List of wars involving Finland

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This is a list of wars involving independent Finland. This list only includes conflicts where Finnish forces took part in actual combat, thus excluding peacekeeping operations.

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result Finnish leaders Finnish losses
President Chief of Defence
Finnish Civil War
(1918)
Flag of Finland 1918 (state).svg White Guard
German Empire Germany
Red flag.svg Red Guard
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg Soviet-Russia
White Senate victory
  • Russian military presence ceased.
K. J. Ståhlberg
C. G. E. Mannerheim
~30,000[1]
(Reds and Whites)
Winter War
(1939–1940)
 Finland Soviet Union Soviet Union Defeat[2]
Kyösti Kallio
25,904[4]
Continuation War
(1941–1944)
 Finland
Nazi Germany Germany
Soviet Union Soviet Union Defeat[5]
Risto Ryti
63,204[6]
Lapland War
(1944–1945)
 Finland Nazi Germany Germany Victory
  • German retreat from Finnish territory.
C. G. E. Mannerheim
1,036[7]


For the wars during the Russian rule (1809–1917), see French invasion of Russia (1812), November Uprising (war in Poland in 1830), Russo-Turkish War (several), Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) and World War I (1914–17). For the list of wars during the Swedish rule (1249–1809), see List of Swedish wars. For information on conflicts related to Finland prior to Swedish rule, see Early Finnish wars.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Archive
  2. ^ Edwards (2006), p. 18
  3. ^ Nigel Stephenson (November 26, 1989). "Eastern Bloc Unrest Casts Different Light on Finland's '39 Winter War With Russia". Los Angeles Times. 
  4. ^ Finnish detailed death casualties: Dead, buried 16,766; Wounded, died of wounds 3,089; Dead, not buried, later declared as dead 3,503; Missing, declared as dead 1,712; Died as a prisoner of war 20; Other reasons (diseases, accidents, suicides) 677; Unknown 137.
  5. ^ Mouritzen, Hans (1997). External Danger and Democracy: Old Nordic Lessons and New European Challenges. Dartmouth. p. 35. ISBN 1-85521-885-2. 
  6. ^ Finnish detailed death casualties: Dead, buried 33,565; Wounded, died of wounds 12,820; Dead, not buried later declared as dead 4,251; Missing, declared as dead 3,552; Died as prisoners of war 473; Other reasons (diseases, accidents, suicides) 7,932; Unknown 611
  7. ^ Ahto 1980, p. 296.