||ongoing|
|Peonage and chattel slavery In Mexico||173,000||2,015,000||590,419||Mexico||1900||1920||R.J. Rummel, coiner of the word "Democide," estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage, a form of debt labor, by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time, coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.|
|Forced labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan||270,000||810,000||467,654||Korea and Manchuria||1939||1945|||
|Slavery in French colonial Africa||200,000||13,000,000||1,612,452||African section of French colonial empire||1900||1940|||
|Portuguese Forced Labor||325,000||325,000||325,000||Portuguese Empire||1900||1925|||
|Barbary slave trade||245,000||380,000||305,123||Italy, Spain, and Portugal||1500s||1600s|||
|Kolyma Gulag||130,000||500,000||254,951||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932||1954|||
|Amazonian Rubber Slavery||250,000+||250,000+||Amazon, Brazil||1900||1912|||
|Construction of Burma Railway||102,621||102,621||Burma||1943||1947||
Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.
|Stutthof||85,000||85,000||85,000||Stutthof, Third Reich||1939||1945||Second World War|
|Construction of the Suez Canal||30,000||120,000||67,082||Egypt, and Sudan||1859||1868||French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in 1854–56 to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000, but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue, and disease, especially cholera.|
|Forced labor of Allied POWs||35,000||35,000||In and around the Pacific||1939||1945||According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps, where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).|
|Boer concentration camps during the Second Boer War||26,000||40,000||32,249||Transvaal||1900||1902||Lord Kitchener led the British army against the Boer Republics in the Second Boer War in Southern Africa. In an attempt to pacify Boer guerrillas, he targeted their families, and 116,000 Boer women and children were captured and jailed by the British, Within 2 years, 22,074 children died and 4,177 women died due to deliberate neglect by the British. 115,000 black people were separately jailed, of whom 15,000 died in prison camps.|
|Stara Gradiška||12,790||75,000||30,972||Croatia||1941||1945||Primarily for women and children.|
|Tuol Sleng||17,000||17,000||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975||1979|||
|Camp Sumter||13,171||13,171||Andersonville, Georgia, U.S.||1864||1865|||
|Crveni Krst||12,000||12,000||Niš, Serbia||1941||1941|||
|Tammisaari Prison Camp||2,963||2,963||Tammisaari, Finland||1918||1918|
|Elmira Prison||2,963||2,963||Elmira, New York, U.S.||1864||1865|||
|Shark Island Concentration Camp||1,032||4,000||2,032||Luderitz, German South-West Africa||1905||1907||The minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people, and the maximum total includes those who died in the Luderitz area.|
|World Cup migrant labor deaths||1,200||1,800||1,342||Qatar||2013||ongoing||Out of 100,000 laborers.|
War crimes and ancient war atrocities
Massacres and unnatural deaths that occurred during wars and were committed or caused by military or quasi-military forces (including terrorism, insurgent forces, and inter-communal violence). They may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political groups but are usually part of a military strategy that disregards civilian lives, or they may be arbitrary acts of cruelty. Please try to only include events in which the majority of victims were civilians or which are often referred to as atrocities by significant mainstream scholarship.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|All atrocities against civilians during World War II||29,000,000||30,500,000||29,074,054||Worldwide||1939||1945||See World War II casualties.|
|Japanese war crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1937||1945||Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust and Japanese war atrocities. Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.|
|Three Alls Policy||2,700,000||2,700,000||2,700,000||China during World War II||1940||1942||In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.|
|Chinese Civil War atrocities against civilians from forced conscription and massacres||1,800,000||3,500,000||2,509,980||China||1927–1936||1946–1950||During the war, both Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.|
|First and Second Sudanese War atrocities against civilians.||2,000,000||2,000,000||Sudan||1956–1972||1983–2005|||
|Afghan Politicide||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Afghanistan||1979||1989||Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet Invasion as a genocide, however those killed were on the basis of political alignment making it a politicide.|
|Yellow Tiger Massacre||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Sichuan, China||1644||1646||Bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.|
|Warlord Era China||910,000||910,000||China||1900||1927|||
|Second Italo-Ethiopian War Atrocities against civilians||62,000||485,000||173,407||Ethiopia||1935||1941||Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War 1935–1941 (1965), cites a 1945 memorandum from Ethiopia to the Conference of Prime Ministers, which tallies 760,300 natives dead; of them: battle deaths: 275,000, hunger among refugees: 300,000, patriots killed during occupation: 78,500, concentration camps: 35,000, Feb. 1937 massacre: 30,000, executions: 24,000, civilians killed by air force: 17,800.|
|Mongol Destruction of Baghdad||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||Baghdad||January 29, 1258||February 10, 1258||Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age."|
|Angolan Civil War Atrocities against civilians||500,000||500,000||Angola||1975||2002||The 27-year war can be divided roughly into three periods of major fighting – 1975-91, 1992–94, and 1998 to 2002 – broken up by fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. The war devastated Angola's infrastructure, and severely damaged the nation's public administration, economic enterprises, and religious institutions.|
|Biological Warfare and Human Experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army||400,000||580,000||481,664||Parts of Russia and China especially Manchuria||1931||1945||See Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust.|
|Maratha invasions of Bengal||400,000||400,000||Bengal and Bihar regions of Indian subcontinent||1741||1751||Maratha Empire invaded Bengal Subah, occupied the western Bengal and Bihar regions, and perpetrated atrocities against the local population.|
La Violencia was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948–58, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside.
|Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki||109,000||200,000||147,648||Japan during World War II||1945||1945|
|Philippine-American War atrocities against civilians||200,000||250,000||223,607||Philippines||1899||1902 (1913 Moro Rebellion)||[c]|
|Manila Massacre||100,000||500,000||223,607||Manila, Philippines||1945||1945|||
|Iran–Iraq War atrocities against civilians.||61,000||282,000||131,156||Iran and Iraq||1980||1988||11,000 to100,000 civilians killed on both sides, plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.|
|Colombian conflict atrocities against civilians||177,307||177,307||Colombia||1964||ongoing|||
|Iraq War atrocities against civilians||155,923||186,355||170,461||Iraq||2003||2011||Numbers come from Iraq Body Count Project|
|War in the Vendée||100,000||250,000||158,114||France during the French Revolution||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians, but this claim has been widely discounted. See also: French Revolution.|
|Viet Cong atrocities||36,725||227,000||131,863||Vietnam||1955||1975|
|Islamic terrorism since 11 September 2001||125,000||203,865+||164,433||worldwide||2001||ongoing||Death toll depends on how terrorist attack is defined.|
|First and Second Chechen Wars Atrocities against civilians||55,000||330,000||134,722||Chechnya||1994–1996||1999–2009|||
|Atrocities caused by South Vietnam during Diem era and Vietnam War||57,000||284,000||127,232||Vietnam||1954||1975|||
|Second Italo-Senussi War Atrocities against civilians||80,000||125,000||100,000+||Libya||1923||1932||Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children, women, and the elderly; rape and disembowelment of women; throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death, running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, and bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs, beginning in 1930.|
|Crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army||100,000||100,000||Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo||1986||2009||The Guardian reported in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.|
|Crimes of the National Islamic Front||100,000||100,000||Sudan||1964||1999||Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.|
|West Papua atrocities||100,000+||100,000+||100,000+||West Papua||1963||Ongoing||Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963, the population of West Papua has recorded more than 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.|
|Ongoing Syrian Civil War atrocities against civilians||106,390||over 110,218+||108,287||Syria||2011||ongoing||See List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War|
|Kashmir Conflict||47,000||100,000+||68,556+||Jammu and Kashmir, India||1947||ongoing||See Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir|
Death toll may include non-civilian victims
|The Rape of Nanking||
(Civilian massacre victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
|Nanking, China||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
See: Death toll of the Nanking Massacre.
|Peruvian war against terrorism||61,007||77,552||68,784||Peru||1980||2000||In the late 20th century, the Peruvian government (armed forces and civil rondas) fought against communist terrorists in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved and other paramilitary entities. Terrorists deliberately targeted and killed civilians, kidnap and torture civil people and even force indigenous people to live in slavery, on the other side, some military forces, due to bad strategies, attacked civilian people in the highlands making the conflict more bloody than any other war in Peruvian history since the European colonization of the country.|
Death toll may include non-civilian victims.
|Sheikh Said rebellion||15,000 to 20,000||40,000 to 250,000||24,495 to 70,711||Turkey||1925||1925||The Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System, and used elements of Kurdish nationalism for recruiting. It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers, known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".|
|Atrocities against civilians during the War in Afghanistan||26,270||26,270||26,270||Afghanistan||2001||2014|||
|Crimes of ISIL||18,800||18,800+||18,800||Iraq, Syria, sporadic terrorism worldwide||2011||ongoing||The death toll may be higher, considering that these figures are only taken over the course of two years and only account occurrences in Iraq.|
|War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War||7,000||40,000||16,733||Sri Lanka||2009||2009||There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.|
|First Sack of Thessalonica||15,000||15,000||15,000||Byzantine Empire||904||904||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed, the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|Use of child soldiers in Iran||6,000||18,000||10,392||Iran||1980||1988||3% of two to six hundred thousand casualties.|
|Algerian Civil War Massacres||10,000||10,000||10,000||Algeria||1991||2002|||
|Balochistan conflict atrocities against civilians||7,628||7,628+||7,628||Balochistan, Pakistan||1937–1977,
|Civilians killed in American-led intervention in Iraq (since 2014) and in the Syrian Civil War||6,575||6,575+||6,575||Syria and Iraq||September 2014||ongoing||See American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present).|
|Civilians killed by South Korea in the Vietnam War||5,000||9,000||7,000||Vietnam||1964||1973|
|Civilians killed by U.S. soldiers in the Vietnam War||5,000||6,000||5,477||Vietnam||1955||1975|||
|Civilians killed in Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War||5,013||5,013+||5,013||Syria||September 2015||ongoing||See Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.|
|9/11 terrorist attacks||2,977||2,977||2,977||United States||11 September 2001||11 September 2001|||
|Civilians killed in the War in Donbass||2,000||2,000||2,000||Donbass, Ukraine||2014||ongoing|||
|Sabra and Shatila massacre||460||3,500||1,269||West Beirut, Lebanon||September 16, 1982||September 18, 1982||Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.|
|Civilian casualties from U.S. drone strikes||138|| +/- hundreds more965||365+||Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen||2006||ongoing|
|Fort Pillow massacre||235||235||235||Lauderdale County, Tennessee||April 12, 1864||April 12, 1864||Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. U.S. dead includes those both killed in combat and murdered by the Confederates afterwards.|
|Lawrence massacre||204||204||204||Douglas County, Kansas||August 21, 1863||August 21, 1863||Death toll includes both U.S. and Confederate dead. Deadliest terrorist attack in U.S. history until the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995.|
List of dictatorships by death toll
This chart includes regimes, empires, etc.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Mao Zedong catastrophes||16,997,000||70,000,000||34,493,333||People's Republic of China||1946||1976||Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform. The estimate of the minimum death toll is the sum of the minimum estimate of famine dead (15 million), land reform dead (800,000), Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000), and Cultural Revolution dead (400,000) plus the minimum killed in the 1959 Tibetan uprising (85,000 to 87,000).|
|German Holocaust||6,000,000||17,000,000||11,500,000||German-occupied Europe||1939||1945||German Holocaust against Jews, Poles, Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs, and Jehovah's Witnesses, plus Soviet Famine.|
|Stalinist crimes against humanity and genocides||8,773,521||22,192,230||13,953,637||Soviet Union||1922||1953||The millions murdered by the regime of Joseph Stalin by famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the Soviet regime of those not killed in famine which range from four to ten million, plus the minimum of those killed in famine which range from 6 to 8 million. Robert Conquest, writer of the book The Great Terror, first stated an estimate of 30 million, then a few years later lowering it to 20 million, and finally saying that no fewer than 15 million perished. Estimates before the release of the archives put those killed by Stalin as low as three million and as high as 60 million.
