List of wars by death toll

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This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war. These numbers usually include the deaths of military personnel which are the direct results of battle or other military wartime actions, as well as the wartime/war-related deaths of soldiers, which are the results of war-induced epidemics, famines, atrocities, genocide, etc.

Pre-Modern

Ancient wars

War Death
range
Geometric
mean
Date Combatants Location Notes
Conquests of Cyrus the Great 100,000+ 100,000 549 BC– 530 BC Persian empire vs. various states Middle East Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Greco–Persian Wars 73,800+ 73,800 499 BC–449 BC Greece vs. Persian Empire Greece
Samnite Wars 33,500+ 33,500 343 BC–290 BC Roman Republic vs. Samnites Italy Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Wars of Alexander the Great 142,000+ 142,000 336 BC–323 BC Macedonian Empire vs. Persian Empire Middle East / North Africa / Central Asia / India Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle during these wars recorded by Greek writers, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Punic Wars 1,250,000–1,850,000 1,520,691 264 BC–146 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Western Europe / North Africa
First Punic War 185,000+ 185,000 264 BC–241 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Southern Europe / North Africa – Part of the Punic Wars
Second Punic War 770,000+ 770,000 218 BC–201 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Western Europe / North Africa [1] – Part of the Punic Wars
Third Punic War 150,000–250,000 193,649 149 BC–146 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Tunisia – Part of the Punic Wars
Kalinga War 150,000–200,000 173,205 262 BC–261 BC Maurya Empire vs. State of Kalinga India
Qin's Wars of Unification 700,000+ 700,000 230 BC–221 BC Qin state vs. Han, Zhou, Yan, Wei, Chu, Qi States China – Part of Warring States Period
Cimbrian War 410,000–650,000 516,236 113 BC–101 BC Roman Empire vs. Cimbri and Teutones Western Europe – Part of the Germanic Wars
Gallic Wars 400,000–1,000,000 632,456 58 BC–50 BC Roman Republic vs. Gallic tribes France
Jewish–Roman Wars 350,000–2,000,000 836,660 66–136 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East/North Africa
First Jewish–Roman War 270,000–1,358,400 605,614 66–73 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East – Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Kitos War 440,000+ 440,000 115–117 Roman Empire vs. Jews Southern Europe / North Africa – Also known as the Second Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Bar Kokhba Revolt 400,000–580,000 481,664 132–136 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East – Also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Gothic War (269) 320,000+ 320,000 269 Roman Empire vs. Goths Europe Claudius II defeated the Goths, of whom 320,000 were slain. This number is from the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Probus's German War 400,000+ 400,000 277 Roman Empire vs. Germans Europe Emperor Probus informed the Senate that he had killed 400,000 Germans. From the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Gothic War (376–382) 40,000+ 40,000 376–382 Roman Empire vs. Goths Eastern Europe – Part of the Germanic Wars
Three Kingdoms War 36,000,000–40,000,000 37,947,332 184–280 Wei vs. Shu Vs. Wu China [2][3] – Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.

See: End of the Han Dynasty

Yellow Turban Rebellion 3,000,000–7,000,000 4,582,576 184–205 Peasants vs. Eastern Han China China – Part of Three Kingdoms War
Wars of the Sixteen Kingdoms 150,000+ 150,000 304–439 Northern Chinese States Northern China Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded in this time period in battles between armies of the Sixteen Kingdoms, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Hunnic Invasions 165,000+ 165,000 395–453 Roman Empire vs. Hunnic tribes Europe Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.

Medieval wars

Note: the identity of a single "war" cannot be reliably given in some cases, and some "wars" can be taken to last over more than a human lifetime, e.g. "Reconquista" (711–1492, 781 years) "Muslim conquests in India" (12th to 16th c., 500 years) "Crusades" (ten or more campaigns during the period 1095–1291, 196 years), "Mongol conquests" (1206–1368, 162 years), "early Muslim conquests" (622–750, 128 years), "Hundred Year's War" (1337–1453, 115 years).

