List of water deities

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Water god in an ancient Roman mosaic. Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey

A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water. Water deities are common in mythology and were usually more important among civilizations in which the sea or ocean, or a great river was more important. Another important focus of worship of water deities has been springs or holy wells.

As a form of animal worship, whales and snakes (hence dragons) have been regarded as godly deities throughout the world (as are other animals such as turtles, fish, crabs, and sharks). In Asian lore, whales and dragons sometimes have connections.[1] Serpents are also common as a symbol or as serpentine deities, sharing many similarities with dragons.

Africa and the Mediterranean[edit]

Sub-Sahara Africa[edit]

Western Niger-Congo[edit]

Benin

  • Ezili, goddess of sweet water, beauty, and love.

Dogon

  • Nommos, amphibious spirits that are worshiped as ancestors.

Serer

  • Mindiss (or Mindis) is not a deity in Serer religion, but a pangool with goddess–like attributes. She is a female protector of the Fatick Region. Offerings are made in her name at the River Sine. She appears to humans in the form of a manatee,[2] She is one of the best known fangool (singular of pangool). She possess the attributes of a typical water fangool, yet at the same time, she is a blood fangool.[3] The Senegalese Ministry of Culture added the Mbind Ngo Mindiss site to its list of monuments and historic sites in Fatick. It is the site where offerings are made, situated on the arms of the sea which bears her name, in the Sine.[4]

Yoruba

  • Oshun, a river orisha.
  • Olokun, an ocean orisha.
  • Yemanja, an ocean orisha mother of everyone and everything


Lugandan

Batonga

  • Nyami Nyami, a river spirit of the Batonga of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Kongo

  • Bunzi, goddess of rain, rainbow and waters.
  • Chicamassichinuinji, king of oceans.
  • Funza, goddess of waters, twin phenomenon and malformations in children. Wife of Mbumba.
  • Kalunga, god of death and border between world of Alives and world of dead.
  • Kimbazi, goddess of sea storms.
  • Kuitikuiti, serpent god of Congo river.
  • Lusunzi, god of spring and waters.
  • Mamba Muntu, goddesses of waters and sexuality.
  • Makanga.
  • Mbantilanda.
  • Mbumba, rainbow serpent of terrestrial waters and warriors.
  • Mboze.
  • Mpulu Bunzi, god of rain and waters.
  • Mundele, albino gods of the sea.
  • Simbi dia Maza, nymphs or goddesses of waters, lakes and rivers.

Mediterranean[edit]

Hamito-Semitic regions of North Africa, Arabia, and the Levant.

Canaanite[edit]

Egyptian[edit]

  • Anuket, goddess of the Nile and nourisher of the fields.
  • Bairthy, goddess of water, was depicted with a small pitcher on her head, holding a long spear-like sceptre.
  • Hapi, god of the annual flooding of the Nile.
  • Khnum, god of the source of the Nile.
  • Nephthys, goddess of rivers, death, mourning, the dead, and night.
  • Nu, uncreated god, personification of the primordial waters.
  • Osiris, god of the dead and afterlife; originally a god of water and vegetation.
  • Satet, goddess of the Nile River's floods.
  • Sobek, god of the Nile river, is depicted as a crocodile or a man with the head of a crocodile.
  • Tefnut, goddess of water, moisture, and fertility.
  • Wadj-wer, personification of the Mediterranean Sea or represented the lagoons and lakes in the northernmost Nile Delta.

Hebrew[edit]

Mesopotamian[edit]

  • Abzu, god of fresh water, father of all other gods.
  • Enbilulu, god of rivers and canals.
  • Enki, god of water and of the river Tigris.
  • Marduk, god associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.
  • Nammu, goddess of the primeval sea.
  • Nanshe, goddess of the Persian Gulf, justice, prophecy, fertility and fishing.
  • Tiamat, goddess of salt water and chaos, also mother of all gods.
  • Sirsir, god of mariners.

