List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
- 1 Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides
- 2 Famine
- 3 Floods and landslides
- 4 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 5 Other deadly events
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides
These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates.
The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of the accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.
This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically. The table is sorted by lowest death toll estimate by default.
|Log. mean estimate[not in citation given]||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Duration (years)||Notes, See also|
|58.0||40.0||85.0||World War II||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years and 1 day||World War II casualties (this estimate includes worldwide Holocaust and concentration camps deaths). Does not include Second Sino-Japanese War (see below)|
|37.0||36.0||40.0||Three Kingdoms||China||184||280||96||End of the Han dynasty|
|35.0||30.0||40.0||Mongol conquests||Eurasia||1206||1368||163||Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire|
|25.0||25.0||25.0||Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynasty||China||1618||1683||65||Qing dynasty|
|40.0||20.0||100.0||Taiping Rebellion||China||1851||1864||14||Dungan Revolt|
|29.0||20.0||38||Second Sino-Japanese War||China||1937||1945||8||Pacific War|
|18.0||15.0||21.0||World War I||Worldwide||1914||1918||4 years, 3 months, 1 week||World War I casualties
Does not include worldwide Spanish flu deaths.
|17.0||15.0||20.0||Conquests of Timur-e-Lang||West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia||1369||1405||37||Timurid dynasty|
|21.0||13.0||36.0||An Lushan Rebellion||China||755||763||9||Medieval warfare|
|55.0||8.0||145.0||European colonization of the Americas||Americas||1492||1800||308||Spanish Empire, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American disease and epidemics|
|8.0||8.0||8.0||Chinese Civil War||China||1927||1949||22||List of civil wars|
|6.7||5.0||9.0||Russian Civil War||Russia||1917||1921||5||Russian Revolution, List of civil wars|
|Holocaust||Europe||1941||1945||4||The low estimate is the minimum number of Jewish deaths, to which some authors limit the definition of "The Holocaust." The upper estimate includes all racially and politically motivated German killing policies during the war, as well as both indirect and direct deaths.|
|7.0||Napoleonic Wars||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1803||1815||13||Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|5.9||3.0||11.5||Thirty Years' War||Holy Roman Empire||1618||1648||31||Religious war, Start of European political wars|
|4.6||3.0||7.0||Yellow Turban Rebellion||China||184||205||22||Part of Three Kingdoms War|
|3.7||2.5||5.4||Second Congo War||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||6||First Congo War|
|4.5||2.582||8.0||Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933)||Ukrainian SSR (and other areas of southern USSR, western Siberia)||1932||1933||1||Targeted famine and forced relocation of Soviet ethnic groups, especially landed Ukrainian peasants, by Stalin Regime.|
|2.8||2.3||3.3||Hundred Years' War||Western Europe||1337||1453||107||Edwardian War (1337-1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)|
|2.8||2.0||4.0||French Wars of Religion||France||1562||1598||37||Religious war|
|1.7||1.5||2.0||Shaka's conquests||Southern Africa||1816||1828||13||Ndwandwe–Zulu War|
|1.7||1.5||2.0||War in Afghanistan||Afghanistan||1979||2000||22||Soviet–Afghan War, Taliban era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).|
|1.7||1.0||3.0||Nigerian Civil War||Nigeria||1966||1970||4||Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.|
|1.7||1.0||3.0||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||4||War casualties, famine, health system collapse, executions and ethnic cleansing during the Khmer Rouge regime.|
|1.7||1.0||3.0||Crusades||Holy Land, Europe||1095||1291||197||Christian military excursions against the Muslim Conquests.|
|1.4||1.0||2.0||Second Sudanese Civil War||Sudan||1983||2005||23||First Sudanese Civil War|
|0.94||0.9||1.0||Gallic Wars||France||58 BC||50 BC||9||Roman Empire|
|1.6||1.25||1.85||Punic Wars||Mediterranean||264 BC||146 BC||118||Carthage, Roman Republic|
|1.0||0.89||-||Du Wenxiu Rebellion||China||1856||1873||18|
|1.5||0.8||3.0||Vietnam War||Southeast Asia||1955||1975||21||Cold War and First Indochina War|
|0.79||0.67||0.9||American Civil War||United States of America||1861||1865||4||Estimates include civilian deaths|
|1.1||0.6||2.0||Soviet–Afghan War||Afghanistan||1980||1988||9||Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War.|
|1.2||0.5||3.0||Expulsion of Germans after World War II||Europe||1945||1950||5||Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.|
|1.0||0.5||2.0||Mexican Revolution||Mexico, United States||1911||1920||10||Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.|
|1.0||0.5||1.5||Iran–Iraq War||Iran, Iraq||1980||1988||9||Includes the Al-Anfal Campaign.|
|0.9||0.4||1.7,||Serbian Genocide||NDH||1941||1945||4||Includes Serbian deaths in concentration camps in Jasenovac, Jadovno, organized massacres like in Prebilovci etc.|
|0.71||0.5||1.0||Rwandan genocide||Rwanda||1994||1994||1||Part of the Rwandan Civil War.|
|0.71||0.5||1.0||Spanish Civil War||Spain||1936||1939||4|