War Death
range
Geometric
mean[clarification needed]
Date Location Notes
Moorish Wars 5,000,000+ 5,000,000 534–548 North Africa
Arab–Byzantine Wars 130,000+ 130,000 629–1050 Middle East / North Africa / Southern Europe Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Reconquista 7,000,000+ 7,000,000 711–1492 Iberian Peninsula [4]
An Lushan Rebellion 13,000,000–36,000,000 21,633,308 755–763 China / Vietnam [5] – Also known as the An–Shi Rebellion
Goryeo–Khitan Wars 90,000+ 90,000 993–1019 Korea [6]
Crusades 1,000,000–3,000,000 1,732,051 1095–1291 Europe / Middle East ("Holy Land") [7]
Albigensian Crusade 200,000–1,000,000 447,214 1208–1229 France [8][9] – Also known as the Cathar Crusade

– Part of the Crusades

Mongol conquests 30,000,000–40,000,000 34,641,016 1206–1368 Eurasia [10][11][12] – Excludes the (up to) 200,000,000 deaths from the Black Death migration that arguably may have been associated with the Mongol expansion
Wars of Scottish Independence 60,000-150,000 94,868 1296–1357 Scotland / England
Hundred Years' War 2,300,000–3,300,000 2,754,995 1337–1453 Western Europe [13]
Conquests of Timur 8,000,000–20,000,000 12,649,111 1370–1405 Eurasia [14][15]
Conquests of Mehmed II 'the Conqueror' 873,000+ 873,000 1451–1481 Eastern Europe [16] May be over or underestimated
Wars of the Roses 35,000–50,000 41,833 1455–1487 England / Wales [17][better source needed][18]

Modern

Modern wars with greater than 25,000 deaths by death toll

War Death
range
Geometric
mean
Date Location Notes
Italian Wars 300,000–400,000 346,410 1494–1559 Southern Europe [19] – Also known as the Great Wars of Italy
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire 24,300,000+ 24,300,000 1519–1632 Mexico [19] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes the cocoliztli plagues
Spanish conquest of Yucatán 1,460,000+ 1,460,000 1519–1595 North America [19] – Part of the European colonisation of the Americas, includes deaths due to European disease
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 8,400,000+ 8,400,000 1533–1572 Peru [19] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes deaths due to European diseases
Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000+ 200,000 1521–1566 Eastern Europe / Middle East / North Africa [20]
German Peasants' War 100,000+ 100,000 1524–1525 Germany [21] – Also known as the Great Peasants War
French Wars of Religion 2,000,000–4,000,000 2,828,427 1562–1598 France [22] – Also known as the Huguenot Wars
Eighty Years' War 600,000–700,000 648,074 1568–1648 Worldwide [19] – Also known as the Dutch War of Independence
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285+ 138,285 1585–1604 Europe / Americas English
88,285[23]
Scots/Irish
50,000
Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000+ 1,000,000 1592–1598 Korea [24]
Qing conquest of the Ming 25,000,000+ 25,000,000 1616–1662 China [25] – Also known as the Ming–Qing transition
Thirty Years' War 3,000,000–11,500,000 5,873,670 1618–1648 Europe [26]
Franco-Spanish War (1635–59) 200,000+ 200,000 1635–1659 Western Europe [20][27]
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000+ 876,000 1639–1651 British Isles [28][29][30] – Also known as the British Civil Wars
English Civil War 356,000–735,000 511,527 1642–1651 England [31] – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Mughal–Maratha Wars 5,000,000+ 5,600,000 1658-1707 India-Bangladesh [32][33]
Franco-Dutch War 220,000+ 220,000 1672–1678 Western Europe [20] – Also known as the Dutch War
Great Turkish War 120,000+ 120,000 1683–1699 Eastern Europe [20] – Also known as the War of the Holy League
Great Northern War 350,000+ 350,000 1700–1721 Eastern Europe Sweden, the Swedish Baltic provinces, and Finland, together, with a population of only 2.5 million, lost some 350,000 dead during the war from all causes.[34]
War of the Spanish Succession 400,000–1,251,000 707,390 1701–1714 Europe / Americas [20]
Maratha expeditions in Bengal 400,000+ 400,000 1741–1751 India [35][36]
Seven Years' War 868,000–1,400,000 1,102,361 1756–1763 Worldwide [37][38]
Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) 70,000+ 70,000 1765–1769 Southeast Asia – Also known as the Qing invasions of Burma
American Revolutionary War 37,324+ 37,324 1775–1783 Worldwide 37,324 battle dead, all sides, all theaters.[20][39][40][41][42] – Also known as the American War of Independence
French campaign in Egypt and Syria 65,000+ 65,000 1798–1801 Middle East / North Africa [20]
Saint-Domingue expedition 135,000+ 135,000 1802–1803 Haiti [27]
Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000–7,000,000 4,949,747 1803–1815 Worldwide See: Napoleonic Wars casualties
French invasion of Russia 540,000+ 540,000 1812 Russia [20] – Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Spanish American Wars of Independence 600,000+ 600,000 1808–1833 Americas [43]
Venezuelan War of Independence 228,000+ 228,000 1810–1823 Venezuela – Part of Spanish American Wars of Independence
Mfecane 1,500,000–2,000,000 1,732,051 1815–1840 Southern Africa [44]
Carlist Wars 200,000+ 200,000 1820–1876 Spain [43]
Ottoman wars in Europe 5,500,000+ 5,500,000 1821–1921 Eastern Europe Justin McCarthy claims that 5.5 million Ottoman Muslims were killed by various Christian oppressors in the last century of the Ottoman Empire.
French conquest of Algeria 300,000+ 300,000 1829–1847 Algeria Including 15,000 French[45]
Taiping Rebellion 20,000,000-