Greek / Hellenic[edit]

  • Achelous, Greek river god.
  • Aegaeon, god of violent sea storms and ally of the Titans.
  • Alpheus, river god in Arcadia.
  • Amphitrite, sea goddess and consort of Poseidon and thus queen of the sea.
  • Anapos, water god of eastern Sicily.
  • Asopus, river god in Greece
  • Asterion, river-god of Argos
  • Brito-Martis, the goddess Brito-Martis is always depicted in arms.
  • Brizo, goddess of sailors.
  • Carcinus, a giant crab who allied itself with the Hydra against Heracles. When it died, Hera placed it in the sky as the constellation Cancer.
  • Ceto, goddess of the dangers of the ocean and of sea monsters.
  • Charybdis, a sea monster and spirit of whirlpools and the tide.
  • Cymopoleia, a daughter of Poseidon and goddess of giant storm waves.
  • Doris, goddess of the sea's bounty and wife of Nereus.
  • Eidothea, prophetic sea nymph and daughter of Proteus.
  • Electra, an Oceanid, consort of Thaumas.
  • Enipeus, a river god
  • Eurybia, goddess of the mastery of the seas.
  • Galene (Γαλήνη), goddess of calm seas.
  • Glaucus, the fisherman's sea god.
  • Gorgons, three monstrous sea spirits.
  • The Graeae, three ancient sea spirits who personified the white foam of the sea; they shared one eye and one tooth between them.
  • Hippocampi, the horses of the sea.
  • The Ichthyocentaurs, a pair of centaurine sea-gods with the upper bodies of men, the lower fore-parts of horses, ending in the serpentine tails of fish.
  • Kymopoleia, daughter of Poseidon and goddess of violent sea storms.
  • Leucothea, a sea goddess who aided sailors in distress.
  • Nerites, watery consort of Aphrodite and/or beloved of Poseidon.
  • Nereus, the old man of the sea, and the god of the sea's rich bounty of fish.
  • Nymphs
  • Oceanus, Titan god of the Earth-encircling river Okeanos, the font of all the Earth's fresh water.
  • Palaemon, a young sea god who aided sailors in distress.
  • Phorcys, god of the hidden dangers of the deep.
  • Pontus, primeval god of the sea, father of the fish and other sea creatures.
  • Poseidon, Olympian god of the sea and king of the sea gods; also god of flood, drought, earthquakes, and horses. His Roman equivalent is Neptune.
  • Potamoi, deities of rivers, fathers of Naiads, brothers of the Oceanids, and as such, the sons of Oceanus and Tethys.
  • Proteus, a shape-shifting, prophetic old sea god, and the herdsman of Poseidon's seals.
  • Psamathe, goddess of sand beaches.
  • Scylla, a sea monster, later authors made up a backstory of her being a Nereid transformed into a monster due to Circe's jealousy.
  • The Telchines, sea spirits native to the island of Rhodes; the gods killed them when they turned to evil magic.
  • Tethys, Titan goddess of the sources fresh-water, and the mother of the rivers (Potamoi), springs, streams, fountains and clouds.
  • Thalassa, primordial goddess of the sea.
  • Thaumas, god of the wonders of the sea and father of the Harpies and the rainbow goddess Iris.
  • Thetis, leader of the Nereids who presided over the spawning of marine life in the sea, mother of Achilles.
  • Triteia, daughter of Triton and companion of Ares.
  • Triton, fish-tailed son and herald of Poseidon.
  • Tritones, fish-tailed spirits in Poseidon's retinue.
  • Aspidochelone, colossal sea monster from the medieval bestiary Physiologus.

Roman[edit]

Phoenician[edit]

  • Barati, The ancient Phoenician goddess Barati; recognised in the Indian Vedas as Goddess of the Waters.

Anatolian - Hittite[edit]

Armenian[edit]

Persian Zorostarian[edit]

  • Ahurani, Ahurani is a water goddess from ancient Persian mythology who watches over rainfall as well as standing water.
  • Anahita, the divinity of "the Waters" (Aban) and associated with fertility, healing, and wisdom.
  • Apam Napat, the divinity of rain and the maintainer of order.
  • Haurvatat, the Amesha Spenta associated with water, prosperity, and health in post-Gathic Zoroastrianism.
  • Tishtrya, Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility.

Northwest Eurasia[edit]

Balto-Slavic[edit]

Lithuanian[edit]

  • Bangpūtys, god of sea and storm.
  • Laumė, goddess of wild spaces, including waters.

