List of wars involving Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of wars and armed conflicts in and involving Russia in chronological order, from the 9th to the 21st century.

Russian troops took part in a large number of wars and armed clashes in various parts of the world. Starting from the princely squads, opposing the raids of nomads, and fighting for the expansion of the territory of the Old Russian state, through the period of significant territorial growth of Russia in the 15th-20th centuries, marked by wars of conquest in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Volga region, Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East, to the world wars of the 20th century and today.

The list includes:

  • external wars
  • foreign intervention in domestic conflicts
  • anti-colonial uprisings of the peoples conquered during the Russian expansion
  • princely feuds
  • peasant uprisings

Legends of results:

  Victory
  Defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result,

status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)

  Ongoing conflict

Novgorodian and Kievan Rus'[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
907 Rus'–Byzantine War (907) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Victory[1]
920–1036 Rus'-Pechenegs' campaigns Kievan Rus' Pechenegs Different results, Eventually victory.
941 Rus'–Byzantine War (941) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Defeat
944/945 Rus'-Byzantine War (944/945) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Victory[2]
964–965 Sviatoslav's campaign against Khazars Kievan Rus' Khazar Khaganate Victory
  • Destruction of the Khazar Khaganate.
967/968–971 Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Defeat
981 Vladimir the Great's campaign on Cherven Cities Kievan Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Victory
985 Vladimir the Great's campaign against Volga Bulgaria Kievan Rus' Volga Bulgaria Military victory, then agreement.
987 Rus'-Byzantine War (987) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Military victory and agreement.
  • Baptism of Vladimir and further Christianization of Kievan Rus'
1022 Yaroslav the Wise's attack on Brest Kievan Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Defeat
1024 Rus'–Byzantine War (1024) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Defeat
1030 Yaroslav the Wise's campaign against Chud Kievan Rus' Chud Victory
  • Estonian tribes start pay tribute to Rus
1030–1031 Yaroslav the Wise's campaign on Cherven Cities Kievan Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Victory
1042-1228 Finnish–Novgorodian wars Kievan Rus' (until 1136) Baltic Finnic peoples of Fennoscandia (Yem people) Mostly Victory
1043 Rus'–Byzantine War (1043) Kievan Rus'  Byzantine Empire Defeat
1055–1223 Rus'-Cumans' campaigns Kievan Rus' Cumans Different results, Mostly victories
1061 Sosols raid against Pskov Kievan Rus' Sosols Defeat. Yaroslav the Wise's conquests in Estonia are lost.
1132-1445 Swedish–Novgorodian Wars Kievan Rus' (until 1136) COA family sv Folkungaättens lagmansgren.svg Kingdom of Sweden

Royal arms of Norway.svg Kingdom of Norway (from 1319)

Stalemate after Black Death
1147 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław IV the Curly
Kievan Rus'
Old Prussians Victory
1203-1234 Campaigns of Russian princes against the Order of the Sword (see also Livonian Crusade) Kievan Rus'

Banner of the Novgorod Republic (c. 1385).svg Novgorod Republic

Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Baltic peoles

Baltic Finnic peoples

Zakon Kawalerów Mieczowych COA.svg Livonian Brothers of the Sword Defeat
  • The capture by the crusaders of the Baltic lands up to the borders of Russia and Lithuania
1223–1240 Mongol invasion of Rus'(see also List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus') Vladimir-Suzdal
Alex K Kyiv Michael 2.svgPrincipality of Kiev
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Galicia-Volhynia
Nowogród.svg Novgorod Republic
Smolensk
Turov and Pinsk
Rostov
Chernigov
Ryazan
Pereyaslavl
Flag of the Mongol Empire 2.gif Mongol Empire Decisive defeat
  • Principalities of the Russian State became vassals of the Mongol Empire
1240-1242 Livonian campaign against Rus' (see also Northern Crusades) Kievan Rus'

Banner of the Novgorod Republic (c. 1385).svg Novgorod Republic

Den tyske ordens skjold.svgTeutonic Order

COA family sv Folkungaättens lagmansgren.svg Kingdom of Sweden

Denmark Kingdom of Denmark

Victory:
  • Defeat of the Germans, peace with Prince Alexander Nevsky, waive of claims of Northern Russia.
1268 Battle of Wesenberg Banner of the Novgorod Republic (c. 1385).svg Novgorod Republic