The low end is the sum of the low end of the following figures excluding the second post war famine as it's debated as to if the War or the Soviet government was more to blame, while the high end includes the high end of said famine along with the high end of the other events.
0.6 to 2.3 million Kazakhstan
2 million North Caucasus and elsewhere
1 to 1.5 million Soviet famine of 1946-47
Gulags: 1,053,829 to 6,000,000
Great Purge: 681,692 to 1,704,230
Population transfers: 1 to 1.5 million
German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union: 600,000 to 1 million
Siege of Budapest: 38,000
Battle of Berlin: 125,000
NKVD prisoner massacres: 100,000
Shooting of deserters: 185,000
|Mass killings under the Chinese Nationalist government||5,965,000||18,522,000||10,511,124||Republic of China||1928||1946||Primarily from conscription campaigns but also grain confiscations and other atrocities.|
|Japanese War Crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1895||1945|
|Congo Free State Horrors||[d]3,000,000||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably due to the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
Ranavalona I of Madagascar
|2,500,000||2,500,000||2,500,000||Madagascar||1829||1842||Putting an end to most foreign trade relationships, Ranavalona I pursued a policy of self-reliance, made possible through frequent use of the long-standing tradition of fanompoana—forced labor in lieu of tax payments in money or goods. Ranavalona continued the wars of expansion conducted by her predecessor, Radama I, in an effort to extend her realm over the entire island, and imposed strict punishments on those who were judged as having acted in opposition to her will. Due in large part to loss of life throughout the years of military campaigns, high death rates among fanompoana workers, and harsh traditions of justice under her rule, the population of Madagascar is estimated to have declined from around 5 million to 2.5 million between 1833–39, and from 750,000 to 130,000 between 1829-42 in Imerina. These statistics have contributed to a strongly unfavorable view of Ranavalona's rule in historical accounts.|
|Cambodian genocide||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Cambodia||1975||1979||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.|
|Young Turks Holocaust||1,439,000||2,750,000||1,989,284||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||A collective term to refer to the various genocides and Ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks. The death toll is derived from the sum of the death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), and the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).|
|Atrocities under Omar al-Bashir||1,063,000||2,450,000||1,613,800||Sudan||1989||Ongoing||1 to 2 million Second Sudanese Civil War|
63,000 to 450,000 Darfur genocide
|North Korean Crimes against humanity||710,000||3,500,000||1,576,388||North Korea||1948||ongoing||North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world. Over two-hundred thousand people are interned in concentrations camps for being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents. They are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation.|
|Crimes against humanity and genocide under Suharto in Indonesia||240,500||3,418,000+||906,658+||Indonesia||1965||1998||65/66 Politicide: 78,500 to 3,000,000 communists|
East Timor Atrocities: 60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese
West Papua Atrocities: 100,000 papuans
Petrus Killings: 2,000 to 10,000 suspected criminals
|Crimes against humanity of Mengistu Haile Mariam||430,000||1,750,000||867,468||Ethiopia||1977||1987||Manmade Famine: 400,000 to 1,000,000|
Politicide: 30,000 to 750,000
|Crimes of the FRELIMO||700,000||700,000||700,000||Communist Mozambique||1975||1999||See also Mozambican Civil War|
|Crimes of Croatia in World War II||300,000||700,000||500,000||Croatia||1941||1945|
|Crimes of Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong||145,225||1,082,000||396,401||Vietnam||1954||2000||95,000 re-education camps|
13,500–200,000 land reform
36,725 to 227,000 war crimes
200,000 to 560,00 boat people
The minimum death toll is the same of minimum estimates for war crimes, re-education camps, and land reform. The maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of land reform, war crimes, re-education camps and boat people, which may or may not be attributable to the regime.
|Saddam Hussein's Crimes against humanity and genocides||154,600||854,400||363,442||Baathist Iraq||1979||2003||1991 Repression Massacre: 25,000 to 180,000|
Al-Anfal Genocide of Kurds: 50,000 to 182,000
Iran–Iraq War Atrocities: 11,000 to 100,00 civilians
The post-1991 Uprising Refugee crisis of March and early April killed 36,000 people. According to some reports, up to hundreds of refugees died each day along the way to Iran as well during the same time frame. Assuming hundreds the death toll of these refugees could be anywhere from 3,600 to 32,400.
It is estimated that around 25,000 Feyli Kurds died due to captivity and torture during the Persecution of Feyli Kurds under Saddam Hussein
In addition, 4,000 prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison were reportedly executed in a particularly large 1984 purge.
The minimum estimate is the minimum estimate of civilians killed by Saddam during Iran-Iraq War, uprising and genocide of Kurds combined. The maximum estimate is the maximum total of the aforementioned, combined with the maximum demographic decline of Mesopotamian Marshes.
|Francoist Spain||195,000||265,000||227,321||Spain, Austria, and Russia||1939||1975||Diseases and starvation|
World War II
5,000 died at Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria
Blue Division. Casualties in the Russo-German conflict totaled 22,700. In action against the Blue Division, the Red Army suffered 49,300 casualties.
|Bashar al-Assad's repression in the Syrian Civil War||100,000||100,000||100,000||Syria||2011||Ongoing|
|Personal dictatorship of Idi Amin||100,000||500,000||223,607||Uganda||1971||1979||Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition, earning him the nickname "The Butcher of Uganda."|
|Communist Repression in Romania||60,000||435,000||161,555||Romania||1945||1964||Total does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies.|
|Tsardom of Ivan the Terrible||60,000||200,000||109,545||Russian Empire||1533||1584|
|Siad Barre (Isaaq genocide)||50,000||200,000||100,000||Somalia||1988||1991|
|Communist repression in Bulgaria||31,000||220,000||81,240||Bulgaria||1944||1989||Collecitization and political repression in Bulgaria.|
|Communist repression in Czechoslovakia||65,000||65,000||65,000||Czechoslovakia||1948||1968–|
|Personal dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema||50,000||80,000||63,246||Equatorial Guinea||1968||1979||Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Sources vary, but he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.|
|Dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo||50,000||50,000||50,000||Dominican Republic||1930||1938|
|Dictatorship of François Duvalier||30,000||60,000||42,426||Haiti||1957||1971||Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians, and the exile of many more.|
|Personal Dictatorship of Hissène Habré||40,000||40,000||40,000||Chad||1982||1990||In May 2016, Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery, and ordering the killing of 40,000 people. He was sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.|
|Communist Repression in Cuba||9,240||92,400||29,219||Cuba||1976||ongoing||Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, which accuses the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses. This includes offenses such as arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution.|
|Islamist Dictatorship of Iran||10,482||48,000||22,431||Iran||1979||ongoing||4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. massacre|
6,000 to 18,000 child soldiers killed
(refer to earlier tables on page)
|Communist Repression in Poland||22,000||22,000||22,000||Communist Poland||1945||1989|
|Communist Repression in Hungary||7,000||27,000||13,748||Hungary||1948||1956||Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies.|
|Repression under Enver Hoxha||5,000||28,000||11,832||Albania||1941||1985|
|Regime of Ferdinand Marcos||3,257||80,000||41,629||Philippines||1965||1986||The conservative estimate is recorded from 1975 to 1985, while the maximum estimate is recorded from 1965 to 1976. Also Includes those from the Moro conflict.|
|South African Apartheid||18,997||21,000||19,998.5||South Africa and Namibia||1948||1994||Maximum death toll does not include deaths from the South African Border War.|
|Imperial Rule of Tiberius||9,500||9,500||9,500||Ancient Rome||14||37|
|Imperial Rule of Caligula||9,000||9,000||9,000||Ancient Rome||37||41|
|Personal dictatorship of Johnny Paul Koroma||6,000||6,000||6,000||Sierra Leone||1997||1998|
|Imperial Rule of Nero||5,750||5,750||5,750||Ancient Rome||54||68|
|Personal dictatorship of Jean-Bedel Bokassa||100||90,000||3,000||Central African Republic||1966||1976||It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.|
|Imperial Rule of Claudius||2,935||2,935||2,935||Ancient Rome||41||54|
|East German killings of Berlin Wall climbers||327||1,500||928.5||East Germany||1949||1989|
Anthropogenically exacerbated famine, mass starvation, and illness or disease
Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines, and disease that were caused or exacerbated by human action.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Disease caused by smoking||71,000,000||90,000,000||79,937,476||worldwide||1930||1999|||
|worldwide||1921||1998||Combined death toll of famines caused by Communist states as listed below:
|Great Chinese Famine||15,000,000||55,000,000||28,722,810||People's Republic of China||1958||1962||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|Famine and disease during World War II||19,000,000||28,000,000||23,065,130||Worldwide||1939||1945||See World War II casualties|
|Famine in India under British Raj||12,000,000||29,000,000||20,500,000||India||1757||1947||Between 12 and 29 million Indians died of starvation while India under the British Raj. Millions of tonnes of wheat were exported to Britain as famine raged.|
|Famine and disease under Japanese imperialism||8,136,000||14,936,000||11,023,579||Japanese Empire||1937||1945||See World War II casualties.|
Combined death tolls from famine and disease from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
|Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79||citation needed]9,000,000[||13,000,000||10,816,650||China||1876||1879||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts|
|Great Bengal famine of 1770||10,000,000||10,000,000||10,000,000||British Bengal||1769||1773||The famine killed a third of the Bengali population at the time. It is attributed to the policies of the ruling British East India Company.|
|Russian famine of 1921||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,072||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, and Russian Civil War, with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka.|
|Famine and Disease in China during Japanese Invasion||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,068||China||1937||1945||See World War I casualties.|
|Soviet famine of 1932–33||4,400,000||9,100,000||6,327,717||Soviet Union||1932||1933||The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.