30,000,000

24,494,897 1850–1864 China [46][47][48] – Also known as the Taiping Civil War
Crimean War 356,000–410,000 382,047 1853–1856 Crimean Peninsula
Panthay Rebellion 890,000–1,000,000 943,398 1856–1873 China – Also known as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion
Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000–10,000,000 2,828,427 1857–1858 India [49] – Also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian First War of Independence
American Civil War 650,000–1,000,000 806,226 1861–1865 USA [50][51][52]
Dungan Revolt 8,000,000–12,000,000 9,797,959 1862–1877 China – Also known as the Tongzhi Hui Revolt
French intervention in Mexico 49,287+ 49,287 1862–1867 Mexico [27]
Paraguayan War 300,000–1,200,000 600,000 1864–1870 South America [53] – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance
Ten Years' War 241,000+ 241,000 1868–1878 Cuba [27] – Also known as the Great War
Conquest of the Desert 30,000–35,000 32,404 1870s–1884 Patagonia
Aceh War 97,000–107,000 101,877 1873–1914 Indonesia [54] – Also known as the Infidel War
First Sino–Japanese War 48,311+ 48,311 1894–1895 East Asia
Cuban War of Independence 362,000+ 362,000 1895–1898 Cuba [27]
Thousand Days' War 120,000+ 120,000 1899–1902 Colombia [55]
South African War (Second Boer War) 73,000–90,000 81,056 1899-1902 South Africa [56]
Philippine–American War 234,000+ 234,000 1899–1912 Philippines [57] – Also known as the Philippine War
Mexican Revolution 500,000–2,000,000 1,000,000 1910–1920 Mexico [58]
Balkan Wars 140,000+ 140,000 1912–1913 Balkan Peninsula [20]
World War I 8,545,800–21,000,000 13,396,335 1914–1918 Worldwide [20] – Also known as the Great War
Russian Civil War 5,000,000–9,000,000 6,708,204 1917–1922 Russia [59]
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 138,800–320,100 210,784 1918–2003 Iraq [60][61]
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 100,000+ 100,000 1921–present Middle East
Second Italo-Senussi War 40,000+ 40,000 1923–1932 Libya
Chinese Civil War 8,000,000–11,692,000 9,671,401 1927–1949 China [62]
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 278,350+ 278,350 1935–1936 Ethiopia According to Italian government statistics, the Italians suffered 1,148 KIA, 125 DOW, and 31 MIA.[63] According to the Ethiopian government, at least 275,000 Ethiopians died in the brief war.[63][64] – Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War
Spanish Civil War 500,000–1,000,000 707,107 1936–1939 Spain [27]
Second Sino-Japanese War 20,000,000–25,000,000 22,360,680 1937–1945 China [65] – Part of World War II
World War II 56,125,162–85,000,000 69,069,811 1939–1945 Worldwide [20] - Deadliest war in human history
Winter War 153,736–194,837 173,071 1939–1940 Finland – Part of World War II
Greco-Italian War 27,080+ 27,080 1940–1941 Southeast Europe – Part of World War II
Continuation War 387,333+ 387,333 1941–1944 Northern Europe – Part of World War II
Soviet–Japanese War 33,420–95,768 56,574 1945 Manchuria – Part of World War II
First Indochina War 400,000+ 400,000 1946–1954 Southeast Asia – Also known as the Indochina War
Greek Civil War 158,000+ 158,000 1946– 1949 Greece [66][67][68][69]
Kashmir Conflict 80,000–110,000 93,808 1947– present North India / Pakistan
La Violencia 192,700–194,700 193,697 1948–1958 Colombia
Internal conflict in Myanmar 130,000–250,000 180,278 1948–present Myanmar [70]
Arab–Israeli conflict 116,074+ 116,074 1948–present Middle East [71]
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 29,212–242,212 84,116 1948 India – Also known as Operation Polo