Seal of Alexander Nevsky 1236 Avers.svg Vladimir-Suzdal

Pskov Republic

Denmark Kingdom of Denmark

Den tyske ordens skjold.svgTeutonic Order

Both sides claimed victory

Grand Duchy of Moscow (1263–1547)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1368–1372 Lithuanian-Muscovite War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Principality of Tver

Inconclusive
1376 Muscovite-Volga Bulgars war Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Volga Bulgaria Victory
Battle on Pyana River Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Defeat
Battle of the Vozha River Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Victory
Battle of Kulikovo Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Victory
1382 Siege of Moscow Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Defeat
1438–1445 Ulugh Muhammad's Campaign Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Khanate of Kazan Defeat
1467–1469 Qasim War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Khanate of Kazan Victory
  • Kazan releases all ethnic Christian Russians enslaved in the past four decades
1471 Battle of Shelon Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Novgorod Republic Victory
1480 Great stand on the Ugra river Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Victory
  • End of Mongol rule
Capture of Tver (1485) [ru] Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Principality of Tver Victory
  • End of the Principality of Tver
1478 Siege of Kazan Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Khanate of Kazan Victory
1492–1494 First Muscovite-Lithuanian War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Victory
1495–1497 Russo-Swedish War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Inconclusive
1500–1503 Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Baltic coat of arms.svg Livonian Order
Victory
1505–1507 Russo-Kazan War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Khanate of Kazan Inconclusive
1507–1508 Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate
Inconclusive
1512–1522 Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow
Baltic coat of arms.svg Livonian Order
Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Victory
1534–1537 Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century).svg Grand Duchy of Moscow Coat of Arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Indecisive

Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1552 Siege of Kazan
Ivan IV enters the defeated Kazan
Tatarstan Russia Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg Khanate of Kazan Victory
  • Annexation of Kazan into Russia
1552–1556 Tatar Rebellion Tatarstan Russia Tatar rebels Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1554–1557 Ivan the Terrible's Swedish War Karelia Russia Sweden Inconclusive
1556 Russian conquest of Astrakhan Astrakhan Russia Astrakhan Khanate Victory
1558–1583 Livonian War
Russia troops besiege Narva in 1558
Northern Europe Russia
Livonia
Baltic coat of arms.svg Livonian Confederation
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark–Norway
Sweden
Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania
(before 1569 the Polish–Lithuanian union)
Defeat
1568–1570 Astrakhan Expedition Astrakhan and Azov Russia Ottoman Empire Turkey
Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate
Victory
  • Treaty of Constantinople (1570)
1570–1572 Ivan the Terrible's Crimean War European Russia Russia Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate Victory
  • The burning of Moscow by the Crimean Tatars in 1571
  • The defeat of the Crimean Tatars by the Russians at the Battle of Molodi in 1572
  • Preservation of independence of Russia and its conquests in the Volga region
1580–1762 Russian conquest of Siberia
Yermak’s Conquest of Siberia
Siberia Russia Khanate of Sibir (until 1598)

Native Siberians

Victory
  • Start of Russian annexation of Siberia
1590–1595 Boris Godunov's Swedish War Northern Europe Russia Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Inconclusive
1605–1618 Polish invasions of Russia
The Poles surrender the Moscow Kremlin to Prince Pozharsky in 1612
Russia Russia

Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden (1609–1610)

Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Poland-Lithuania Inconclusive
  • Russia preserve independence
  • Russia lost Smolensk
  • Vladislav Zhigimondovich remained a contender for the Russian throne
  • Truce of Deulino
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion
Bolotnikov’s battle with the Tsar’s army at Nizhniye Kotly near Moscow
Russia Russia Rebels under Ivan Bolotnikov Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1610–1617 Ingrian War
Depiction of Russian troops in 1611
Russia Russia Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Defeat
1632–1634 Smolensk War
Russian troops storm Smolensk
Smolensk Russia Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania Defeat
1651–1653 Alexis I's Persian War North Caucasus Russia Safavid Flag.svg Persia Defeat
1652–1689 Sino–Russian border conflicts
Russian fort under attack by Chinese troops
Heilongjiang and Amur Russia