Slavic[edit]

  • Kostroma, goddess of fertility. After discovering that her husband, Kupala, is her brother, she jumped into the forest lake (in other legends into the river Ra). After her death, she became a mavka (or rusalka).
  • Mati-syra-zemla, moist mother, also the Earth goddess.
  • Mokosh, moistness, lady of waters, goddess of moisture.
  • Dodola, goddess of rain.
  • Morskoy Tsar, the god and king of the sea.
  • Moryana, a giant female sea spirit.
  • Rusalki, female ghosts, water nymphs, succubi or mermaid-like demons that dwell in waterways.
  • Veles, god of Earth, waters, and the underworld.
  • Vodyanoi, water demon who lived in lakes and rivers.

Celtic[edit]

  • Belisama, goddess of lakes and rivers, fire, crafts, and light.
  • Grannus, a god associated with spas, the sun, fires and healing thermal and mineral springs.
  • Nantosuelta, river goddess of fire, the earth, healing, and fertility.[5]
  • Nodens, god associated with healing, the sea, hunting and dogs.
  • Damona, water goddess associated with healing and rivers
  • Selkie
  • Llŷr

English Folklore[edit]

Late 18th-century statue of Father Thames by John Bacon the elder at Ham House, near Richmond, London
  • Father Thames, human manifestation and/or guardian of the River Thames that flows through Southern England, while his ancient worship is obscure, he has become a popular symbol of the river in modern times, it being the subject of the song "Old Father Thames" and the model of several statues and reliefs scattered around London.[6]
  • Davy Jones, the Devil of the seas in Western piratical lore.

Gaulish[edit]

Irish[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Lusitanian[edit]

Norse-Germanic[edit]

  • Ægir, personification of the sea.
  • Freyr, god of rain, sunlight, fertility, life, and summer.
  • Nehalennia, goddess of the North Sea.
  • Nerthus, mostly an earth goddess, but is also associated with lakes, springs, and holy waters.
  • Nine Daughters of Ægir, who personify the characteristics of waves.
  • Nix, water spirits who usually appear in human form.
  • Njord, god of the sea, particularly of seafaring.
  • Rán, sea goddess of death who collects the drowned in a net, wife of Ægir.
  • Rhenus Pater, god of the Rhine river
  • Rura, goddess of the Rur river
  • Sága, wisdom goddess who lives near water and pours Odin a drink when he visits.
  • Tiddy Mun, a bog deity once worshiped in Lincolnshire, England who had the ability to control floods.

Hindu-Vedic[edit]

Varuna, the Lord of All the Water Bodies

Ossetia

Uralic[edit]

Finnish

  • Ahti, god of the depths and fish.
  • Iku-Turso, a malevolent sea monster.
  • Vedenemo, a goddess of water.
  • Vellamo, the wife of Ahti, goddess of the sea, lakes, and storms.

Asia-Pacific / Oceania[edit]

Far East Asia[edit]

Taoism and Chinese folk religion[edit]

Chinese sea goddess Mazu

Japanese[edit]

Ainu

Korean[edit]

  • Imoogi or Imugi, giant serpents of Korean folklore which later become true dragons.
  • King Munmu, a king who wished to become a dragon before his death to protect Korea from the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
  • Yongwang, an undersea deity believed to determine the fortunes of fishermen and sailors.

South Asia[edit]

Hindu[edit]

In Hindu culture, each water body is worshipped as a form of God. Hence, the rivers are worshipped as goddesses and the ocean is worshipped as a god.

  • Varuna, the God of the ocean and rains.
  • Indra, King of the Gods, God of weather, and bringer of rain, thunderstorms and clouds.
  • Saptasindhu, the seven holy rivers of India, namely:
  • Ganga, the Goddess of the Ganges River.
  • Yamuna, the Goddess of the Yamuna River.
  • Saraswati, the divine Goddess of knowledge and wisdom who was personified as a river that dried up in ancient times.
  • Indus, also called Sindhu. The river is considered the eldest daughter of the Himalaya mountains.
  • Narmada, the river Goddess often worshipped as a deity and daughter of Lord Shiva.
  • Godavari, the longest river of South India. The river is also considered as Dakshina Ganga.
  • Kaveri, a river of South India, worshipped by people as a goddess who was previously incarnated as Lopamudra, the wife of Sage Agastya.
  • Rivers such as Tapi, also known as Tapati, is worshipped as a daughter of the sun god, Surya.
  • The river Krishna, worshipped as Krishnaveni Devi/Krishna Mai, is considered to be Lord Vishnu born as a river.
  • Tungabhadra, a tributary of Krishna, is worshipped as a goddess. The river is also known as Pampa.
  • Pamba River and Suvarnamukhi River flowing past the holy temple towns of Sabarimala in Kerala and Tirupati and Srikalahasti in Andhra Pradesh, respectively.
  • The river Brahmaputra is the only river to have a male personification, whose name means "son of Brahma", the creator.