Korean War 1,200,000+ 1,200,000 1950–1953 Korea [72]
Algerian War 350,000-1,500,000 724,569 1954–1962 Algeria [73] – Also known as the Algerian War of Independence
Ethnic conflict in Nagaland 34,000+ 34,000 1954–present Northeast India [74]
Vietnam War 800,000–3,800,000 1,743,560 1955–1975 Vietnam [75][76][77] – Also known as the Second Indochina War
First Sudanese Civil War 500,000+ 500,000 1955–1972 Sudan
Congo Crisis 100,000+ 100,000 1960–1965 Congo [78]
Angolan War of Independence 82,991–102,991 92,452 1961–1974 Angola
North Yemen Civil War 100,000–200,000 141,421 1962–1970 Yemen [79]
West Papua conflict 150,000-400,000 244,949 1963–present New Guinea mal
Mozambican War of Independence 63,500–88,500 74,965 1964–1974 Mozambique [80]
Insurgency in Northeast India 25,000+ 25,000 1964–present Northeast India [70]
Colombian conflict 220,000+ 220,000 1964–present Colombia [81]
Nigerian Civil War 1,000,000-3,000,000 1,732,051 1967–1970 Nigeria – Also known as the Biafran War
Moro Conflict 120,000+ 120,000 1969–present Philippines [82]
CPP-NPA-NDF rebellion 30,000–43,000 35,917 1969–present Philippines [83]
Bangladesh Liberation War 3,000,000+ 3,000,000 1971 Bangladesh [84] – Also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence
Ethiopian Civil War 500,000–1,500,000 866,025 1974–1991 Ethiopia
Angolan Civil War 504,158+ 504,158 1975–2002 Angola
Lebanese Civil War 120,000–150,000 134,164 1975–1990 Lebanon
Insurgency in Laos 100,000+ 100,000 1975–2007 Laos [85]
War in Afghanistan 1,240,000–2,000,000 1,574,802 1978–present Afghanistan [86]
Kurdish–Turkish conflict 45,000+ 45,000 1978–present Middle East [87] – Part of the Kurdish rebellions in Turkey
Soviet–Afghan War 600,000–2,000,000 1,095,445 1979–1989 Afghanistan [88][89][90] – Part of War in Afghanistan
Iran–Iraq War 289,220–1,100,000 564,041 1980–1988 Middle East
Internal conflict in Peru 70,000+ 70,000 1980–present Peru [91]
Ugandan Bush War 100,000–500,000 223,607 1981–1986 Uganda [92][93] – Also known as the Luwero War
Second Sudanese Civil War 1,000,000–2,000,000 1,414,214 1983–2005 Sudan
Sri Lankan Civil War 80,000–100,000 89,443 1983–2009 Sri Lanka [94]
Somali Civil War 300,000–500,000 387,298 1986–present Somalia [95][96]
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 100,000–500,000 223,607 1987–present Central Africa [97]
Nagorno-Karabakh War 38,000+ 38,000 1988–1994 Caucasus region – Also known as the Artsakh Liberation War
Gulf War 25,456–40,456 32,091 1990–1991 Iraq – Also known as the First Iraq War
Algerian Civil War 44,000–200,000 93,808 1991–2002 Algeria [98]
Bosnian War 97,214–104,732 100,903 1991–1995 Bosnia
1991 Iraqi coup d'état attempt 85,000–235,000 141,333 1991 Iraq [99][100][101] – Also known as the Sha'aban Intifada
Sierra Leone Civil War 50,000-300,000 122,474 1991-2002 Sierra Leone
Burundian Civil War 300,000+ 300,000 1993–2005 Burundi [102]
First Congo War 250,000–800,000 447,214 1996–1997 Congo
Second Congo War 2,500,000–5,400,000 3,674,235 1998–2003 Central Africa [103][104][105][72] – Also known as the Great War of Africa
Ituri conflict 60,000+ 60,000 1999–2003 Congo [106] – Part of the Second Congo War
War on Terror 272,000–1,260,000 585,423 2001–present Worldwide [107][108][109][110] – Also known as the Global War on Terrorism
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) 47,246–61,603 53,949 2001–present Afghanistan [108] – Part of the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan
Iraq War 176,913–1,120,000 445,132 2003–2011 Iraq [109][110][108] – Also known as the Second Gulf War