Cossacks

Qing dynasty China

Joseon Korea

Defeat
1654–1667 First Northern War Eastern Europe Russia

Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossack Hetmanate

Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania

Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate

Victory
1656–1658 Second Northern War
Russian troops besiege Riga in 1656
Northern Europe Russia Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Inconclusive
1662–1664 First Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan Russia Bashkir rebels Inconclusive, Political defeat
  • Russian government forced to accept Bashkir demands
1670–1671 Razin's Rebellion
Razin's rebels in Astrakhan
Russia Russia Cossacks under Stepan Razin Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1676–1681 Feodor III's Turkish War Ukraine Russia Ottoman Flag.svg Turkey

Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate

Indecisive[3]
1683–1700 Great Turkish War
Russian troops capture Azov
Eastern Europe Russia (from 1686)
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Austria
Poland-Lithuania
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Ottoman Flag.svg Turkey
Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate
Victory
1700–1721 Great Northern War
Russian troops assault the island fortress of Nöteborg
Russian troops capture Narva
Europe Russia
Denmark Denmark–Norway
(1700, 1709-)
 Saxony
(1700–6, 1709-)
Poland-Lithuania
(1700–4, 1709-)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1700–8)
 Prussia (1715-)
Province of Hanover Hanover (1715-)
 Great Britain (1717–19)
Sweden Sweden
Wappen Herzogtum Holstein 1703.gif Holstein-Gottorp
Poland-Lithuania (1704–09)
Ottoman Flag.svg Turkey (1710–14)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
 Great Britain (1700, 1719–21)
Victory

Victory against Sweden

1704–1711 Third Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan and Tatarstan Russia Bashkir rebels Military victory, Political defeat
  • Russian government forced to accept some Bashkir demands
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion Southern Russia Russia Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Don Cossack rebels Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1717 Peter the Great's Khivan War Khanate of Khiva Russia Khanate of Khiva Defeat
1717–1847 Kazakh-Russian conflicts Kazakhstan  Russia
Bashkirs
Cossack rebels
Kazakhstan

Kyrgyz tribes

Khanate of Khiva

Victory

Russian Empire (1721–1917)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1722–1723 Persian Expedition of Peter the Great Caucasus and northern Iran  Russia
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Armenia
Georgia
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg Persia Victory
1733–1738 War of the Polish Succession Rhineland
Depiction of the Siege of Danzig by Russian and Saxon forces in 1734
Poland Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland under Augustus III of Poland
 Russia
 Austria
 Saxony
 Prussia
Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland under Stanisław Leszczyński
 France
 Spain
 Sardinia
Indecisive
1735–1739 Russo-Austro-Turkish War Eastern Europe  Russia  Turkey Victory
1735–1740 Fourth Bashkir Rebellion Bashkortostan  Russia
  • Russian Empire pro-Russian Bashkirs
Bashkir rebels Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
  • Establishment of Orenburg
1740–1748 War of the Austrian Succession Europe  Austria
 Britain
Province of Hanover Hanover
 Russia (1741–43, 1748)
 Dutch Republic
 Saxony (1743–45)
 Sardinia
 Prussia (1740–42, 1744–45)
Spain Spain (1740–1746)
 France
Bavaria Bavaria (1741–45)
 Saxony (1741–42)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples and Sicily
 Genoa
Sweden Sweden (1741–43)
Inconclusive
1756–1763 Seven Years' War
Russian troops in Berlin in 1760
Europe  France
 Austria
 Spain
 Sweden
 Russia (1756–1762)
 Saxony
 Prussia
 Britain
Province of Hanover Hanover
граница Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Portugal Portugal
Hesse Hesse-Kassel
Schaumburg-Lippe
Iroquois Confederacy
White peace
1768–1769 Koliivshchyna Rebellion
Camp of Haidamakas
Ukraine  Russia

Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania

Haidamaky Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1768–1772 War of the Bar Confederation
Krakow capitulates to Suvorov
Poland  Russia Kingdom of France France
Poland Bar Confederation
Victory
1768–1774 Catherine the Great's First Turkish War
Destruction of the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Chesma
Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Mediterranean  Russia  Turkey Victory
1773–1775 Pugachev's Rebellion
Russian Cossack troops march during the rebellion
Russia  Russia Rebels under Yemelyan Pugachev
 Turkey
Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1787–1792 Catherine the Great's Second Turkish War
Russian troops storm the fortress of Ochakov
Eastern Europe  Russia  Turkey Victory
1788–1790 Catherine the Great's Swedish War
Russian fleet during the Battle of Vyborg Bay
Finland, western Sweden and Baltic Sea  Russia Sweden Sweden Inconclusive
1792 Catherine the Great's Polish War Poland  Russia