Mariamman, regional goddess of the rain and medicine

Manipuri[edit]

Meitei[edit]

  • Irai Leima, goddess of water, sent down to Earth to teach humanity to build a civilisation
  • Ngāreima, goddess of fish
  • Wangbren, god of the underwater world
  • Thongjarok Lairembi of Thongjaorok River
  • Iril Lairembi of Iril River
  • Imphal Turel Lairembi of Imphal River
  • Kongba Turel Lairembi of Kongba River
  • Loktak Lairembi of Loktak Lake
  • Pumlenpat Lairembi of Pumlenpat Lake

Southeast Asia[edit]

Filipino[edit]

  • Sirinan: the Isnag spirit of the river[10]
  • Limat: the Gaddang god of the sea[11]
  • Oden: the Bugkalot deity of the rain, worshiped for its life-giving waters[12]
  • Ocean Deity: the Ilocano goddess of the ocean whose waters slammed the ediface of salt being built by Ang-ngalo and Asin, causing the sea's water to become salty[13]
  • Gods of the Pistay Dayat: Pangasinense gods who are pacified through the Pistay Dayat ritual, where offerings are given to the spirits of the waters who pacify the gods[14]
  • Anitun Tauo: the Sambal goddess of win and rain who was reduced in rank by Malayari for her conceit[15]
  • Sedsed: the Aeta god of the sea[16]
  • Apûng Malyari: the Kapampangan moon god who lives in Mt. Pinatubo and ruler of the eight rivers[17]
  • Lakandanum: variant of the Kapampangan Naga, known to rule the waters[18]
  • Bathala: the Tagalog supreme god and creator deity, also known as Bathala Maykapal, Lumilikha, and Abba; an enormous being with control over thunder, lightning, flood, fire, thunder, and earthquakes; presides over lesser deities and uses spirits to intercede between divinities and mortals[19]
  • Anitun Tabu: the Tagalog goddess of wind and rain and daughter of Idianale and Dumangan[20]
  • Lakapati: the Tagalog hermaphrodite deity and protector of sown fields, sufficient field waters, and abundant fish catch[21]
  • Amanikable: the Tagalog god of the sea who was spurned by the first mortal woman; also a god of hunters[22]
  • Amansinaya: the Tagalog goddess of fishermen[23]
  • Haik: the Tagalog god of the sea who protects travelers from tempests and storms[24]
  • Bulan-hari: one of the Tagalog deities sent by Bathala to aid the people of Pinak; can command rain to fall; married to Bitu-in[25]
  • Makapulaw: the Tagalog god of sailors[26]
  • Great Serpent of Pasig: a giant Tagalog serpent who created the Pasig river after merchants wished to the deity; in exchange for the Pasig's creation, the souls of the merchants would be owned by the serpent[27]
  • Quadruple Deities: the four childless naked Tau-buid Mangyan deities, composed of two gods who come from the sun and two goddesses who come from the upper part of the river; summoned using the paragayan or diolang plates[28]
  • Afo Sapa: the Buhid Mangyan owner of rivers[29]
  • Apu Dandum: the Hanunoo Mangyan spirit living in the water[30]
  • Tubigan: the Bicolano god of the water[31]
  • Dagat: the Bicolano goddess of the sea[32]
  • Bulan: the Bicolano moon god whose arm became the earth, and whose tears became the rivers and seas[33]
  • Magindang: the Bicolano god of fishing who leads fishermen in getting a good fish catch through sounds and signs[34]
  • Onos: the Bicolano deity who freed the great flood that changed the land's features[35]
  • Hamorawan Lady: the Waray deity of the Hamorawan spring in Borongan, who blesses the waters with healing properties[36]
  • Maka-andog: an epic Waray giant-hero who was friends with the sea spirits and controlled wildlife and fish; first inhabitant and ruler of Samar who lived for five centuries; later immortalized as a deity of fishing[37]
  • Maguayan: the Bisaya god who rules over the waters as his kingdom; father of Lidagat; brother of Kaptan[38]