|0.45||0.4||0.5||Circassian Genocide||Circassia||1864||1867||3||Deaths during the ethnic cleansing of Circassia by the Russian Empire in the aftermath of the Russo–Circassian War (1763–1864).|
|1.34||0.4||4.5||Korean War||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||4||Categorized as part of the Cold War.|
|0.67||0.3||1.5||Armenian Genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||8||Called the First Genocide of the 20th century and officially recognized by 21 countries as such, though modern Turkey disputes the use of this term and some associated claims.|
|0.6||0.3||1.2||Paraguayan War||South America||1864||1870||7||Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias|
|0.24||0.3||0.4||Deluge||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth||1655||1660||6||The Second Northern War, including subsequent campaigns by the same powers through the 1650s, and skirmishes between Catholic and Protestant partisans.|
|0.585||0.272||1.260||War on Terror||Greater Middle East||2001||2013||12||Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.|
|0.45||0.2||1.0||Greek genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||8||The use of the term "genocide" is disputed by modern Turkey.|
|0.12||0.097207||0.2||Bosnian War||Bosnia||1992||1995||3||During the Bosnian War, at least 97,207 people were killed.|
|0.099||0.075||0.13||Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||1||Killings conducted by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians.|
|0.77||0.2||3.0||1971 Bangladesh genocide||East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)||1971||1971||1||Killings by the Pakistani Armed Forces in East Pakistan leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; widely regarded as a genocide against the Bengali people.|
Deadly prisons and camps
|Deaths||Name||Run by||Location||Date||Notes, references|
|800,000–1,500,000||Auschwitz-Birkenau||Nazi Germany||Oświęcim, Poland||1940–1945|||
|700,000–1,000,000||Treblinka||Nazi Germany||Treblinka, Poland||1942–1943|||
|480,000–600,000||Bełżec||Nazi Germany||Bełżec, Poland||1942–1943|||
|130,000–500,000||Kolyma Gulag||Soviet Union||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932–1954|||
|85,000||Stutthof||Nazi Germany||Stutthof, Third Reich||1939-1945||Second World War|
|12,790–75,000||Stara Gradiška||NDH Ustaše||Croatia||1941–1945||Primarily for women and children|
|26,000 - 40,000||Second Boer War||United Kingdom||South African Republic||1900–1902||116,000 Boer women and children; 26,370 died.|
|17,000||Tuol Sleng||Democratic Kampuchea||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975–1979|||
|13,171||Camp Sumter||Confederate States of America||Andersonville, Georgia, USA||1864–1865|||
|12,000||Crveni Krst||Nazi regime, Gestapo||Niš, Serbia||1941|||
|2,963||Elmira Prison||United States of America||Elmira, New York, USA||1864–1865|||
Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Notes|
|15,000,000||55,000,000||Great Chinese Famine||People's Republic of China||1958||1962||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|citation needed]9,000,000[||13,000,000||Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79||China||1876||1879||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts|
|citation needed]5,500,000[||6,000,000||Great Famine of 1876–78||British India||1876||1878||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts|
|5,000,000||10,000,000||Russian famine of 1921||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka|
|citation needed]3,000,000[||4,000,000||Bengal famine of 1943||British India||1943||1943||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports
However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.
|2,400,000||2,400,000||Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||Indonesia||1944||1945||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|citation needed]2,000,000[||3,000,000||Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900||British India||1896||1900||ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts|
|800,000||950,000||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|750,000||1,500,000||Great Irish Famine||Ireland||1846||1849||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.|
|400,000||2,000,000||Vietnamese Famine of 1945||Vietnam||1944||1945||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|400,000||1,000,000||1983–85 famine in Ethiopia||Ethiopia||1983||1985||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.|
|70,000||70,000||Sudan famine||Sudan||1998||1998||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
Floods and landslides
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Description||Group||Location||From||To||Notes|
|citation needed]300,000[||citation needed]1,500,000[||Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly|
|13,000||13,100||Human sacrifice||Shang dynasty||China||BC1300||BC1050||Last 250 years of rule|
|3,912||3,912||Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note||Imperial Japan navy and army||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|913||913||Jonestown murder-suicide||Followers of The Peoples Temple cult||Jonestown||November 18, 1978||November 19, 1978|
|967||967||Mass suicide motivated religious and political.||Judean rebels||Masada||Spring 73 CE|
Other deadly events
Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, and other events listed above, as a portion of the total.