Targowica Confederation

Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania Victory
1794 Kościuszko Uprising Poland  Russia
Kingdom of Prussia Prussia
Herb Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodow.svg Poland-Lithuania Victory
1796 Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great North Caucasus and South Caucasus  Russia Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Persia Withdrawal
1799–1802 War of the Second Coalition
Suvorov victorious at the Battle of Trebbia (1799)
Europe  Austria
 Holy Roman Empire
 Britain
 Russia (until 1799)
Kingdom of France French Royalists
Portugal Portugal
 Two Sicilies
 Turkey
France France
 Spain
Denmark Denmark-Norway
Poland Polish Legions
French client states
Withdrawal (in 1799)
  • French victory in 1802
1803–1806 War of the Third Coalition
Capture of a French regiment’s standard by the cavalry of the Russian Guards
Europe  Austria
 Russia
 United Kingdom
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples
Portugal Portugal
 Sweden
France France
French client states
Defeat
1804–1813 Alexander I's Persian War
Russian troops storm the fortress of Lankaran
North Caucasus, South Caucasus and northern Iran  Russia Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Persia Victory
1806–1807 War of the Fourth Coalition
Russia troops clash with French troops at the Battle of Eylau
Eastern and Central Europe  Prussia
 United Kingdom
 Saxony
 Sweden
 Russia
граница Sicily
France France
French client states
 Spain
Confederation of the Rhine
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Italy
Kingdom of Naples Naples
Polish Legions
Defeat
1806–1812 Alexander I's Turkish War
Russian Fleet after the Battle of Athos
Romania, Moldova, Caucasus and Black Sea  Russia Ottoman Empire Turkey Victory
1807–1812 Anglo-Russian War Baltic Sea and Barents Sea  Russia  United Kingdom Inconclusive
1808–1809 Finnish War
Russian troops cross the Gulf of Bothnia on ice
Finland and Sweden  Russia Sweden Sweden Victory
1809 War of the Fifth Coalition Central Europe France France Confederation of the Rhine
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Italy
Spain Spain
Warsaw
 Russia
 Austria
 United Kingdom
граница Sicily
 Sardinia
Victory (limited involvement)
1812 French invasion of Russia
General Raevsky leading a detachment of the Russian Imperial Guard at the Battle of Saltanovka
Russia  Russia France France
French client states
Victory
  • French invasion repelled
  • Destruction of Napoleon's Grand Army
1813–1814 War of the Sixth Coalition
Russian troops entering Paris in 1814
Europe  Austria
 Prussia
 United Kingdom
 Sweden
 Russia
Spain Spain
Portugal Portugal
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
 Sardinia
France France

French client states

Victory
1815 War of the Seventh Coalition Europe  Austria
 Prussia
 United Kingdom
 Russia
Province of Hanover Hanover
Nassau
Brunswick
 Sweden
 United Netherlands
 Spain
Portugal Portugal
 Sardinia
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily
Tuscany Tuscany
  Switzerland
Kingdom of France French Royalists
France France
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples
Victory
1817–1864 Caucasian War
Imam Shamil surrenders to Russian forces
Caucasus  Russia
Mingrelia
Banner of Guria.svg Guria
Thirdimamateflag.svg Caucasian Imamate
Flag of Adygea.svg Circassia
Kabarda3.gif Big Kabarda (until 1825)
Flag of Abazinia.svg Abkhazian insurgents
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Kazi-Kumukh
Dagestan free people
Khunz Wolf 3b.svg Avaria (1829–1859)
Geo svan.JPG Svaneti
Victory
1825 Decembrist revolt
Decembrists at the Senate Square
Saint Petersburg  Russia Decembrist rebels Victory
  • Crushing of the revolt
1826–1828 Nicholas I's Persian War
Russian and Persian troops clash near Elisabethpol
South Caucasus and northern Iran  Russia Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg Persia Victory
1827 Battle of Navarino Greece  United Kingdom
France France

