List of wars involving England

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This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of England prior to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain via the Acts of Union 1707. For dates after 1707, see List of wars involving the United Kingdom.

11th century[edit]

Beginning End Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
937 1066 Viking invasions of England England Denmark
Norway
Viking power broken after Battle of Stamford Bridge
1066 1088 Norman Conquest of England Flag of Wessex.svg Kingdom of England Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg Duchy of Normandy Norman victory
1096 1099 First Crusade Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of France
Duchy of Apulia
Byzantine Empire

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Great Seljuq Empire
Danishmends
Fatimids
Almoravids

Abbasids

Crusader victory

12th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1135 1154 The Anarchy Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg Supporters of Stephen of Blois Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg Supporters of Empress Matilda and Henry Curtmantle Treaty of Wallingford
  • Stephen ousted, Henry crowned King of England.
1145 1149 Second Crusade Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of France
Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Portugal
Castile
County of Barcelona
León
Byzantine Empire

Kingdom of Sicily

Sultanate of Rum
Almoravids
Almohads
Zengids
Abbasids

Fatimids

Muslim victory in the Holy Land

Crusader victories in Iberia and the Baltic

1173 1174 Revolt of 1173–74 Flag of England.svg English royalists Flag of England.svg English rebels
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Kingdom of France
Flag of Scotland.svg Kingdom of Scotland
Generieke vlag van Vlaanderen.svg County of Flanders
Blason Courtenay.svg County of Boulogne
COA fr BRE.svg Duchy of Brittany
Royalist victory

Rebels reconciled to rule of Henry II.
William the Lion signs Treaty of Falaise.
Henry II maintains hold on his territories.
Several Scottish castles, including Berwick and Edinburgh, transferred to Henry II.

1189 1192 Third Crusade Armoiries de Jérusalem.svg Kingdom of Jerusalem
France Ancient.svg France
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire

Alex K Kingdom of Hungary.svg Kingdom of Hungary

Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg Ayyubids
Flag of Jihad.svg Zengids
Sultanate of Rum
Byzantine Empire

Aragon-Sicily Arms.svg Kingdom of Sicily

Treaty of Ramla
  • Partial Crusader victory

13th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1215 1217 First Barons' War England COA.svg Pro-Angevin forces Rebel Barons

France Ancient.svg France

Rebellion put down, French invasion repelled, followed by return to antebellum status quo.
1242 1242 Saintonge War France Ancient.svg France French victory
1264 1267 Second Barons' War Rebel barons Monarchic victory
1271 1272 Ninth Crusade France Ancient.svg France
Armoiries Chypre.svg Kingdom of Cyprus
Armoiries de Jérusalem.svg Kingdom of Jerusalem
Armoiries Bohémond VI d'Antioche.svg County of Tripoli
Ilkhanate

Armoiries Héthoumides.svg Armenian Cilicia

Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluks Partial Crusader victory
1296 1328 First War of Scottish Independence Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg Kingdom of Scotland Scottish victory

14th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1321 1322 Despenser War Marcher Lords Royalist victory
1324 1324 War of Saint-Sardos France Ancient.svg France French victory
1332 1357 Second War of Scottish Independence Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg Kingdom of Scotland

France Ancient.svg France

Scottish victory
1337 1453 Hundred Years' War Ancient Flag of Burgundy.svg Duchy of Burgundy
COA fr BRE.svg Duchy of Brittany (Montfort)
PortugueseFlag1248.svg Portugal
Bandera de Reino de Navarra.svg Navarre
Blason Nord-Pas-De-Calais.svg Flanders
Hainaut Modern Arms.svg Hainaut
Luxembourg New Arms.svg Luxembourg

 Holy Roman Empire

CoA France moderne.svg France
Bandera de la Corona de Castilla.svg Castile
Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg Scotland
Flag of Genoa.svg Genoa
Armoiries Majorque.svg Majorca
Flag of Bohemia.svg Bohemia
Estandarte de la Corona de Aragon.svg Aragon

COA fr BRE.svg Brittany (Blois)