|citation needed]49,000,000[||78,000,000||Mao Zedong era 1949–1976||People's Republic of China||1949||1976||Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong's reforms, with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|citation needed]8,000,000[||61,000,000||Soviet crimes 1917–1953||Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia||1917||1953||Forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution', deaths in Gulags, forced resettlement, Holodomor, Dekulakization, Great Purge, National operations of the NKVD. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|5,000,000||22,000,000||Crimes during Congo Free State 1885–1908||Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|175,000||576,000||Sanctions against Iraq||Iraq||1990||1998||Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council indirectly caused excess deaths of young children.|
|100,000||2,000,000||Indonesian killings of 1965–1966||Indonesia||1965||1966||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.|
|100,000||250,000||War in the Vendée||France||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians but this claim has been widely discounted. See also French Revolution.|
|100,000||120,000||Manila Massacre||Manila, Philippines||1945||1945||During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.|
|citation needed]90,800[||202,600||Indonesian occupation of East Timor||East Timor||1974||1999||Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.|
|61,007||77,552||Internal conflict in Peru||Peru||1980||2000||Internal conflict between the Peruvian Army and guerrilla fighters in Peru. The principal actors in the war were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved. All of the armed actors in the war (both terrorists and the Peruvian Army) deliberately targeted and killed civilians, making the conflict more bloody than any other war in Peruvian history since the European colonization of the country.|
|50,000||80,000||Operation Condor||South America||1975||1983||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States|
|50,000||60,000||Warsaw Uprising||Occupied Poland||5 August 1944||12 August 1944||Systematic killing of Polish civilian population (mostly children and women regardless of age (the latter usually raped before death)) in district Wola and Ochota committed by the German Army during Warsaw Uprising|
|40,000||350,000||Nanking Massacre||Nanking, China||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
|15,000||15,000||First Sack of Thessalonica||Byzantine Empire||904||904||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|10,000||100,000||Great Fire of Smyrna||İzmir, Turkey||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.|
|9,000||30,000||Dirty War||Argentina||1976||1983||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of disasters in Australia by death toll
- List of disasters in Canada by death toll
- List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll
- List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll
- List of disasters in the United States by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of unusual deaths
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- List of disasters
- Lists of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
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[D]emographers have been uncovering, in region upon region, post-Columbian depopulation rates of between 90 and 98 percent with such regularity that an overall decline of 95 percent has become a working rule of thumb. [...] In the 1940s and 1950s conventional wisdom held that the population of the entire hemisphere in 1492 was little more than 8,000,000—with fewer than 1,000,000 people living in the region north of present-day Mexico. Today, few serious students of the subject would put the hemispheric figure at less than 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 (with approximately 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 north of Mexico), while one of the most well-regarded specialists in the field recently has suggested that a more accurate estimate would be around 145,000,000 for the hemisphere as a whole and about 18,000,000 for the area north of Mexico.
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- Vatikan i Jasenovac, Vladimir Dedijer, Rad Beograd 1987.
- "Magnum Crimen", Viktor Novak, 1948.
- See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
- Paul Goble Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty 15 July 2005, Volume 8, Number 23
- Charles King: "The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus", Oxford University Press, 2008. Page 96.
- Rummel, R.J., Statistics Of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, Statistics of Democide, 1997.
- Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
- French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
- Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
- Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
- Jan Wróbel, Odnaleźć przeszłość 1 (2002)"Odnaleźć przeszłość 1".
- "Human costs of war: Direct war death in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan October 2001 - February 2013" (PDF). Costs of War. February 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" by Opinion Research Business. January 2008.
- "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties". January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files.
- Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
- Research and Documentation Center: Rezultati istraživanja "Ljudski gubici '91–'95"
- Lara J. Nettelfield (2010). Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 22 July 2013., pp. 96–98
- "After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead". Reuters. 2013-02-15.
- Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić, Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008.
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
- Rzeź wołyńska
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh". Users.erols.com. "History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtualbangladesh.com.
- Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
- Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
- "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Encyclopedia Americana
- Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9.
- Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
- Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism Retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma
- "Jewish virtual library". Jewish virtual library. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.
- Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- "15 000 black people died in the black concentration camps".
- A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3.
- The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
- "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.
- Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
- Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". The China Journal (66): 155–164. JSTOR 41262812. on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
- Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
- Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
- "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine". Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
- Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
- Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill's Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) 'Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950.' MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp.35–38. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8852/
- Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
- Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
- Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
- Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
- Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
- The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
- Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
- Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4.
- Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
- Koh, David (21 August 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times (Singapore). Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- de Waal, Alex (2002) . Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.
- "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine". BBC News. April 6, 2000.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
- "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
- 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
- "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
- National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
- "Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?". Maoists.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
- Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5.
- Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
- С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
- Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
- Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
- Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
- Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1.
- R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"
- p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
- Hochschild p.226–232.
- Crossette, Barbara. "Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999".
- Garfield, Richard (1999). "Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions". Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550.
- Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
- Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- Jacques Hussenet (dir.), " Détruisez la Vendée ! " Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
- Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130.
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Users.erols.com.
- "Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999" (PDF). Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- "Informe final. Anexo 2: ¿CUÁNTOS PERUANOS MURIERON? (2003)" (PDF). Comisión de la Verdad y la Reconciliación.
- "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Lukas, Richard C. (2012). The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944. Hippocrene Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7818-1302-0.
- "The Rape of Warsaw". Stosstruppen39-45.tripod.com. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- Walter Laqueur, Judith Tydor Baumel (2001). "Dirlewanger, Oskar". The Holocaust Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0300084323. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1-84545-180-5.
- Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5.
- Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 
- Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
- Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6., p. 233.
- Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
- Phil Gunson (2009-04-02). "The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas
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