 Russia

 Turkey Victory
1828–1829 Nicholas I's Turkish War
Russian troops besiege Kars in 1828
Balkans and Caucasus  Russia  Turkey Victory
1830–1831 November uprising
Russian and Polish forces clash during the Battle of Ostrołęka
Poland  Russia Poland Poland Victory
  • Crushing of the uprising
1839–1841 Second Turko-Egyptian War Syria and Lebanon United Kingdom Britain
Austrian Empire Austria
Russian Empire Russia
Ottoman Empire Turkey
Flag of Egypt (1844-1867).svg Egypt
France France
Spain Spain
Victory
  • Egypt renounced its claim to Syria
1839–1895 Russian conquest of Central Asia
Russian troops entering Samarkand in 1868
Central Asia  Russia Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakhstan
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Bukhara
Khiva
Flag of the Turkestan (Kokand) Autonomy.svg Kokand
Turkmen tribes
Kyrgyz tribes
граница Afghanistan
Victory
  • Russian annexation of Central Asia
1841 Gurian Rebellion Georgia  Russia Gurian rebels Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1842 Shoorcha rebellion Tatarstan and Ulyanovsk  Russia Tatar, Mari and Chuvash peasants Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1848–1849 Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Hungarian troops surrender to the Russians at Világos
Hungary Austrian Empire Austria граница Hungary Victory
  • Crushing of the revolution
1853–1856 Crimean War
Russian troops and French zouaves engaged in hand-to-hand combat at Malakhov Kurgan
Crimea, Balkans, Caucasus, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, White Sea and Far East  Russia France
 Turkey
 Britain
 Sardinia
Defeat
1858 Mahtra Rebellion Estonia  Russia Estonian peasants Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1861 Bezdna Revolt Tatarstan Russia Peasants Victory
  • Crushing of the revolt
1863–1864 January uprising
Russian troops in Warsaw during the uprising
Poland Russia Coat of arms of the January Uprising.svg Polish, Lithuanian and Ukrainian insurgents Victory
  • Crushing of the uprising
1866 Polish Rebellion in Siberia Siberia Russia Polish political exiles Victory
  • Crushing of the rebellion
1877–1878 Alexander II's Turkish War
Russian troops entering Adrianople
Balkans and Caucasus Russia
граница Bulgarian volunteers
Romania Romania
Serbia Serbia
 Montenegro
Ottoman Empire Turkey Victory
1897–1898 Cretan Revolt (1897–1898) Crete Arkadi Cretan flag.svg Cretan revolutionaries
State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Kingdom of Greece
 British Empire
 France
Kingdom of Italy Italy
 Russian Empire
 Austria-Hungary (until April 12, 1898)
 German Empire (until March 16, 1898)
 Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Establishment of the Cretan State.
  • Withdraw of Ottoman forces from Crete.
1899–1901 Boxer Rebellion
Russian troops in Pekin
China Eight-Nation Alliance:
 Japan
 United Kingdom
 Russia
France France
 United States
 Germany
 Austria-Hungary
 Italy
Yìhéquán
 China
Victory
1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War
Russian cavalry in a reconnaissance mission during the Battle of Mukden
Manchuria, Korean Peninsula and Yellow Sea  Russia  Japan Defeat
1905–1907 Russian Revolution of 1905
A barricade erected by revolutionaries in Moscow
Russia  Russia Revolutionaries Victory
  • Crushing of the revolution
1905–1911 Persian Constitutional Revolution
Russian flag over Arg of Tabriz
Iran Persia
 Russia (from 1906)
Iranian constitutionalists Victory
1914–1918 World War I
Russian troops going to the front
Attack of Russian cavalry
Russian trenches in the forests of Sarikamish
Europe and Asia Allied Powers:
 France
 British Empire  Russia
 United States
 Italy
 Serbia
 Montenegro
 Belgium
 Japan
 Romania
 Portugal
 Brazil
Hejaz
 Greece
Armenia Armenia
Saudi Arabia Nejd and Hasa
 China
 Siam
Central Powers:
 Germany
 Austria-Hungary
 Turkey
 Bulgaria
Defeat
Allied Victory (without Russia)[4][5][6]
1916–1934 Central Asian Revolt
Soviet troops on Turkestan front in 1922
Central Asia Russian Empire Russian Empire (until 1917)
 Russian SFSR

 Soviet Union (from 1922)

Basmachi
Flag of the Khanate of Khiva.svg Khiva
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Bukhara
Flag of Afghanistan (1929).svg Afghanistan
Victory
  • Crushing of the revolt