English victory in the Edwardian War
French victory in the Caroline War and the Lancastrian War
1377 1575 Anglo-Scottish Wars Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg Scotland Stalemate
1381 1382 Third Ferdinand War PortugueseFlag1385.svg Portugal Bandera de la Corona de Castilla.svg Castile Castillian victory
1383 1385 1383–85 Crisis PortugueseFlag1385.svg Portugal
England Arms 1340.svg Kingdom of England
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png Crown of Castile
France Ancient.svg Kingdom of France
Aragon Arms.svg Crown of Aragon
Victory

15th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1400 1415 Glyndŵr Rising
Part of the Hundred Years' War
Tarian Glyndwr Arfbais.png Welsh rebels
France moderne.svg Kingdom of France
Total English victory
1455 1485 Wars of the Roses Lancashire rose.svg House of Lancaster Yorkshire rose.svg House of York Lancastrian victory, founding of the House of Tudor
1470 1474 Anglo-Hanseatic War Hanseatic League Hanseatic victory
1496 1498 Italian War of 1494–1498
(1494–1498)
League of Venice:

 Papal States
 Republic of Venice
 Kingdom of Naples
Kingdoms of Spain
Duchy of Milan
 Holy Roman Empire
 Republic of Florence
Duchy of Mantua
 Kingdom of England (from 1496)

 Kingdom of France Victory
  • Forced French retreat
1497 1497 Cornish Rebellion of 1497 Cornish rebels English victory

16th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1511 1516 War of the League of Cambrai Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg Papal States
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Venice
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire

Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Swiss mercenaries

Pavillon royal de la France.png France
Coat of arms of the House of Este (1471).svg Duchy of Ferrara

Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland

French and Venetian victory
1521 1526 Italian War of 1521–26 Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg Papal States
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire

Pavillon royal de la France.png France

Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Venice

Victory
1526 1530 War of the League of Cognac Pavillon royal de la France.png France
Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg Papal States
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Venice
Flag of Florence.svg Florence

Flag of Milan.svg Duchy of Milan

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire

Flag of Genoa.svg Republic of Genoa

Spanish-Imperial Victory
1542 1546 Italian War of 1542–46 Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Electoral Saxony.svg Saxony

Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Brandenburg

Pavillon royal de la France.png France
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Ottoman Empire

Armoiries Guillaume de Clèves.png Jülich-Cleves-Berg

Inconclusive
1543 1550 Rough Wooing Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland Treaty of Norham, Scottish victory
1549 1549 Prayer Book Rebellion Southwestern Catholics Edwardian victory
1551 1559 Italian War of 1551–59 Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire
Medici Flag of Tuscany.png Duchy of Florence

Savoie flag.svg Duchy of Savoy

Pavillon royal de la France.png France
Siena-Stemma.png Republic of Siena

Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Ottoman Empire

Victory, Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis
1562 1598 French Wars of Religion
(1562–1598)
Protestants:
Croix huguenote.svg Huguenots
 England
Catholics:
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg Catholic League
Spain Spain
 Duchy of Savoy
Victory
  • Uneasy truce
  • The Edict of Nantes granted the Huguenots substantial rights in certain areas
  • Paris and other defined territories were declared to be permanently Catholic
  • Failure of France's enemies to weaken France and to gain territories
1566 1648 Eighty Years' War Prinsenvlag.svg Dutch Republic
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg France
Huguenots

German Protestants

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Holy Roman Empire

Victory

Peace of Münster, independent Netherlands

1569 1573 First Desmond Rebellion  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Ireland
allied Irish clans
St Patrick's saltire.svg FitzGeralds of Desmond
allied Irish clans
Victory
1579 1583 Second Desmond Rebellion
(1579–1583)
 Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Ireland
allied Irish clans
St Patrick's saltire.svg FitzGeralds of Desmond
 Spain
 Papal States
allied Irish clans
Victory
1580 1583 War of the Portuguese Succession Portugal Portugal loyal to Prior of Crato
 France

 United Provinces

Spain Spain
Portugal Portugal loyal to Philip of Spain
Defeat
1585 1604 Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)  United Provinces
 France
Portugal Portuguese loyal to Prior of Crato

