List of wars involving Turkey

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The following is a list of wars, coups, insurgencies, conflicts, border and intenational disputes involving the Republic of Turkey.

Wars[edit]

Conflict Turkey
and allies
Opponents Results Turkish losses
Military Civilian
War of Independence
(1919–1923)
Ankara Government  Greece
 France
 Armenia
 United Kingdom
 Istanbul Government
 Italy
Georgia
Victory[1]
~41,000
Unknown
Sheikh Said Rebellion
(1925)
Turkey Sunni Zaza tribes Victory
  • Revolt suppressed
Unknown
15,000–
250,000
Ararat Rebellion
(1927–1930)
Turkey Republic of Ararat Victory
Unknown
4,500–
47,000
Dersim Rebellion
(1937–1938)
 Turkey Dersim tribes Victory
  • Revolt suppressed
110
Unknown
Korean War
(1950–1953)
 South Korea
 North Korea
 China
Stalemate
904[2]
None
Cyprus crisis of 1963–64
(Intervention in Battle of Tylliria)
 Turkey
Turkey TMT
Flag of Cyprus (1960–2006).svg Cyprus Ceasefire (Battle of Tylliria)[3][4][5]
  • Greek Cypriot National Guard ground offensive against Turkish Cypriot positions halted by Turkish airstrikes support
  • Ceasefire after UN Security Council resolution
  • Turkish Cypriots maintain beachhead but significantly reduced & supply lines blockaded
1[6]
None
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
(1974)
 Turkey
Turkey TMT
Flag of Cyprus (1960–2006).svg Cyprus
Flag of Greece (1970-1975).svg Greece
Victory
  • Turkish occupation of 36.2% of Cyprus
498[7]
None
Political violence in Turkey
(1976–1980)[8]
Grey Wolves TKP/ML
THKO
Devrimci Yol
1980 Turkish coup d'état
  • Violence abruptly stopped[9]
5,388
(both sides)
Kurdish-Turkish Conflict
(1978–)
 Turkey KCK
YDG-H
HBDH
TAK
Ongoing
  • Truce 2012-2014, renewed warfare in 2015
8,266
~30,000
Operation Restore Hope
(1992–1995)
Somalia United Somali Congress Victory
  • Operation regarded as a success[10]
None
None
Operation Deliberate Force
(1995)
(Participant in NATO air operation)
 Republika Srpska NATO Victory[11]
None
None
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War
(1997)
 Turkey
KDP
PUK
PKK
Victory
  • Peace treaty between the KDP and the PUK
145
None
Kosovo War
(1998–1999)
(Participant in NATO Operation Allied Force)
Kosovo Liberation Army UÇK
 FR Yugoslavia NATO Victory
  • Turkey committed 11 F-16 aircraft to the NATO force, and US use of air bases[13]
  • Kumanovo Treaty
None
None
War in Afghanistan
(2001–)
 Afghanistan
Afghanistan Taliban Ongoing
  • Fall of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
15
None
Libyan Civil War (2011)
(Assisted NATO military intervention)
Libya NTC
 Qatar
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Libya NATO Victory
  • Turkey helped enforce the naval blockade and no-fly zone[14]
  • The NTC assumed interim control of Libya
None
None
American-led intervention in Iraq
(2015–)
 Iraq
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 ISIS Victory
  • Turkish intervention in July 2015
None
See below[15]
Operation Euphrates Shield
(2016–2017)
 Turkey
Syrian Opposition
 ISIS
Flag of Rojava.svg Northern Syria
Victory
71
See below[15]
Operation Olive Branch
(2018–)
 Turkey
Syrian Opposition
Flag of Rojava.svg Northern Syria
Syria
Ongoing
  • Turkish capture of Afrin
60
7-9
Operation Peace Spring
(2019–)
 Turkey
Syrian Opposition
Flag of Rojava.svg Northern Syria
Syria
Ongoing
6
20

Coup in Turkey[edit]

There have been following at least 5 coups in Turkey, including successful and failed attempts:

Insurgency in Turkey[edit]

There are several insurgency in Turkey, including the following:

Other armed conflicts involving Turkey[edit]

Borders and corresponding conflicts of Turkey[edit]

The conflicts can also be seen in the context of borders of Turkey and the corresponding disputes:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chester Neal Tate, Governments of the world: a global guide to citizens' rights and responsibilities, Macmillan Reference USA/Thomson Gale, 2006, p. 205.
  2. ^ Including 163 missing
  3. ^ James, A. (28 November 2001). Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963–64. Springer. pp. 147–149. ISBN 9781403900890 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ O'Malley, Brendan; Craig, Ian (25 June 2001). The Cyprus Conspiracy: America, Espionage and the Turkish Invasion. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 115–121. ISBN 9780857711922 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Dodd, Clement (21 April 2010). The History and Politics of the Cyprus Conflict. Springer. p. 69. ISBN 9780230275287 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ "Cengiz Topel (1934–1964)" (in Turkish). Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Okulweb. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
  7. ^ References:
    • Haydar Çakmak: Türk dış politikası, 1919–2008, Platin, 2008, ISBN 9944137251, page 688 (in Turkish); excerpt from reference: 415 ground, 65 navy, 5 air, 13 gendarmerie (= 498 killed)
    • American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies; Eugene K. Keefe (1980). Cyprus, a country study. Foreign Area Studies, American University : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Retrieved 5 December 2012. Authoritative figures for casualties during the two- phased military operation were not published; available estimates listed Greek Cypriot losses at 6,000 dead and Turkish losses at 1,500 dead and 2,000 wounded...
  8. ^ Gil, Ata. "La Turquie à marche forcée," Le Monde diplomatique, February 1981.
  9. ^ Ustel, Aziz (2008-07-14). "Savcı, Ergenekon'u Kenan Evren'e sormalı asıl!". Star Gazete (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-21. Ve 13 Eylül 1980’de Türkiye’yi on yıla yakın bir süredir kasıp kavuran terör ve adam öldürmeler bıçakla kesilir gibi kesildi.
  10. ^ "Operation Restore Hope". Retrieved 2007-12-02.
  11. ^ a b Cimbala, Stephen J.; Forster, Peter (21 October 2005). The US, NATO and Military Burden-Sharing. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 9781134251971 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ "Operation Deliberate Force". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  13. ^ Olsen, John Andreas (15 July 2014). European Air Power: Challenges and Opportunities. Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 9781612346816 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ "Parliament OKs Turkey's Involvement in Libya". The Oakland Press. Ankara. Associated Press. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  15. ^ a b Several Turkish citizens have been killed in attacks claimed by ISIS. See Category:ISIL terrorist incidents in Turkey
  16. ^ http://metro.co.uk/2016/09/05/isis-cleared-from-border-with-turkey-6109548/