– Part of the War on Terror See: Casualties of the Iraq War

War in Darfur 178,258–461,520 286,827 2003–present Sudan [111]
Kivu Conflict 100,000+ 100,000 2004–present Congo – Part of the Second Congo War
War in North-West Pakistan 45,852–78,946 60,165 2004–present Pakistan [108] – Also known as the War in Waziristan

– Part of the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

Houthi insurgency in Yemen 25,000+ 25,000 2004–present Yemen [112] – Also known as the Sa'dah War
Mexican Drug War 106,800+ 106,800 2006–present Mexico [113][114] – Also known as the Mexican War on Drugs
Boko Haram insurgency 51,567+ 51,567 2009–present Nigeria 2,400,000 internally displaced
Syrian Civil War 470,000+ 470,000 2011–present Syria See: Casualties of the Syrian civil war
Iraqi Civil War (2014–present) 75,000+ 75,000 2014–present Iraq
Malagasy Uprising 11,342 - 89,000 35,000 1947-1948 Madagascar [115][116]

Modern wars with fewer than 25,000 deaths by death toll

Charts and graphs

Death toll graph - List of wars by death toll through time 1300 CE to present, over 1 million casualties, from the data presented in the above table.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ White, Matthew. "Atrocity statistics from the Roman Era". Necrometrics. 
  2. ^ Robert B. Marks (2011). China: Its Environment and History (World Social Change). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442212756. 
  3. ^ Graziella Caselli (2005). Demography – Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population. Academic Press. ISBN 012765660X. 
  4. ^ Aletheia (1897). The Rationalist's Manual. 
  5. ^ White, Matthew. "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  6. ^ "귀주대첩 [네이버 지식백과] 귀주대첩 [龜州大捷] (두산백과)". Naver. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) p.278. Cited by White
  8. ^ White, Matthew. "Crusades (1095-1291)". Necrometrics. 
  9. ^ "Massacre of the Pure". Time. April 28, 1961. 
  10. ^ McEvedy, Colin; Jones, Richard M. (1978). Atlas of World Population History. New York, NY: Puffin. p. 172. ISBN 9780140510768. 
  11. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33–53.
  12. ^ White, Matthew. "Mongol Conquests". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  13. ^ White, Matthew. "Twentieth Century Atlas – Historical Body Count". Necrometrics. 
  14. ^ White, Matthew. "Timur Lenk (1369–1405)". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  15. ^ White, Matthew. "Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  16. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1978). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The fifteenth century. The American Philosophical Society. p. 331. 
  17. ^ "War Statistics – Death Tolls, Length, and More". Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. 
  18. ^ Jones, Nigel (29 March 2012). "Towton was our worst ever battle, so why have we forgotten this bloodbath in the snow?". Daily Mail Online. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Victimario Histórico Militar". 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Nash (1976). Darkest Hours. Rowman & Littlefield. 
  21. ^ White, Matthew. "Peasants' War, Germany (1524-25)". Necrometrics. 
  22. ^ Knecht, Robert J. (2002). The French Religious Wars 1562–1598. Osprey Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9781841763958. 
  23. ^ This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, 1485-1746. 