French Huguenot forces

Spain Spain
French Catholic League
O'Neill Clan.png Irish alliance

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of Saint John

Stalemate
1594 1603 Nine Years' War (Ireland)  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Ireland
O'Neill Clan.png Alliance of Irish clans
Spain Spain

Scottish Gaelic mercenaries

Victory

17th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1602 1661 Dutch-Portuguese War (1602–1661)  Dutch Republic
 Kingdom of England
(until 1640)
Johor Johor Sultanate
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Ndongo
Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
 Crown of Castile
(until 1640)
 Kingdom of Cochin
Potiguara Tupis
Treaty of Hague
1625 1630 Anglo-Spanish War (1625–1630)  England

Support:

Spain Spain Status quo ante bellum
1627 1629 Anglo-French War (1627–1629)  England  France French victory
1639 1653 Bishops' Wars (1639–1640) Scottish Royalists
England England
Scottish Covenanters Covenanters defeat Scottish Royalist and England.
1640 1668 Portuguese Restoration War Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
 France
 England
Spain Crown of Spain Victory
1641 1653 Irish Confederate Wars Parliamentarians Irish Catholic Confederation
(allied with Royalists 1648–1650)

English and Scottish Royalists
(allied with Irish Confederates 1648–1650)

English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland, defeat of Royalists and crushing of Irish Catholic power
1642 1651 English Civil War Parliamentarians Royalists Parliamentarian victory
1652 1654 First Anglo-Dutch War  Commonwealth of England  Dutch Republic Victory

Treaty of Westminster

1654 1660 Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660)  Commonwealth of England
 France (1657–59)
Spain Spain
Royal Standard of Great Britain (1603-1649).svg Royalists of the British Isles
Victory
1665 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War  England
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster.svg Bishopric of Münster
 Dutch Republic
Denmark Denmark
 France
Defeat
1672 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War  England
 France
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster.svg Bishopric of Münster
Black St George's Cross.svg Electorate of Cologne
 Dutch Republic
Denmark Denmark-Norway
Defeat

Status quo ante bellum:

1672 1678 Franco-Dutch War  France
 England
 Sweden
Bishopric of Münster
Archbishopric of Cologne
 Dutch Republic
 Holy Roman Empire
 Spain
Denmark Denmark-Norway
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Electorate of Brandenburg
Victory

Peace between France, England and the Dutch Republic:

1685 1685 Monmouth Rebellion Kingdom of England Royal army of James II Rebel army of Duke of Monmouth Victory for James II
1688 1697 Nine Years' War Grand Alliance:
 Dutch Republic
 England
 Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Empire
 Duchy of Savoy
Flag of Sweden.svg Swedish Empire (until 1691)
 Scotland
 France
Jacobite Standard (1745).svg Jacobites
Victory

18th century[edit]

Start Finish Name of Conflict Belligerents (excluding England) Outcome
Allies Enemies
1701 1714 War of the Spanish Succession Austrian Empire Austrian monarchy
Kingdom of England England (until 1707)
Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (from 1707)
Dutch Republic Dutch Republic
Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Savoy Piedmont-Savoy
Kingdom of Prussia Prussia
Habsburg Spain
 Portugal
 France
Spain Spanish monarchy
Bavaria (~1704)
Cologne
Mantua Mantua (~1708)
Victory

List of civil wars[edit]

  1. Rebellion of 1088 – in England and Normandy
  2. The Anarchy (1135–54) – in England
  3. Revolt of 1173–74 – in England, Normandy, and Anjou
  4. First Barons' War (1215–17) – in England
  5. Second Barons' War (1264–67) – in England
  6. Welsh Uprising (1282) – in England and Wales
  7. Peasants' Revolt (1381) – in England
  8. Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) – in England and Wales; Richard III was the last English king to die in combat
  9. Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) – in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland
  10. Monmouth Rebellion (1685) – in England
  11. Jacobite Rebellions (1689–91; 1715–16; 1719; 1745–46) – in England, Scotland and Ireland

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoffrey Parker p.73