1.8 - 4.8 million Ukraine
600,000 - 2.3 million Kazakhstan
2 million Elsewhere
|Famine and disease during World War I||5,411,000||6,100,000||5,745,181||Worldwide||1914||1918||See World War I casualties.|
|Great Famine of 1876–78||6,100,000||10,320,000||8,300,000||British India||1876||1878||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|African World War Famine||3,800,000||5,400,000||4,529,901||Africa||1998||2004||Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.|
|Decommunization||3,000,000||6,000,000||4,242,641||Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Block||1991||2000||Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.|
|Bengal famine of 1943||citation needed]3,000,000[||4,000,000||3,464,100||British India||1943||1943||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports, however, war-related administrative policies in British India ultimately helped to cause the massive death toll.|
|Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900||8,400,000||19,000,000||13,700,000||British India||1896||1900||ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War||2,000,000||3,000,000||2,449,490||Nigeria||1967||1970||More than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockades during the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands starved to death daily as the war progressed.|
|Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||2,400,000||2,400,000||2,400,000||Indonesia||1944||1945||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but the main cause was the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|Post-WWII Soviet Famine||1,000,000||1,500,000||1,224,745||Soviet Union||1946||1946||Debated as to whether it was caused by war or government policy.|
|Great Irish Famine||750,000||1,500,000||1,060,660||Ireland||1846||1849||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland, where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food, was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors, which continue to remain the subject of historical debate.|
|Vietnamese Famine of 1945||400,000||2,000,000||894,427||Vietnam||1944||1945||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|Cambodian Holocaust Famine||800,000||950,000||871,780||Cambodia||1975||1979||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor, and famine, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, nearly half of which was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|1983–85 famine in Ethiopia||400,000||1,000,000||632,456||Ethiopia||1983||1985||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, especially the one of 1983–1985, were in large part created by government policies.|
|Famine and disease under Japanese occupation of the Philippines||336,000||336,000||336,000||Philippines||1942||1945||See World War I casualties.|
|North Korean famine||240,000||420,000||330,000||North Korea||1994||1998||The famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.|
|Cuban War of Independence Famine||300,000||300,000||300,000||Cuba||1895||1898||Most of dead in this war perished from famine and disease.|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire||1915||1918||Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000. The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets, and people were reported to be eating street animals, while some resorted to cannibalism.|
|Sudanese famine||70,000||70,000||70,000||Sudan||1998||1998||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
|Famine in Yemen||50,000 children||50,000 children||50,000 children||Yemen||2016||present||The famine was triggered by Saudi Arabia's intervention into the Yemeni Civil War, which is backed by Western powers including the United States. Around 13 million people, or roughly half of the country's population, is facing starvation in what the UN calls "the worst famine in the world in 100 years".|
|Starvation caused by the UN's sanctions against Ba'athist-era Iraq||0||576,000||288,000||Iraq||1990||1998||Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist regime claimed that the UN's sanctions, imposed by the United Nations Security Council, led to the deaths of young children.|
|2018 Canadian heatwave||70||70||70||Canada||2018||2018|
|Starvation from the draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes||0?||275,000?||n/a||Mesopotamian Marshes, Iraq and Iran||1950s||1990s||Only 20,000 Marsh Arabs were left in the region after the draining, though it is unknown whether this was caused by famine or migration.|
Riot or political unrest
Only riots and incidents where at least four people died are listed here.
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||By||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||20,000||5,000,000||316,228||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Skull racks: 60,000 to 136,000|
|Human sacrifice||13,000||13,000||13,000||Shang dynasty||China||1300 BC||1050 BC||Last 250 years of rule|
|Suicide bombings during the Iraq War||12,284||12,284||12,284||Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)||Iraq||2003||2011|
|Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note||3,912||3,912||3,912||Imperial Japan's navy and army||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|Mass suicide motivated religious and political.||citation needed]967[||967||967||Judean rebels||Masada||Spring 73 CE|
|Palestinian suicide attacks||804||804||804||Palestinian militants||Israel and Palestine||July 6, 1989||April 18, 2016||May only include victims|
Anthropogenic floods, drownings, and landslides
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of disasters in Antarctica by death toll
- List of disasters in Australia by death toll
- List of disasters in Canada by death toll
- List of disasters in Croatia by death toll
- List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll
- List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll
- List of disasters in Poland by death toll
- List of disasters in the United States by death toll
- List of wars by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of unusual deaths
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- Lists of disasters
- Lists of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Anti-communist mass killings
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
- Spanish Empire, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American disease and epidemics. These death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which some say might never be accurately determined. Modern scholarship tend to side with the higher estimates, but there is still variance based on calculation methods used. Even using conservative populations estimates, however, "one dreadful conclusion is inescapable: the 150 years after Columbus's arrival brought a toll on human life in this hemisphere comparable to all of the world's losses during World War II. ... Against the alien agents of disease, the indigenous people never had a chance. Their immune systems were unprepared to fight smallpox and measles, malaria and yellow fever. The epidemics that resulted have been well documented." A small industry of researchers in recent years have focused their attention on Native American population size in 1492, and the subsequent decimation of the population after contact with Europeans. They have stated that their findings in no way diminish the "dreadful impact Old World diseases had on the people of the New World. But it suggests that the New World was hardly a healthful Eden." For example, they note that as the previously thriving indigenous peoples became more urbanized and less mobile, they succumbed to the same declining sanitation and health conditions of other urban cultures, including tuberculosis. The researchers stress, however, that "their findings in no way mitigated the responsibility of Europeans as bearers of disease devastating to native societies."
- The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".
- While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 250,000; see "Casualties".
- The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".
- Pinto, Carla M. A.; Lopes, A. Mendes; Machado, J.A. Tenreiro (2014), Ferreira, Nuno Miguel Fonseca; Machado, José António Tenreiro, eds., "Casualties Distribution in Human and Natural Hazards", Mathematical Methods in Engineering, Springer Netherlands: 173–180, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7183-3_16, ISBN 978-94-007-7182-6
- Nash (1976). Darkest Hours. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-59077-526-4.
- Fink, George (2010). Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-381382-4.
- The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, 1994, pg. 622, cited by White
- "Pre-Columbian Population" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-07.
- American Philosophy: From Wounded Knee to the Present; Erin McKenna, Scott L. Pratt; Bloomsbury; 2015, pg. 375; "It is also apparent that the shared history of the hemisphere is one framed by the dual tragedies of genocide and slavery, both of which are part of the legacy of the European invasions of the past 500 years. Indigenous people north and south were displaced, died of disease, and were killed by Europeans through slavery, rape and war. In 1491, about 145 million people lived in the western hemisphere. By 1691, the population of indigenous Americans had declined by 90–95 percent."
- "Don't Blame Columbus for All the Indians' Ills". The New York Times. October 29, 2002.
- Richard H. Steckel and Jerome C. Rose: The Backbone of History Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere, Cambridge University Press; 1st edition; pg. 79; ISBN 9780521617444
- Barrett, David. World Christian Trends.
- Naimark, Norman (2016). Genocide: A World History.
- Alan Macfarlane (1997-05-28). The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.
- Werner, Gruhl (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8.
- "The Taiping Rebellion 1850–1871 Tai Ping Tian Guo". Taipingrebellion.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression, page 468.
- William J. Gingles, By Train to Shanghai: A Journey on the Trans-Siberian Railway, pg. 259
- White, Matthew. "Timur Lenk (1369–1405)". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- White, Matthew. "Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane". Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999.
- J.J. Saunders (1971). The History of the Mongol Conquests. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.
- Michael Lynch (2010). The Chinese Civil War 1945–49. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-671-3.
- "China's Bloody Century". Retrieved 2017-07-31.
- "Russian Civil War". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "The Thirty Years War Produced Astonishing Casualties". Civilian Military Intelligence Group. August 10, 2016.
- "The Thirty Years War (1618–48)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Charles Esdaile, Napoleon's Wars: An International History.
- "Mankind's Worst Wars and Armed Conflicts". Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths," European Journal of Population (2005) 21: 145–66.
- "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study" – Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
- "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Philip Pregill. Landscapes in History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-29328-6.
- Frederic Baumgartner. France in the Sixteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-15856-9.
- Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
- Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
- Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) pg. 278. Cited by White
- Cite error: The named reference
horriblethingswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". Historynet.com. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Nigel Bagnall., "The Punic Wars", June 23, 2005.
- "Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war". Archived from the original on 2004-12-10. Retrieved 2004-12-10., U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive; accessed 10 April 2007
- Derk Bodde, China's First Unifier: A Study in the Ch'in Dynasty as Seen in the Life of Li Ssu, 280? – 208 BC, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967, pp. 5-6.
- Chris Peers estimates that 1,500,000 were killed before the last campaign in 230–221 BC, Warlords of China, 700 BC to AD 1662, London: Arms and Armour, 1998, pg. 59.
- Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF). European Journal of Population. 21: 154.
- Jones, Geo H., Vol. 23 No. 5, p. 254.
- Buchenau, Jürgen (2005). Mexico Otherwise: Modern Mexico in the Eyes of Foreign Observers. UNM Press. p. 285. ISBN 0-8263-2313-8.
- Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace. p. 538. ISBN 0-670-61964-7.
- Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–55
- Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, pg. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
- "Human costs of war: Direct war death in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan October 2001 – February 2013" (PDF). Costs of War. February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. by Opinion Research Business (January 2008).
- "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties" Archived 2009-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.. January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files.
- " Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources R.J. Rummel" STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE Charlottesville, Virginia: Center for National Security Law, School of Law, University of Virginia, 1997 retrieved 2018
- Lockwood, Jeffrey A. "Six-legged soldiers", The Scientist, October 24, 2008, accessed December 23, 2008
- http://www.lit.osaka-cu.ac.jp/user/tsuchiya/gyoseki/presentation/IAB8.html osaka-cu.ac.jp
- Takashi Yoshida. The making of the "Rape of Nanking". 2006, page 64
- Clodfelter, Michael "Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference", Vol. 2, pp. 956. Includes civilians who died due to famine and other environmental disasters caused by the war. Only includes the 'regular' Chinese army; does NOT include guerrillas and does not include Chinese casualties in Manchuria or Burma.
- Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945, New York: Beechhurst Press. Review by Friedman, Philip (1954). "Review of The Final Solution". Jewish Social Studies 16 (2): 186–89. JSTOR 4465231. See also a review by Hyamson, Albert M. (1953). "Review of The Final Solution". International Affairs 29 (4): 494–95. JSTOR 2606046
- "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust?". Yad Vashem. (FAQs about the Holocaust).
- "The Holocaust: Tracing Lost Family Members". JVL. Retrieved November 2013.
- "Seven million died in the 'forgotten' holocaust – Eric Margolis". www.ukemonde.com. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, 23–29 November 2002. Available online in Russian at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006) and in Ukrainian at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 May 2006)
- Stalislav Kulchytsky, "Demographic losses in Ukrainian in the twentieth century" at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006), Zerkalo Nedeli, 2–8 October 2004 (in Russian), and (in Ukrainian) at the Wayback Machine (archived 13 March 2007)
- Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934". Europe-Asia Studies (pdf)
|url=(help). 57 (6): 823–41. doi:10.1080/09668130500199392.
- Michael Ellman Archived 2007-10-14 at the Wayback Machine., "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited"' Europe-Asia Studies, Routledge. Vol. 59, No. 4, June 2007, pp. 663–693. PDF file.
- Snyder 2010, p. 53. "One demographic retrojection suggests a figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about 2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation, carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine, provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933".
- David R. Marples. Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. p.50
- Alexander J.Motyl. "Deleting the Holodomor: Ukraine Unmakes Itself". World Affairs.
- Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9.
- Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89. ISSN 2163-839X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017.
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 124. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
- Sharp, Bruce (April 1, 2005). "Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia". Retrieved July 5, 2006.
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
- Purcell, Victor. China. London: Ernest Benn, 1962. pg. 167
- Quoted in ibid., pg. 239.
- Chesneaux, Jean. Peasant Revolts in China, 1840–1949. Translated by C. A. Curwen. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. pg. 40
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015). "Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" (PDF). p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-09-21. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
The establishment and operation of residential schools were a central element of this policy, which can best be described as 'cultural genocide'.
- "Canada's Dark Secret". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
6,000 children died in these schools. Some evidence puts the casualties at three times that number.
- CBC News: The National (14 December 2015). "Death toll in Residential Schools" – via YouTube.
- Miller, J.R. "Residential Schools".
- "341 students died at Northern residential schools - CBC News". CBC.
Sinclair said the total number of recorded residential school deaths in Canada — 3,201 — could be an underestimate given poor record keeping, and the real number of deaths could have been five to 10 times higher.
- "Residential school students had same odds of dying as soldiers in WW II - CBC News".
- Montreal, Mali Ilse Paquin in (6 June 2015). "Canada confronts its dark history of abuse in residential schools". the Guardian.
- Tasker, John Paul (May 29, 2015). "Residential schools findings point to 'cultural genocide', commission chair says". CBC News. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Smith, Joanna (December 15, 2015). "Truth and Reconciliation Commission's report details deaths of 3,201 children in residential schools". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- "The Canadian Genocide: Tens of Thousands of CHILDREN Killed by the CHURCH". humansarefree.com.
- Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.[page needed]
- White, Matthew. "Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century – Brazil". Necrometrics.
- Luxen, Micah (June 24, 2016). "Survivors of Canada's 'cultural genocide' still healing". BBC. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- Pamela Palmater (March 29, 2017). "Canada 150 is a celebration of Indigenous genocide". Now.
Celebrating genocide is not what most would consider a modern Canadian value. While use of the term "genocide" to describe Canada's treatment of Indigenous peoples has created a great deal of debate, there has always been a recognition that, at minimum, Canada was guilty of "cultural genocide," even if individuals couldn't bring themselves to accept more sinister intentions. Former prime minister Paul Martin told the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) that it was time to call the residential schools policy what it was: "cultural genocide." Supreme Court of Canada Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin weighed in on Canada's dismal human rights record, saying that residential schools were attempts to commit "cultural genocide" against Indigenous peoples.
- Chapman 2010, p. 544.
- Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos. Bd. 79, H. 4./6.: 645–47.
- Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations website. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total number of persons killed or who had disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
- Robins & Jones 2009, p. 50.
- Jalata, Asafa (2016). Phases of Terrorism in the Age of Globalization: From Christopher Columbus to Osama bin Laden. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 92–3. ISBN 978-1-137-55234-1.
- D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge. pg. 53; ISBN 9780415565660
- Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations, Routledge. pg. 5; ISBN 9781134378258
- Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India, Duke University Press.
- White, Matthew. "Albigensian Crusade". necrometrics.
- Raphael Lemkin (2012). Steven Leonard Jacobs, ed. Lemkin on Genocide. Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5.
- "Alleged atrocities by the Pakistan Army (paragraph 33)". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 23 October 1974. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Jack, Ian (20 May 2011). "It's not the arithmetic of genocide that's important. It's that we pay attention". The Guardian.
- Bass, Gary (2013-11-19). "Looking Away from Genocide". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- The British Medical Journal in 2008, conducted a study by Ziad Obermeyer, Christopher J. L. Murray, and Emmanuela Gakidou estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died as a result of the conflict.
- "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history". BBC. 25 March 2010.
- D.Smith says 500,000
- S&S: 500,000 (Civil War, Mar.-Dec. 1971)
- 1984 World Almanac: up to 1,000,000 civilians were killed.
- Hartman: 1,000,000 Bengalis
- B&J: 1,000,000 Bengalis
- Porter: 1M-2M
- Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
- Kuper cites a study by Chaudhuri which counted 1,247,000 dead, and mentions the possibility that it may be as many as 3,000,000.
- Eckhardt: 1,000,000 civ. + 500,000 mil. = 1,500,000 (Bangladesh)
- Rummel: 1,500,000.
- Porter: 1M-2M
- "Bangladesh Genocide Archive". Bangladesh Genocide Archive. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
- The official estimate in Bangladesh is 3 million dead. [AP 30 December 2000; Agence France Presse, 3 October 2000
- Rounaq Johan: 3,000,000 (in Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Samuel Totten, ed. (1997))
- Compton's Encyclopedia, "Genocide": 3,000,000
- Encyclopedia Americana (2003), "Bangladesh": 3,000,000
- Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski (2009), Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance; ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Excerpt reproduced in digital form).
- Smith 1997, pp. 600–01 n. 8
- "Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts". Archived 2007-06-15 at the Wayback Machine., The Department of Information and International Relations: Central Tibetan Administration, 1996. pg. 53
- Kuzmin, S.L. Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation. Dharamsala, LTWA, 2011.
- 897,000 Circassians were deported and killed in an event similar in time period and method to this one and of those about 45% died.
("Caucasus Report: July 15, 2005". Radio Free Europe.)
If this is applied to the median of the following rough estimates and then rounded up (since this a very rough estimate anyway) we end up with a very rough estimate of 390,000 killed.
- Low estimate: In 1893, the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred and displaced to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazaras in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.
- "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- High estimate: In 1893 the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056, out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000, making Hazara's in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.
- "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Low estimate: In 1893, the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred and displaced to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazaras in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- "Jasenovac". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- White, Matthew. "20th Century death tolls larger than one million but fewer than 5 million people-Cambodia". necrometrics. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Totten, Samuel; William S. Parsons; Israel W. Charny (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 345. ISBN 0-415-94430-9.
- Hannum, Hurst (1989). "International Law and Cambodian Genocide: The Sounds of Silence", Human Rights Quarterly (Johns Hopkins University Press) 11 (1): 82–138. doi:10.2307/761936. JSTOR 761936.
- CDI: The Center for Defense Information, The Defense Monitor, "The World At War: January 1, 1998".
- Reyntjens, Filip. The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. pg. 100
- "Democratic Republic of Congo. An long-standing crisis spinning out of control". Archived 2013-10-15 at the Wayback Machine.. Amnesty International, September 3, 1998, pg. 9. AI Index: AFR 62/33/98.
- 《晉書·卷一百七》 Jin Shu Original text 閔躬率趙人誅諸胡羯，無貴賤男女少長皆斬之，死者二十余萬，屍諸城外，悉為野犬豺狼所食。屯據四方者，所在承閔書誅之，于時高鼻多須至有濫死者半。
- John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell, p. 298. published 1900 and 2001; ISBN 978-1-4212-6707-4 "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-05-25. British National Archives web site; accessed March 2007; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-12-11. Retrieved 2006-01-17. From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history"; accessed March 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 11, 2004. Retrieved 2006-01-17.
- Philip McKeiver in his 2007 work, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4 and Tom Reilly, 1999, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy; ISBN 0-86322-250-1
- Coyle, Eugene (Winter 1999). "Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy, Tom Reilly [review of]". Book Reviews. History Ireland. 7 (4). Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Dutton, Donald G. (2007). The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres, and Extreme Violence: Why "normal" People Come to Commit Atrocities. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 9780275990008.
- Friedman, Mark (2013). Genocide (Hot Topics). Raintree. p. 58. ISBN 9781406235081.
- "Microsoft Word – Letters9" (PDF). Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- "Sudan president charged with genocide in Darfur", Associated Press. Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Dr. Eric Reeves, Quantifying Genocide in Darfur, April 28, 2006 Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "U.N.: 100,000 more dead in Darfur than reported". CNN. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
- "Q&A: Sudan's Darfur conflict". BBC News. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- "Darfur conflict". Alertnet.org. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- "The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir". International Criminal Court. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Pohl, J. Otto (1999). Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937–1949. Greenwood Press. pp. 97–98. ISBN 9780313309212. LCCN 98046822.
- Bancheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 9781135771201.