  24. ^ Jones, Geo H. (1899). "The Japanese Invasion of Korea — 1592" (PDF). The China Review. 23 (5): 234. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-23. Retrieved 2018-05-13. Thus ended for a time one of the bloodiest wars in history. During the two years and more the loss of life was frightful; nothing remains upon which to base a reliable estimate, but the War Monument at Kiuto, and the accounts of such battles as Kyong-chu, Choung-chu, Haing chu, the Im Chiu River, Pyongyang, Yenan, the massacre at Söul, Ulsan and Chiu-chu, and fifty other engagements would make a million lives a conservative estimate. 
  25. ^ McFarlane, Alan: The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Blackwell 2003, ISBN 0-631-18117-2, ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0 – cited by White
  26. ^ White, Matthew. "The Thirty Years War (1618-48)". Necrometrics. 
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  28. ^ Carlton 2002, p. 211.
  29. ^ Carlton 2002, p. 212.
  30. ^ Carlton 2002, p. 213.
  31. ^ Bardon, Jonathan (31 October 2008). "The Curse of Cromwell". A History of Ireland in 250 Episodes – Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Irish History. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. p. 0. ISBN 9780717157549. 
  32. ^ Matthew White (2011). Atrocitology: Humanity's 100 Deadliest Achievements. Canongate Books. p. 113. 
  33. ^ Matthew White (2011), Aurangzeb - in Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History, W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 978-0393081923
  34. ^ White, Matthew. "Northern War (1700-21)". Necrometrics. 
  35. ^ P. J. Marshall (2006). Bengal: The British Bridgehead: Eastern India 1740-1828. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. 
  36. ^ Kirti N. Chaudhuri (2006). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company: 1660-1760. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. 
  37. ^ Clodfelter, cited by White
  38. ^ Urlanis, cited by White
  39. ^ Peckham, Howard H., ed. (1974). The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  40. ^ Dawson, Warrington. "The 2112 Frenchmen who died in the United States from 1777 to 1783 while fighting for the American Independence". Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route. Journal de la societe des Americanistes. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  41. ^ "Spanish casualties in The American Revolutionary war". Necrometrics. 
  42. ^ Annual Register, 1783 (1785), pp. 199–200.
  43. ^ a b "Victimario Histórico Militar". 
  44. ^ "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". HistoryNet.com. June 12, 2006. 
  45. ^ "French Conquest of Algeria (1829-47)". necrometrics. 
  46. ^ a b Gruhl, Werner (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931 - 1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 181. 
  47. ^ Cao, Shuji (2001). Zhongguo Renkou Shi [A History of China's Population] (in Chinese). Shanghai: Fudan Daxue Chubanshe. pp. 455, 509. 
  48. ^ Hans Bielenstein. Chinese historical demography A.D. 2-1982. Östasiatiska museet. p 17
  49. ^ Ramesh, Randeep (24 August 2007). "India's secret history: 'A holocaust, one where millions disappeared...'". The Guardian. 
  50. ^ Recounting the dead, Associate Professor J. David Hacker, "estimates, based on Census data, indicate that the death toll was at least 750,000, and may have been as high as 850,000" (study refers only to military casualties)
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Works cited

Further reading

External links