Russian SFSR (1917–1922)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1917–1922 Russian Civil War  Russian SFSR
 Far Eastern Republic
Mongolian Communists
Makhnovshchina
Left SR
Green armies
Russia White Movement

Mountain Republic
Makhnovshchina
Left SR
Green armies


 British Empire
 Japan
 Czechoslovakia
 Greece
 United States
 France
 Serbia
 Romania
 Italy
 China
граница Mongolia
Victory
1917–1921 Ukrainian War of Independence  Russian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
граница Makhnovshchina
Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
 German Empire (1918)
Poland (1920–1921)
Hetmanate of Ukraine
White Movement
 German Empire (1917–1918)
Romania (1918)
Poland (1918–1919)
France (1919)
Greece (1919)
Victory
1917–1920 Kazakhstan Campaign  Russian SFSR Alash Autonomy
Russia White Movement
Victory
1918 Finnish Civil War  Russian SSR
граница Red Guard
граница White Guard
German Empire Germany
Defeat
  • Victory of White Guard in Finland
1918–1920 Latvian War of Independence  Russian SFSR
 Latvian SSR
 Latvian Army
 Estonia
Russia Lieven
 Poland
 Lithuania
Supported by the Allied Powers
German Empire VI Reserve Corps:
Defeat
  • Independence of Latvia
1918–1920 Estonian War of Independence  Russian SFSR
Commune of Estonia
 Estonia
 Latvia
 United Kingdom
Russia White Movement

Finnish, Danish, and Swedish volunteers


Baltische Landeswehr
Defeat
1918–1919 Lithuanian–Soviet War  Russian SFSR
LBSSR
Lithuania Republic of Lithuania
 Saxon Volunteers
Defeat
1918–1920 Georgian-Ossetian Conflict  Russian SFSR
граница Ossetian rebels
Transcaucasian Federation
Georgia
Defeat
1919–1921 Polish–Soviet War  Russian SFSR
 Ukrainian SSR
 Byelorussian SSR
Polrewkom
 Poland
 Ukrainian nationalists
Defeat
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence Turkey

 Russian SFSR[7]

 Greece
 United Kingdom
 Armenia
Victory
1920 Invasion of Azerbaijan  Russian SFSR
 Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Victory
1920 Red Army invasion of Armenia  Russian SFSR Armenia Armenia Victory
1921 Invasion of Georgia  Russian SFSR
 Azerbaijan SSR
Turkey
Georgia Victory
1921 Soviet intervention in Mongolia  Russian SFSR
Mongolian People's Party
Flag of Bogd Khaanate Mongolia.svg Mongolia Victory
  • Provisional People's Government established
1921–1922 East Karelian Uprising  Russian SFSR граница Forest Guerrillas
Finland Finnish volunteers
Victory
  • Crushing of the uprising

Soviet Union (1922–1991)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1924 August Uprising  Soviet Union Damkom Victory
1925–1926 Urtatagai conflict  Soviet Union Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Emirate of Afghanistan Peace treaty
  • Afghanistan forced to restrain Basmachi border raids
  • Urtatagai is captured, then ceded back to Afghanistan
1929 Sino-Soviet conflict  Soviet Union  China Victory
  • Upholding of the provisions of 1924 agreement
1929 Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1929)
Part of the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)
 Soviet Union
Amānullāh Khān
Basmachi
Flag of Afghanistan (1929).svg Saqqawists
  • The operation of the Red Army in Afghanistan did not change the situation in the country.
1930 Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1930)  Soviet Union Basmachi Victory
1932 Chechen uprising of 1932 [ru]  Soviet Union Chechen rebels Victory
  • Uprising suppressed
1932–1941 Soviet–Japanese border conflicts  Soviet Union
 Mongolia
 Japan
 Manchukuo
Victory
1937 Islamic Rebellion in Xinjiang Xinjiang
 Soviet Union
Russian Empire White Movement
 China Victory
  • Establishment of the rule of Sheng Shica's regime over the whole territory of Xinjiang province
1939 Invasion of Poland (Part of World War II)  Germany
 Soviet Union
 Slovak Republic
Poland Poland Victory
1939–1940 Winter War (Part of World War II)  Soviet Union  Finland Victory
1940 Occupation of the Baltic states (Part of World War II)  Soviet Union  Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
Victory
1940 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (Part of World War II)  Soviet Union  Romania Victory
1941–1945 World War II Allied Powers:
 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
 Poland
 Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 India
 South Africa
Kingdom of YugoslaviaDemocratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
 Greece
 Denmark
 Norway
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Luxembourg
 Czechoslovakia
 Brazil
 Mexico
Axis Powers:
 Germany
 Japan
 Italy
 Hungary
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Slovakia
 Croatia
 Thailand
 Manchukuo
 Mengjiang
Wang Jingwei regime
Victory
1944–1956 Guerrilla war in the Baltic states  Soviet Union  Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
Victory
  • Defeat of national partisans
1944–1953 Guerrilla war in Ukraine (Part of World War II from 1944–1945)  Soviet Union Ukrainian Insurgent Army Victory
  • Defeat of national partisans
1944-1953 Anti-communist resistance in Poland (1944–1953)  Soviet Union
 Polish People's Republic
Polish Underground State Victory
  • Defeat of national partisans
1945 Soviet–Japanese War (Part of World War II)  Soviet Union
 Mongolia
 Japan
 Manchukuo
Victory
1946–1954 First Indochina War North Vietnam Việt Minh
Laos Pathet Lao
Cambodia Khmer Issarak
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
France France