- http://works.bepress.com/robert_cribb/2/ How many deaths? Problems in the statistics of massacre in Indonesia (1965–66) and East Timor (1975–1980)
- Defert, Gabriel, Timor Est le Genocide Oublié, L'Hartman, 1992.
- "Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999" (PDF). Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- Asia Watch, Human Rights in Indonesia and East Timor, Human Rights Watch, New York, 1989, p. 253
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- The Reconstruction of Nations, 2004
- W kręgu Łun w Bieszczadach, 2009, page 13
- Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła", 2011, pp. 447–448
- Terles in Ethnic Cleansing, p. 61
Czesław Partacz, Prawda historyczna na prawda polityczna w badaniach naukowych. Przykład ludobójstwa na Kresach Południowo-Wschodniej Polski w latach 1939–1946
Lucyna Kulińska "Dzieci Kresów III", Kraków 2009, p. 467
Józef Turowski, Władysław Siemaszko: Zbrodnie nacjonalistów ukraińskich dokonane na ludności polskiej na Wołyniu 1939–1945. Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce – Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Środowisko Żołnierzy 27 Wołyńskiej Dywizji Armii Krajowej w Warszawie, 1990 Hochspringen ↑ Władysław Siemaszko, Ewa Siemaszko : Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia 1939–1945. Borowiecky, Warszawa 2000; ISBN 83-87689-34-3, S. 1056.
- "Uchwala Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 15 lipca 2009 r. w sprawie tragicznego losu Polakow na Kresach Wschodnich". Biuro Prasowe Kancelarii Sejmu. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- W świetle przedstawionych wyżej ustaleń nie ulega wątpliwości, że zbrodnie, których dopuszczono się wobec ludności narodowości polskiej, noszą charakter niepodlegających przedawnieniu zbrodni ludobójstwa. – Piotr Zając, Prześladowania ludności narodowości polskiej na terenie Wołynia w latach 1939–1945 – ocena karnoprawna zdarzeń w oparciu o ustalenia śledztwa OKŚZpNP w Lublinie, [in:] Zbrodnie przeszłości. Opracowania i materiały prokuratorów IPN, t. 2: Ludobójstwo, red. Radosław Ignatiew, Antoni Kura, Warszawa 2008, pp. 34-49
- Timothy Snyder "A fascist hero in democratic Kiev", New York Review of Books, February 24, 2010.
- Keith Darden, Resisting Occupation: Lessons from a Natural Experiment in Carpathian Ukraine, pg. 5, Yale University, October 2, 2008.
- J.P. Himka, "Interventions: Challenging the Myths of Twentieth-Century Ukrainian history", University of Alberta, March 28, 2011, pg. 4
- Grzegorz Motyka, "Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła",. Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943–1947, Kraków (2011), pg. 447
- Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999, Yale University Press. 2003. pp. 170, 176
- Weinberg, Robert. The Revolution of 1905 in Odessa: Blood on the Steps. 1993, pg. 164.
- "Pogroms". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Lundgren, Asa (2007). The unwelcome neighbour: Turkey's Kurdish policy. London: Tauris & Co., pg. 44.
- McDowall, David (2007). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: Tauris & Co. pp. 207–08.
- Vera Eccarius-Kelly, The Militant Kurds: A Dual Strategy for Freedom, pg. 86, 2010.
- Koivunen, Kristiina. "The Invisible War in North Kurdistan" (PDF). ethesis.helsinki.fi (in Finnish). p. 104.
- Şafak, Yeni. "Nearly 7,000 civilians killed by PKK in 31 years". yenisafak.com. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Visweswaran, edited by Kamala (2013). Everyday Occupations: Experiencing Militarism in South Asia and the Middle East (1st ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 14. ISBN 0812207831.
- Romano, David (2005). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0521684269.
- Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
- Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, pg. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
- Ayşe Hür, "Osmanlı'dan bugüne Kürtler ve Devlet-4" Archived 2011-02-25 at the Wayback Machine., Taraf, October 23, 2008; retrieved August 16, 2010.
- M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926–1930, Pêrî Yayınları, İstanbul, 1997; ISBN 975-8245-01-5, pg. 105.
- "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert."
- Robins & Jones 2009, p. 1.
- Halley's Bible Handbook, 24th ed. 1965.
- "Iraqi Anfal". Human Rights Watch. 1993. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace. p. 537. ISBN 0-670-61964-7.
- Mann, Michael (2006). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-521-53854-1.
- "Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2008" (PDF). Genocide Watch. Genocide Watch. 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Noorani, A.G. "Of a massacre untold". Frontline. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Thompson, Mike. "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre". BBC.
- "THE 1992–95 WAR IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: CENSUS-BASED MULTIPLE SYSTEM ESTIMATION OF CASUALTIES' UNDERCOUNT" (PDF). ICTY. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Lara J. Nettelfield (2010). Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cambridge University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0-521-76380-6.
- "After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead". Reuters. 2013-02-15.
- [http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/kosovo-war-victims-list-published Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Evaluation" (PDF), balkaninsight.com; retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing", hlc-rdc.org; retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Srpske žrtve rata i poraća na području Hrvatske i bivše RSK 1990. – 1998. godine", Veritas; retrieved June 16, 2015.(in Croatian)
- Martić Witness Details Croatian War Casualties", Global Voices BALKANS; retrieved April 13, 2006.(in English)
- Marko Attila Hoare, "Genocide in Bosnia and the failure of international justice" (PDF), Kingston University (UK), April 2008; retrieved March 23, 2011.
- "Dëshmorët e Ushtrisë Çlirimtare Kombëtare", shkruar nga Xhemal Selimi. Tanusha 2001. 15 February 2011.
- Bender, Kristof (2013). "How the U.S. and EU Stopped a War and Nobody Noticed: The Containment of the Macedonian Conflict and EU Soft Power". In Berdal, Mats; Zaum, Dominik. Political Economy of Statebuilding: Power After Peace. London: Routledge. pg. 341; ISBN 978-0-203-10130-8
- Lukas, Richard C. (2012). The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939–1944. Hippocrene Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7818-1302-0.
- Walter Laqueur & Judith Tydor Baumel (2001). "Dirlewanger, Oskar". The Holocaust Encyclopedi, Yale University Press (pg. 150), ISBN 0300084323; retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count". necrometrics.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Biondich, Mark (2011). The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence since 1878. OUP Oxford. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-19-929905-8.
- Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, pg. 52.
- Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6., pg. 233.
- Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
- "Commission Calls 1916 Tsarist Mass Killings Of Kyrgyz Genocide Print Share". Radio Free Europe.
- Krugosvet Encyclopaedia. Article on Sturmer Archived 2007-11-11 at the Wayback Machine.
- Graeme R. Newman (2010). Crime and Punishment around the World [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-35134-1.
- Alex von Tunzelmann (2012). Red Heat: Conspiracy, Murder and the Cold War in the Caribbean. Simon and Schuster. p. 1933. ISBN 978-1-4711-1477-9.
- Budapest Declaration and Geneva Declaration on Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia between 1992 and 1993 adopted by the OSCE and recognized as ethnic cleansing in 1994 and 1999.
- The Guns of August 2008, Russia's War in Georgia, Svante Cornell & Frederick Starr, pg. 27.
- Anatol Lieven, "Victorious Abkhazian Army Settles Old Scores in An Orgy of Looting", The Times, October 4, 1993.
- "In Georgia, Tales of Atrocities Lee Hockstander", International Herald Tribune, October 22, 1993.
- The Human Rights Field Operation: Law, Theory and Practice, Abkhazia Case, Michael O'Flaherty
- The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, Michael Bourdeaux, pg. 237.
- Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives, Alekseĭ Georgievich Arbatov, pg. 388
- Georgiy I. Mirsky, On Ruins of Empire: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Former Soviet Union, pg. 72
- "Georgia: History". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Roger Kaplan, Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, pg. 564
- Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, pg. 174.
- Michael Bourdeaux, The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, pg. 238.
- Svetlana Mikhailovna Chervonnaia, Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow, Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
- Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Soviet Union, Svante E. Cornell
- Tamaz Nadareishvili, Conspiracy Against Georgia, Tbilisi, 2002.
- Human Rights Watch Helsinki, Vol 7, No 7, March 1995, pg. 230.
- Gary K. Bertsch, Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia, pg. 161.
- "Dersim '38 Conference" (PDF).
- "The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey (1937–38)" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Jacqueline Sammali (1995). Etre Kurde, un délit?: portrait d'un peuple nié. Harmattan. p. 119. ISBN 978-2-7384-3772-3.
- Sabri Cigerli (1999). Les Kurdes et leur histoire. Harmattan. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-7384-7662-3.
- "Can Kurds rely on the Turkish state?". Weeklyzaman.com. 2011-10-14. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
- "16. Turkey/Kurds (1922–present)". Uca.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
- Birinci Genel Müfettişlik Bölgesi, Güney Doğu, İstanbul, pp. 66, 194. (in Turkish); accessed August 2, 2018.
- "Accueil - Sciences Po Violence de masse et Résistance - Réseau de recherche" (PDF). massviolence.org. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- http://www.massviolence.org/Dersim-Massacre-1937-1938 (According to the organisation Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, Dersim is a Kurdish Alevi province, and the massacre of turks were towards Zaza-speaking Alevi Kurds)
- McKenna, Joseph C. (1969). "Elements of a Nigerian Peace". Foreign Affairs. 47 (4): 668. doi:10.2307/20039407. JSTOR 20039407.
- Osborn, William M. (2001). The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, Garden City, New York: Random House; ISBN 978-0-375-50374-0
- George Fink (2010). Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster. Academic Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-12-381382-4.
- Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict: Po – Z, index. 3. Academic Press. 1999. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-12-227010-9.
- Hill, Geoff (2005) . The Battle for Zimbabwe: The Final Countdown. Johannesburg: Struik Publishers. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-86872-652-3.
- Ian Stephens, Pakistan (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), pg. 111.
- The New York Times (a) 1946.
- Ghosh Dastidar, Sachi (2008). Empire's Last Casualty: Indian Subcontinent's vanishing Hindu and other Minorities. Kolkata: Firma KLM. p. 170. ISBN 81-7102-151-4.
- "1,000 KILLED IN RIOTS". The Hindu. Madras. 23 January 1964. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Bhattacharyya, S.K. (1987). Genocide in East Pakistan/Bangladesh. Houston, TX: A. Ghosh. p. 96. ISBN 0-9611614-3-4.
