List of wars involving Finland

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This is a list of wars involving independent Finland. This list only includes conflicts where Finnish forces took part in actual combat, thus excluding peacekeeping operations.

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result Finnish leaders Finnish losses
President Chief of Defence
Finnish Civil War
Flag of Finland 1918 (state).svg White Guard
 German Empire
Red flag.svg Red Guard
 Russian SFSR
White Senate victory
  • Russian military presence ceased.
K. J. Ståhlberg
C. G. E. Mannerheim
(Reds and Whites)


Flag of Finland 1918 (state).svg White Guard

Flag of Finland 1918-1920 (State).svg Finnish volunteersKarelianNationalFlag.svg East Karelia

 Russian SFSR
Red flag.svg Red Guards (Finns)

KarelianNationalFlag.svg Karelian Regiment
United Kingdom Murmansk Legion

Winter War
 Finland  Soviet Union Defeat[2] (but survival as an independent state)
Kyösti Kallio
Continuation War
 Nazi Germany
 Soviet Union
 Great Britain
Defeat[4] (but survival as an independent state)
Risto Ryti
Lapland War
 Finland  Nazi Germany Victory
  • German retreat from Finnish territory.
C. G. E. Mannerheim
War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan Taliban Ongoing
Tarja Halonen
Juhani Kaskeala

For the wars during the Russian rule (1809–1917), see French invasion of Russia (1812), November Uprising (war in Poland in 1830), Russo-Turkish War (several), Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) and World War I (1914–17). For the list of wars during the Swedish rule (1249–1809), see List of Swedish wars. For information on conflicts related to Finland prior to Swedish rule, see Early Finnish wars.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ National Archive
  2. ^ Wasserstein, Bernard (2007). Barbarism and Civilization: A History of Europe in our Time. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780191622519. 
  3. ^ Finnish detailed death casualties: Dead, buried 16,766; Wounded, died of wounds 3,089; Dead, not buried, later declared as dead 3,503; Missing, declared as dead 1,712; Died as a prisoner of war 20; Other reasons (diseases, accidents, suicides) 677; Unknown 137.
  4. ^ Mouritzen, Hans (1997). External Danger and Democracy: Old Nordic Lessons and New European Challenges. Dartmouth. p. 35. ISBN 1-85521-885-2. 
  5. ^ Finnish detailed death casualties: Dead, buried 33,565; Wounded, died of wounds 12,820; Dead, not buried later declared as dead 4,251; Missing, declared as dead 3,552; Died as prisoners of war 473; Other reasons (diseases, accidents, suicides) 7,932; Unknown 611
  6. ^ Ahto 1980, p. 296.
  7. ^ Knefel, John (7 January 2015). "Drone Rules in Afghanistan Go Unchanged, And Other Reasons the War Isn't Really Over". Rolling Stones. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  8. ^ "OEF: Afghanistan: Fatalities By Year". 9 September 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2013.