 •  French Indochina Vietnam (1949–1954)
Cambodia Cambodia (1953–1954)
 Laos (1953–1954)

Victory
1950–1953 Korean War  North Korea
 China
 Soviet Union
 United Nations
 South Korea
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 France
 Philippines
 Colombia
 Ethiopia
 Greece
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 South Africa
 Thailand
 Turkey
Ceasefire
  • Establishment of the Korean DMZ
  • Minor territorial changes
1955–1975 Vietnam War  North Vietnam
Viet Cong and PRG
Pathet Lao
GRUNK (1970–1975)
Khmer Rouge
 China
 Soviet Union
 North Korea
 South Vietnam
 United States
 South Korea
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Laos
Cambodia (1967–1970)
Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
 Thailand
 Philippines
Victory
1953 East German Uprising  Soviet Union
 East Germany
East Germany East German demonstrators Victory
  • Uprising suppressed
1956 Hungarian Revolution  Soviet Union
Hungary ÁVH
Revolutionaries Victory
  • Crushing of the revolution
1968 Invasion of Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union
Bulgaria
 East Germany
Hungary
Poland
Czechoslovakia Victory
1969 Zhenbao Island Incident  Soviet Union  China Indecisive(status quo ante bellum)[8]
1969–1970 War of Attrition  Egypt
 Soviet Union
 Israel Inconclusive
  • Both sides claimed victory
  • Continuation of Israeli occupation of Sinai until 1982, when Israeli provisional control over the Sinai Peninsula ended in 1982 following the implementation of the 1979 Egypt–Israel peace treaty, which saw Israel return the region to Egypt in exchange for the latter's recognition of Israel as a legitimate sovereign state.
1974–1991 Eritrean War of Independence Ethiopia Ethiopia
 Cuba (until 1989)
 Soviet Union (until 1990)
 South Yemen
ELF
EPLF
Withdrawal (limited involvement)
  • Independence of Eritrea after the fall of the communist government in Ethiopia
1975–1991 Angolan Civil War MPLA
 Cuba
 Soviet Union
граница SWAPO
граница MK
 South Africa
UNITA
FNLA
FLEC
Stalemate (limited involvement)
1977–1978 Ethio-Somali War Ethiopia
 Cuba
 South Yemen
 Soviet Union
Somalia Somalia
WSLF
Victory
1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War  Soviet Union
Afghanistan Afghanistan
Afghan Mujahideen Withdrawal

Russian Federation (1991–present)[edit]