- Bhattacharyya, S.K. (1987). Genocide in East Pakistan/Bangladesh. Houston, TX: A. Ghosh. p. 100. ISBN 0-9611614-3-4.
- Zubaida 2000, p. 370
- "Displaced persons in Iraqi Kurdistan and Iraqi refugees in Iran" (PDF). fidh.org. International Federation for Human Rights. January 2003. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- DeKelaita, Robert (November 22, 2009). "The Origins and Developments of Assyrian Nationalism" (PDF). Committee on International Relations Of the University of Chicago. Assyrian International News Agency. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- Sargon Donabed (2015). Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the 20th Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7486-8605-6.
- "Genesis of Nellie massacre and Assam agitation", Indilens news team, Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Girard 2011, pp. 319–322.
- "Will anyone stop ISIS?". CNN.com. 7 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014.
- CNN, By Laura Smith-Spark,. "Iraq: 'Hundreds of Yazidi minority slaughtered' - CNN".
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (July 2003). "Communal Riots in Gujarat: The State at Risk?" (PDF). Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics: 16. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Which groups are under threat by ISIS in Iraq?", cnn.com; retrieved 2015-12-22.
- "As Christians Flee, Governments Pressured To Declare ISIS Guilty Of Genocide". NPR. 24 December 2015. "At least a thousand Christians have been killed. Hundreds of thousands have fled."
- Phillip M. White (June 2, 2011). American Indian Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44.
- Pritzker 422
- Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine. 2008.
- "CT1970p2-13: Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2004. p. 1168. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990... Archived 2012-08-06 at WebCite. U.S. Census Bureau; retrieved 2013-05-28.
- "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Cook, Noble David. Born To Die; Cambridge University Press; 1998; pp. 1–14.
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (2007). China's bloody century: genocide and mass murder since 1900. Transaction Publishers. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4128-0670-1.
- Maurice Meisner (1999). Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic (3rd ed.). Free Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-684-85635-3.
- USHMM (December 5, 1995), The Chinese Case: Was It Genocide or Poor Policy?, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Archived from the original on August 23, 2017,
The Cultural Revolution was modern China's most destructive episode. It is estimated that 100 million people were persecuted and about five to ten million people, mostly intellectuals and party officials lost their lives.
- Yang Kuisong (March 2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–21. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064. (subscription required) summary at China Change blog
- Maurice Meisner. Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic, Third Edition, Free Press, 1999. ISBN 0-684-85635-2, pg. 72: "...the estimate of many relatively impartial observers that there were 2,000,000 people executed during the first three years of the People's Republic is probably as accurate a guess as one can make on the basis of scanty information."
Roderick MacFarquhar; John K. Fairbank (1987). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 14, The People's Republic, Part 1, The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1949–1965. Cambridge University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-521-24336-0.
"Mao's Killing Quotas">Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC), 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2009.
- Communism: A History (Modern Library Chronicles) by Richard Pipes, pg 67
- Wielka czystka by Alexander Weissberg-Cybulski, ISBN 83-07-02122-7
- Robinson, Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66. Princeton University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4008-8886-3.
- Indonesia's killing fields. Al Jazeera, December 21, 2012; retrieved January 24, 2016.
Gellately, Robert; Kiernan, Ben (July 2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 290–91. ISBN 0521527503. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
"Blumenthal80">Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; ISBN 9004156917, pg. 80.
- Robinson, Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66. Princeton University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 9781400888863.
- Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey. 42 (4): 550–63. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550.
- Melvin, Jess (2018). The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-138-57469-4.
- Эрлихман, Вадим (2004). Потери народонаселения в XX веке. Издательский дом "Русская панорама". ISBN 5931651071.
- Julián Casanova, Francisco Espinosa, Conxita Mir, Francisco Moreno Gómez. "Morir, matar, sobrevivir. La violencia en la dictadura de Franco", Editorial Crítica. Barcelona, Spain. 2002. p. 8.
- Michael Richards, A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936–1945, Cambridge University Press. 1998. pg. 11.
- Antony Beevor. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939, Weidenfeld & Nicolson (2006), pp. 89–94.
- "Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2008". Genocide Prevention Advisory Network. Archived from the original on 2016-08-05. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Harff, Barbara & Gurr, Ted Robert: "Toward an Empirical Theory of Genocides and Politicides", 32 International Studies Quarterly 359 (1988).
- Agence France Presse (8 Oct. 1996)
- Christopher M. Andrew; Vasili Mitrokhin (2005). The World was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World. Basic Books. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-465-00311-2.
- Riccardo Orizio, US admits helping Mengistu escape, BBC, 22 December 1999.
- Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators, pg 151.
- Paul M. Edwards,, Historical Dictionary of the Korean War, Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2010, p. 32, entry "Bodo League Massacre"
- Kim 2004, p. 535.
- Hodapp, Christopher (2013). Freemasonry for Dummies, 2. Edition. Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 1118412087.
- Ryan, James (2012). Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early Soviet State Violence. London: Routledge. pg. 114; ISBN 978-1138815681
- Lajos Szaszdi (2008). Russian Civil-Military Relations and the Origins of the Second Chechen War. University Press of America. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-7618-4178-4.
- "Justice For Iraq". Mafhoum.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein. State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 0415664578.
- Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. p. 22 & 23. ISBN 0415686172.
- Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. Penguin Books. 2006. London. p. 87
- de la Cueva, Julio, "Religious Persecution", Journal of Contemporary History, 3, 198, pp. 355–69. JSTOR 261121
- Julian Casanova, Unearthing Franco's Legacy, pp. 105–06, University of Notre Dame Press, 2010; ISBN 0-268-03268-8
- Beevor, Antony (2006), The Battle For Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pg. 81.
- Moise, pp. 205–22; "Newly released documents on the land reform", Vietnam Studies Group. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- Lam Thanh Liem (2005), "Ho Chi Minh's Land Reform: Mistake or Crime"; accessed 4 October 2015.
- University of California, San Diego (2001). "El Salvador elections and events 1902–1932". Archived from the original on May 21, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2008.
- Phil Gunson (2009-04-02). "Obituary: Raúl Alfonsín - World news - The Guardian". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- PBS News Hour, 16 October 1997. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas, erols.com; accessed August 2, 2018.
- Paavolainen 1966, pp. 183–208, Paavolainen 1967, Keränen et al. 1992, pp. 121, 138, Eerola & Eerola 1998, pp. 59, 91, Westerlund 2004a, p. 15, Tikka 2006, pp. 19–30, Jyränki 2014, pp. 150–88, Tikka 2014, pp. 90–118, Kekkonen 2016, pp. 106–66, 287–356
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-06-11. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
- "Iran Focus". Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "News". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "At least 10,000 people died in Tiananmen Square massacre, secret British cable alleges". independent.co.uk. 23 December 2017.
- (in Spanish) English translation of the Rettig Report
- "Chile to sue over false reports of Pinochet-era missing". Latin American Studies. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Aikman, David. "The Laogai Archipelago", The Weekly Standard, September 29, 1997.
- "Reeducation Through Labor in China". Human Rights Watch. June 1998. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
- "Victimario Histórico Militar".
- Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800.
- The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3, AD 1420–AD 1804.
- Ascherson 1999, p. 9.
- Hochschild 1999, p. 315.
- Hochschild, Adam (1999), pp. 226-32, King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; ISBN 0-547-52573-7
- Hochschild, pp. 226–32.
- Pool, The Stalinist Penal System, pg. 131
- Getty, J. Arch; Rittersporn, Gábor; Zemskov, Viktor (1993). "Victims of the Soviet penal system in the pre-war years: a first approach on the basis of archival evidence" (PDF). American Historical Review. 98 (4): 1024. doi:10.2307/2166597. JSTOR 2166597.
- Alexopoulos, Golfo (2017). Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag, Yale University Press.
- Healey, Dan (1 June 2018). "GOLFO ALEXOPOULOS. Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag". The American Historical Review. 123 (3): 1049–1051. doi:10.1093/ahr/123.3.1049.
New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and "inhumanity." The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953.
- Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999). "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Not the Last Word" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 51 (2): 320. doi:10.1080/09668139999056.
- Steven Rosefielde. Red Holocaust. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 0-415-77757-7 pg. 67 "...more complete archival data increases camp deaths by 19.4 percent to 1,258,537"; pg 77: "The best archivally based estimate of Gulag excess deaths at present is 1.6 million from 1929 to 1953."
- Black Book of Communism, pg. 564.
- Haas, Benjamin (19 September 2018). "'Ashamed': South Koreans chilled by Kim Jong-un's cuddles". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
North Korea runs massive prison camps that hold between 80,000 and 120,000 political prisoners, according to a United Nations inquiry that compiled evidence of a raft of crimes against humanity. The UN commission cited 'extermination, murder, enslavement, torture, imprisonment, rape, forced abortions and other sexual violence, persecution on political, religious, racial and gender grounds, the forcible transfer of populations, the enforced disappearance of persons and the inhumane act of knowingly causing prolonged starvation'.
- Wellers, Georges. "Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp)", Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–59.
- Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates, vex.net; accessed August 2, 2018.
- "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Encyclopedia Americana
- Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol 15, No. 3, Winter 2001; ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9.
- Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987; NCR 0-253-34293-7
- Rummel, R.J. (1999). Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1990. Lit Verlag. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7. Available online: "Statistics of Democide: Chapter 3 – Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War. Retrieved 2006-03-01.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". necrometrics.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- White, Matthew. "Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Library". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "bbc" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism; retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch; retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". necrometrics.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- MacPherson, Neil, "Death Railway Movements", mansell.com; accessed 6 January 2015.
- L'Aventure Humaine: Le canal de Suez, Article de l'historien Uwe Oster Archived 2011-08-19 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Suez Crisis – Key maps, bbc.co.uk; accessed August 2, 2018.
- "Japan News and Discussion". Japan Today. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "Bataan Rescue: People & Events". American Experience. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "15,000 black people died in concentration camps". Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3.
- The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
- "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.
- Erichsen 2005, p. 133.
- Stephenson, Wesley. "Have 1,200 World Cup workers really died in Qatar?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Rummell, Statistics". Hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Sterling and Peggy Seagrave: Gold Warriors".
- Blumenthal, Ralph (March 7, 1999). "The World: Revisiting World War II Atrocities; Comparing the Unspeakable to the Unthinkable". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Scarred by history: The Rape of Nanking". BBC News. 1997-12-13. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- Sanger, David (October 22, 1992). "Japanese Edgy Over Emperor's Visit to China". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- Valentino, Benjamin A. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Cornell University Press, page 88, December 8, 2005.
- Rummel, Rudolph (1994), Death by Government.
- "Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2008". gpanet.org. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Noor Ahmad Khalidi, "Afghanistan: Demographic Consequences of War: 1978–87," Central Asian Survey, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 101–126, 1991.
- Marek Sliwiński, "Afghanistan: The Decimation of a People", Orbis (Winter, 1989), pg. 39.
- Dillon, Michael (1998). China: A Cultural and Historical Dictionary. Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-7007-0439-2. from J.B. Parsons, The Peasant Rebellions of the Late Ming Dynasty (University of Arizona Press), 1970.
- R.J. Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".
- "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". necrometrics.com.
- Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol 2 (Brill, 2002), pg. 13. – via Questia (subscription required)
- The different aspects of Islamic culture: Science and technology in Islam, Vol.4, Ed. A. Y. Al-Hassan, (Dergham sarl, 2001), pg. 655.
- Christopher Hudson (2 March 2007). "Doctors of Depravity". Daily Mail.
- "Doctors of Depravity".
- P. J. Marshall (2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740–1828. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-521-02822-6.
- Kirti N. Chaudhuri (2006). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company: 1660-1760. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-521-03159-2.
- Bailey, Norman A. (1967). "La Violencia in Colombia". Journal of Inter-American Studies. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. 9 (4): 561–75. doi:10.2307/164860. JSTOR 164860.
- Alexander Mikaberidze (2013). Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia [2 Volumes]: An Encyclopedia (page 248). ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-59884-926-4.
- Guillermo, Emil (February 8, 2004), "A first taste of empire", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 3J
- Smallman-Raynor 1998
- Burdeos 2008, p. 14
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- Hodieb Khalifa (2013). Nein. American Book Publishing Group. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-938759-18-5.
- Dauria, Tom (2014). Within a Presumption of Godlessness. Archway Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4808-0420-3.
- "Battle of Manila". battleofmanila.org.
- Rumel, Rudolph. "Lesser Murdering States, Quasi-States, and Groups: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i.
- "Estadísticas del conflicto armado en Colombia". Retrieved March 4, 2018.
- "Iraq Body Count database". Iraqbodycount.org. July 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "IBC Recent Events". Iraqbodycount.org. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
- Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- Jacques Hussenet (dir.), "Détruisez la Vendée! "Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
- Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal. 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130.
- Lewy, Guenter (1980). America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780199874231.
- Rummel, Rudolph (1997), Statistics of Vietnamese Democide, in his Statistics of Democide, Table 6.1A, line 467 & Table 6.1B, lines 675, 730, 749–51.
- Dale Hurd on CBN http://www1.cbn.com/hurdontheweb-17
- "Map". public.tableau.com.
- What justice for Chechnya's disappeared? Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., AI Index: EUR 46/015/2007, 23 May 2007.
- Cherkasov, Alexander. "Book of Numbers, Book of Losses, Book of the Final Judgment". Polit.ru. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Yahoo! Groups". groups.yahoo.com.
- Chechen leader says spy 'died a hero' Archived 2008-02-25 at the Wayback Machine., Life Style Extra, 27 November 2006.
- "Over 200,000 Killed in Chechnya Since 1994 — Pro-Moscow Official - NE..." mosnews.com. 20 November 2004. Archived from the original on 20 November 2004.
- Civil and military casualties of the wars in Chechnya Russian-Chechen Friendship Society, 2003.
- Rummel, Rudolph, "Statistics of Vietnamese Democide", Statistics of Democide, 1997.
- Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn; Lobban, Richard (Spring 2001). "THE SUDAN SINCE 1989: NATIONAL ISLAMIC FRONT RULE". Arab Studies Quarterly. 23 (2): 1–9. JSTOR 41858370.
- Gawler, Virginia (19 August 2005). "Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia". University of Sydney. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
"WestPapuaFinal">Brundige, Elizabeth; King, Winter; Vahali, Priyneha; Vladeck, Stephen; Yuan, Xiang (April 2004). "Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control" (PDF). Yale Law School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2009.
- Wing, John; King, Peter (August 2005). Genocide in West Papua?: The role of the Indonesian state apparatus and a current needs assessment of the Papuan people (PDF). Sydney: West Papua Project. ISBN 0-9752391-7-1. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- Editorial, Reuters. "India revises Kashmir death toll to 47,000". Retrieved 2016-08-28.
- "The Human Rights Crisis in Kashmir" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Yoshiaki Itakura, 本当はこうだった南京事件 (Tokyo: Nihon Tosho Kankokai, 1999), 11.
- "400,000 People Killed in Nanjing Massacre: Expert". People's Daily. July 26, 2000.
- Masaaki Tanaka, What Really Happened In Nanking: The Refutation of a Common Myth (Tokyo: Sekai Shuppan, 2000), pg. 64.
- "Informe final. Anexo 2: ¿CUÁNTOS PERUANOS MURIERON? (2003)" (PDF) (in Spanish). Comisión de la Verdad y la Reconciliación. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Hakan Ozoglu Ph.D. (2011). From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-313-37957-4.
- Mehmed S. Kaya (2011). The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. I.B.Tauris. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84511-875-4.
- "War-related Death, Injury, and Displacement in Afghanistan and Pakistan 2001–2014" (PDF). watson.brown.edu. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Jamieson, Alastair. "ISIS Death Toll: 18,800 Killed in Iraq in 2 Years, U.N. Says". NBC News.
- Patten, Chris (12 January 2010). "Sri Lanka's Choice, and the World's Responsibility". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Australian Broadcasting Commission 4 Corners Archived 2012-11-13 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed 4 July 2011.
- "Sri Lanka: US War Crimes Report Details Extensive Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "LTTE Executed Soldiers". The Sunday Leader. 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-12. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651.
- Rajaee, Farhang (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq War. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p. 2. ISBN 9780813014760. OCLC 492125659.
- Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 418. ISBN 9781598843361. OCLC 775759780.
- Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1999) P. 134-5
- Dunnigan, A Quick and Dirty Guide to War (1991)
- Jan Palmowski, Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History (Oxford, 1997)
- Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618–1991
- Chirot, Daniel: Modern Tyrants: the power and prevalence of evil in our age (1994)
- "B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict: A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945–1995 (1997), pg. 195.
- Hill, The University of North Carolina at Chapel. "Death Tolls of the Iran-Iraq War". kurzman.unc.edu. Charles Kurzman. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "An Anatomy of the Massacres", Ait-Larbi, Ait-Belkacem, Belaid, Nait-Redjam, and Soltani, in An Inquiry into the Algerian Massacres, ed. Bedjaoui, Aroua, and Ait-Larbi, Hoggar: Geneva 1999.
- "Wanton and Senseless? The Logic of Massacres in Algeria" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., Stathis N. Kalyvas, Rationality and Society, Vol. 11, No. 3, 243–85 (1999)
- "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". users.erols.com.
- Ray, Fulcher. "Balochistan: Pakistan's internal war History of an insurgency".
- "Balochistan Assessment: 2016". Retrieved March 4, 2018.
- Minimum 6,575 civilians estimated killed by Coalition, airwars.org, retrieved 21 October 2018.
- "South Korean War Crimes in Vietnam War - ké video". koreaexpose.com. 6 December 2017.
- Paul Alexander (9 April 2000). "Villagers recall S. Korean atrocities in Viet War Troops massacred 1,600 civilians in all, survivors say". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- "Hanoi objects to glorification of S.Korean mercenaries engaging in war in Vietnam". Tuoi Tre News. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- "Time to apologize for Korea's own war crimes in Vietnam". The Korea Herald. 9 November 2017.
- Borowiec, Steven. "Allegations of S. Korean atrocities arising 40 years after Vietnam War". latimes.com.
- "Citizens' court to investigate Vietnam War atrocities committed by South Korean troops". hani.co.kr. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Kevin Buckley, "Pacification's Deadly Price", Newsweek, June 19, 1972, pp. 42–43.
- "About 5013 civilian Syrian casualties including more than 1900 children and women in 18 months of Russian airstrikes and massacres", syriahr.com, retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "September 11th Fast Facts". CNN. March 27, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Humanitarian Bulletin Ukraine Issue 11" (PDF), OHCHR, 9 July 2016; retrieved 4 March 2018.
-  Archived 2016-09-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Remembering Sabra & Shatila: The death of their world". Ahram online. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Roggio, Bill, and Alexander Mayer, "Charting the data for US airstrikes in Pakistan, 2004–2016", Long War Journal, 5 July 2011; retrieved 11 July 2011."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-18. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
- Bureau of Investigative Journalism
- Carter, Jimmy (24 June 2012). "A Cruel and Unusual Record". New York Times.
- Fenby, J (2008). Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. Ecco Press. pg. 351; ISBN 0-06-166116-3. "Mao's responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking"
- clemsoncapitalism (18 September 2014). "Socialism's Legacy by Alan Kors" – via YouTube.
- Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
- Gruson, Sidney. "Mao Text Shows Reds 'Liquidated' 800,000 Since '49". New York Times.
- Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 45.
- Getty, J.A.; Rittersporn, G.T.; Zemskov, V.N. (1993). "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". American Historical Review. 98 (4): 1017–49. doi:10.2307/2166597. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
- Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (8): 1319–53. doi:10.1080/09668139608412415. JSTOR 152781.
- Wheatcroft, Stephen (1990). "More light on the scale of repression and excess mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1930s" (PDF). Soviet Studies. 42 (2): 355–67. doi:10.1080/09668139008411872. JSTOR 152086.
- Conquest, Robert (1991) The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press; ISBN 0-19-507132-8
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". See also: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's 1973–1976 opus: The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956; ISBN 0-8133-3289-3
- Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004). "Towards Explaining the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933: Political and Natural Factors in Perspective". Food and Foodways. 12 (2–3): 107–36. doi:10.1080/07409710490491447
- Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, 23–29 November 2002. Available online "in Russian". Archived from the original on 21 July 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2003. and "in Ukrainian". Archived from the original on 5 May 2006; retrieved 1 February 2003.
- Volkava, Elena (2012-03-26). "The Kazakh Famine of 1930–33 and the Politics of History in the Post-Soviet Space". Wilson Center; retrieved 2015-07-09.
- Conquest, Robert (1986), The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine, Oxford University Press, pg. 306; ISBN 0-19-505180-7
- R.J.Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".