Date Conflict Location Russia (and its allies) Opponent(s) Result
1991–1993 Georgian Civil War Georgia Georgia (country) Georgia
 Russia
Georgia (country) Zviadists Victory
  • Zviadist revolt crushed
1991–1993 War in Abkhazia Abkhazia  Russia
 Abkhazia
 Georgia Victory
  • Abkhazia gained de facto independence
1992 Transnistria War
PMR trucks on the bridge between Tiraspol and Bendery
Transnistria  Transnistria
 Russia
 Moldova Victory
  • Transnistria gained de facto independence
1992 East Prigorodny Conflict North Ossetia-Alania  Russia
 North Ossetia-Alania[10]
Ingush militia Victory
1992–1997 Tajikistani Civil War
Spetsnaz troops dismount an APC during the war
Tajikistan Tajikistan/ Tajikistan
Russia/ Russia
 Uzbekistan
Kazakhstan/ Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan/ Kyrgyzstan
 Turkmenistan
 China
 India
United Nations UNMOT
граница United Tajik Opposition
Afghanistan Taliban factions
Victory
1994–1996 First Chechen War
A Chechen militiaman takes cover behind a burned-out Russian BMP-2 armoured vehicle
Chechnya  Russia
  • Chechnya Chechen Opposition
граница Ichkeria
Mujahideen
Defeat[11]
1999 War of Dagestan
Russian federal Spetsnaz forces in Dagestan
Dagestan  Russia IIPB Victory
1999–2009 Second Chechen War
A farewell ceremony for the 331st Airborne Regiment of the 98th Airborne Division withdrawn from Chechnya
Chechnya  Russia граница Ichkeria
Caucasian Front
Mujahideen
Victory
2008 Russo-Georgian War
Tank-like vehicle with soldiers aboard
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Georgia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia  Russia
 South Ossetia
 Abkhazia
 Georgia Victory
2009–2017 Insurgency in the North Caucasus
FSB Spetsnaz members during an anti-terrorist operation in Makhachkala, Dagestan
North Caucasus  Russia Caucasus Emirate
 ISIL (from 2015)
Victory
  • Defeat of Islamists
2014–present Russo-Ukrainian War
Russian unidentified special forces take control of a Ukrainian military garrison in Crimea
Donetsk People’s Republic militiamen checking with civilians in a cellar during the Battle of Ilovaisk (2014)
DPR elite Republican Guard troops during the 2018 Victory Day parade in Donetsk
Ukraine (incl. Crimea)  Russia  Ukraine Ongoing
2015–present Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
Two Tupolev Tu-22M3s bombing ISIL command posts and weapon warehouses in the Deir ez-Zor area, 2017

Sukhoi Su-30 pilot talking to a Russian Air Force technician in the Khmeimim Air Base

Syria
 Russia
 Syria
 Iran
границаHezbollah
 ISIL
Ahrar al-Sham
Tahrir al-Sham
Syrian Opposition
Ongoing
2018–present Central African Republic Civil War
Delivery of Russian BRDM-2 armored vehicles to Central African Republic, October 2020
Central African Republic  Russia
 Central African Republic
 Rwanda
Central African Republic Coalition of Patriots for Change Ongoing

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janet Martin. Treasure of the Land of Darkness: The Fur Trade and Its Significance for Medieval Russia. Cambridge University Press, 2004. P. 115
  2. ^ Vilhelm Ludvig Peter Thomsen. The Relations Between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia, and the Origin of the Russian State. Cambridge University Press. 2010. P. 25
  3. ^ David R. Stone, A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, (Greenwood Publishing, 2006), 41.
  4. ^ Legvold, Robert (2007). Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century and the Shadow of the Past. Columbia University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-231-51217-6.
  5. ^ Mayayo i Artal, Andreu; Pellegrini, Alberto; Segura i Mas, Antoni (2019). Centenary of the Russian Revolution (1917–2017). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-5275-2465-1.
  6. ^ Cecil, Hugh; Liddle, Peter (1998). At the Eleventh Hour: Reflections, Hopes and Anxieties at the Closing of the Great War, 1918. Pen and Sword Books. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-78383-992-6.
  7. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans: Twentieth century. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3.
  8. ^ a b c "Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: Conflict and War :: Soviet Aggression". Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  9. ^ Kuisong p.29
  10. ^ "9. Вооруженные формирования в зоне конфликта". Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  11. ^ "Why the Russian Military Failed in Chechnya". Foreign Military Studies Office. Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  12. ^ Quinn, Rob (12 December 2017). "Putin Announces Russian Withdrawal From Syria". Newser.com. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Assad and Putin Meet, as Russia Pushes to End Syrian War". New York Times. 21 November 2017.
  14. ^ "How Russian special forces are shaping the fight in Syria". Washington Post. 29 March 2016.