- Campbell, Gwyn (October 1991). "The state and pre-colonial demographic history: the case of nineteenth century Madagascar". Journal of African History. 23 (3): 415–45.
- Laidler (2005)
- R.J.Rummel. "Statistics Of North Korean Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE.
- "Communist Body Count". scottmanning.com. 4 December 2006.
- "Croatia should apologize for World War II genocide before joining the EU". 2 April 2010 – via Christian Science Monitor.
- The Associated Press of 1979
- Endless Torment: The 1991 Uprising in Iraq And Its Aftermath, Human Rights Watch, June 1992.
- Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 251. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651.
- "Iraqi Deaths from the Gulf War as of April 1992," Greenpeace, Washington, D.C. See also "Aftermath of War: The Persian Gulf War Refugee Crisis," Staff Report to the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, May 20, 1991. The figure of nearly 1,000 deaths per day is also given in "Kurdistan in the Time of Saddam Hussein," Staff Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 1991, p.14.
- Kurdish Refugees Straggle Into Iran, Followed By Tragedy, Associated Press, April 13, 1991
- Jaffar Al-Faylee, Zaki (2010). Tareekh Al-Kurd Al-Faylyoon. Beirut. pp. 485, 499–501.
- Al-Hakeem, Dr. Sahib (2003). Untold stories of more than 4000 women raped killed and tortured in Iraq, the country of mass graves. pp. 489–92.
- Chauhan, Sharad S. (2003). War on Iraq. APH Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 9788176484787.
- Iraq's Marsh Arabs, Modern Sumerians Archived 2011-05-27 at the Wayback Machine. – The Oregonian, May 14, 2003.
- Cole, pg. 13
- Arthur W. Blume (2017). Social Issues in Living Color: Challenges and Solutions from the Perspective of Ethnic Minority Psychology. ABC-CLIO. p. 81. ISBN 9781440833373.
- Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power.[dead link]
- Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- Valentino (2005) Final solutions Table 2 found at pg. 75.
- "Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count". necrometrics.com.
- Hanna Arendt Center in Sofia, with Dinyu Sharlanov and Venelin I. Ganev. Crimes Committed by the Communist Regime in Bulgaria. Country report. "Crimes of the Communist Regimes" Conference. February 24–26, 2010, Prague.
- Шарланов, Диню. История на комунизма в Булгария: Комунизирането на Булгариия. Сиела, 2009; ISBN 978-954-28-0543-4.
- Gardner, Dan (November 6, 2005). "The Pariah President: Teodoro Obiang is a brutal dictator responsible for thousands of deaths. So why is he treated like an elder statesman on the world stage?". The Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008.
- "La matanza de 1937 – La Lupa Sin Trabas". La Lupa Sin Trabas. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- Capdevilla (1998)
- Eric Paul Roorda (1996). "Genocide next door: the Good Neighbor policy, the Trujillo regime, and the Haitian massacre of 1937". Diplomatic History. 20 (3): 301–19. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00269.x.
- Greene, Anne (2001). "Haiti: Historical Setting § François Duvalier, 1957–71". In Metz, Helen Chapin. Dominican Republic and Haiti. Country Studies. Research completed December 1999 (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 288–289. ISBN 978-0-8444-1044-9. ISSN 1057-5294. LCCN 2001023524. OCLC 46321054.
President Duvalier reigned supreme for fourteen years. Even in Haiti, where dictators had been the norm, François Duvalier gave new meaning to the term. Duvalier and his henchmen killed between 30,000 and 60,000 Haitians. The victims were not only political opponents, but women, whole families, whole towns. . . . In April 1963, when an army officer suspected of trying to kidnap two of Duvalier's children took refuge in the Dominican chancery, Duvalier ordered the Presidential Guard to occupy the building. The Dominicans were incensed; President Juan Bosch Gaviño ordered troops to the border and threatened to invade. However, the Dominican commanders were reluctant to enter Haiti, and Bosch was obliged to turn to the [Organization of American States] to settle the matter.
- "Chad's former president has been found guilty of crimes against humanity. Who's next?". The Economist. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "It has so far verified the names of 9,240 victims of the Castro regime and the circumstances of their deaths. Archive researchers meticulously insist on confirming stories of official murder from two independent sources.
Cuba Archive President Maria Werlau says the total number of victims could be higher by a factor of 10."
- "Information about human rights in Cuba" (in Spanish). Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. April 7, 1967. Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-09.
- "Castro sued over alleged torture". News from Russia. November 16, 2005. Archived from the original on February 14, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-09.
- Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 477
- Crampton 1997, p. 267
- Rachel A.G. Reyes, "Fact checking the Marcos killings, 1975-1985", manilatimes.net, April 12, 2016.
- "The tallies of Martial Law".
- White, Matthew (July 2005). "Minor Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Archived from the original on 2018-05-20. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- "Atrocity statistics from the Roman Era". necrometrics.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Papa in the Dock Time magazine
- "From Stalin to Hitler, the most murderous regimes in the world". dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "New study gives first verifiable death toll at Cold War East German borders". 8 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017.
The researchers meticulously combed through nearly 1,500 potential cases of deaths at the border between 1949 when the GDR was founded to 1989 when the Berlin Wall fell.
- Connolly, Kate (12 August 2003). "'More than 1,000 died' trying to flee East Germany". Archived from the original on 12 April 2012 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- White, Matthew. "Necrometrics – Estimated Totals for the Entire 20th Century". Necrometrics.
- R. Peto (23 May 1992). Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics.
- Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". The China Journal (66): 155–64. JSTOR 41262812. on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
- Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, Holt Paperbacks, pg. xi.
- Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62, Walker & Company, 2010. pg. 298.
- "The five worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire will make you wonder why we're apparently proud of it". The Independent. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-828463-5.
- Fredrik Albritton Jonsson (2013). Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism. Yale University Press. pp. 167–70. ISBN 978-0-300-16374-2.
- "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine", Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
- Seavoy, Ronald (1986). Famine in Peasant Societies. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313251306.
- Digby, William (1901). 'Prosperous' British India. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 128. OCLC 6671095.
- "Nineteenth Century Death Tolls". necrometrics.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
- Hough, Jerry (18 August 1998). "Death Tolls across history". Archived from the original on 7 February 2018.
- "Deaths from decommunization, 1991-2000". Times (London). 27 January 2000.
- Nicholas Tarling (ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp. 139-40
- Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill's Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II.
- Book review: Churchill's secret war in India, southasiarev.wordpress.com, 12 April 2011.
- "Notes from India". The Lancet. 157 (4055): 1430. 1901. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)88925-X.
- Stevenson, "Capitol Gains" (2014), p. 314.
- "Biafra/Nigeria". eNotes.com. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
- "Nigerian Civil War". Polynational War Memorial. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) "Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950", MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp. 35–38. /
- Foster, R.F. Modern Ireland 1600–1972, Penguin Press, 1988. pg. 324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473–88."
- Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society pg. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
- Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978.
- Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
- Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4.
- Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate" Archived 2010-06-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Population and Development Review (December 1995).
- Koh, David (August 21, 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times. Singapore. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
- Marek Sliwiński (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, pg. 82.
- de Waal, Alex (2002) . Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.
- "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine", BBC News, April 6, 2000.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 133–158. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
- Daniel Goodkind; Loraine West; Peter Johnson (28 March 2011). "A Reassessment of Mortality in North Korea, 1993–2008". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- Sheina, Robert L., Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899 (2003)
- COWP: Correlates of War Project, University of Michigan.
- Harris 2012, p.174
- Ghazal, Rym (14 April 2015). "Lebanon's dark days of hunger: The Great Famine of 1915–18". The National. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- "Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily", CNN; accessed May 25, 2006.
- "Yemen crisis: Half of population facing 'pre-famine conditions'". BBC. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Kristof, Nicholas (September 26, 2018). "Be Outraged by America's Role in Yemen's Misery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "Yemen could be 'worst famine in 100 years'". BBC. October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Spagat, Michael (September 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions" (PDF). Significance.
- Garfield, Richard (1999). "Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions". Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "Emad Baghi : English" (no). emadbaghi.com. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Karatnycky, Adrian; Cavanaugh, Kathleen; Finn, James; Graybow, Charles; Payne, Douglas W.; Ryan, Joseph E.; Sussman, Leonard R.; Zarycky, George; Finn, James (1995). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights & Civil Liberties, 1994-1995 (PDF). New York: Freedom House. p. 521. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-05. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
During the first four months of 1994, the Human Rights Committee of South Africa reported that politically motivated killings occurred at a rate of nearly fourteen deaths per day.
- "An African Lysistrata in Togo - African Futures". 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012.
- "Death Toll in Kenya Exceeds 1,000, but Talks Reach Crucial Phase - The New York Times". 5 October 2018. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018.
- "500 killed in Togo electoral violence – UN". Independent Online. AFP. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- 29 August 2005. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). "Conclusions.""La mission d'établissement des faits chargée de faire la lumière sur les violences et les allégations de violations des droits de l'homme survenues au Togo avant, pendant et après l'élection présidentielle du 24 avril 2005" Archived 2005-12-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- News, VOA. "Death Toll in Nicaraguan Protests Hits 317, OAS Says".
- Harding, Luke (29 September 2006). "How one of the biggest rows of modern times helped Danish exports to prosper". the Guardian.
- "The Times - Recent attacks just the tip of a xenophobic iceberg". 7 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009.
- "South Africa attacks reach Durban" (no). BBC. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- Editorial, Reuters. "South Africa violence toll rises to 62" (no).
- "Lista ofiar Grudnia '70 - Ofiary" (no). grudzien70.ipn.gov.pl. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "Somali's turn to HRC as murder toll soars". Independent Online. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- Press, Associated. "16 die in Mexico prison riot".
- "9 Killed, Dozens Escape in Brazil Prison Riot". Time.
- "Xenophobic attacks: seven die in one month". Independent Online. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- "36 arrested after 2 more die in Tshwane 'foreigner' riots". Cape Argus. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
- Cocker, Mark (1998). Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold.
- Prescott, William (1843). History of the Conquest of Mexico.
- Ruben Mendoza (2007) pp. 407-08.
- Harner (1977) p. 122
- National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Bagnall, Peter M; Spagat, Michael; Sloboda, John A (September 3, 2011). "Casualties in civilians and coalition soldiers from suicide bombings in Iraq, 2003–10: a descriptive study". The Lancet. 378 (9794): 906. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61023-4.
- Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", pg. 2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
- 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human-made disasters.|