  • Maguyaen: the Bisaya goddess of the winds of the sea[39]
  • Magauayan: the Bisaya sea deity who fought against Kaptan for eons until Manaul intervened[40]
  • Lidagat: the Bisaya sea deity married to the wind; daughter of Maguayan[41]
  • Bakunawa: the Bisaya serpent deity who can coil around the world; sought to swallow the seven "Queen" moons, successfully eating the six, where the last is guarded by bamboos[42]
  • Makilum-sa-tubig: the Bisaya god of the sea[43]
  • Kasaray-sarayan-sa-silgan: the Bisaya god of streams[44]
  • Magdan-durunoon: the Bisaya god of hidden lakes[45]
  • Santonilyo: a Bisaya deity who brings rain when its image is immersed at sea[46]
  • Magyawan: the Hiligaynon god of the sea[47]
  • Manunubo: the Hiligaynon and Aklanon good spirit of the sea[48]
  • Launsina: the Capiznon goddess of the sun, moon, stars, and seas, and the most beloved because people seek forgiveness from her[49]
  • Kapapu-an: the Karay-a pantheon of ancestral spirits from whom the supernatural powers of shamans originated from; their aid enables specific types of shamans to gush water from rocks, leap far distances, create oil shields, become invisible, or pass through solid matter[50]
  • Neguno: the Cuyonon and Agutaynen god of the sea that cursed a selfish man by turning him into the first shark[51]
  • Polo: the benevolent Tagbanwa god of the sea whose help is invoked during times of illness[52]
  • Diwata Kat Sidpan: a deity who lives in the western region called Sidpan;[53] controls the rains[54]
  • Diwata Kat Libatan: a deity who lives in the eastern region called Babatan;[55] controls the rain[56]
  • Tagma-sa-Dagat: the Subanon god of the sea[57]
  • Tagma-sa-uba: the Subanon god of the rivers[58]
  • Diwata na Magbabaya: simply referred as Magbabaya; the good Bukidnon supreme deity and supreme planner who looks like a man; created the earth and the first eight elements, namely bronze, gold, coins, rock, clouds, rain, iron, and water; using the elements, he also created the sea, sky, moon, and stars; also known as the pure god who wills all things; one of three deities living in the realm called Banting[59]
  • Dadanhayan ha Sugay: the evil Bukidnon lord from whom permission is asked; depicted as the evil deity with a human body and ten heads that continuously drools sticky saliva, which is the source of all waters; one of the three deities living in the realm called Banting[60]
  • Bulalakaw: the Bukidnon guardian of the water and all the creatures living in it[61]
  • Python of Pusod Hu Dagat: the gigantic Bukidnon python living at the center of the sea; caused a massive flood when it coiled its body at sea[62]
  • Bulalakaw: the Talaandig deity who safeguards the creatures in the rivers; the lalayon ritual is offered to the deity[63]
  • Tagbanua: the Manobo god of rain[64]
  • Yumud: the god of water[65]
  • Pamulak Manobo: the Bagobo supreme deity and creator of the world, including the land, sea, and the first humans; throws water from the sky, causing rain, while his spit are the showers[66]
  • Eels of Mount Apo: two giant Bagobo eels, where one went east and arrived at sea, begetting all the eels of the world; the other went west, and remained on land until it died and became the western foothills of Mount Apo[67]
  • Fon Eel: the Blaan spirit of water[68]
  • Fu El: the T;boli spirit of water[69]
  • Fu El Melel: the T'boli spirit of the river[70]
  • Segoyong: the Teduray guardians of the classes of natural phenomena; punishes humans to do not show respect and steal their wards; many of them specialize in a class, which can be water, trees, grasses, caves behind waterfalls, land caves, snakes, fire, nunuk trees, deers, and pigs[71]
  • Tunung: the Maguindanao spirits who live in the sky, water, mountain, or trees; listens to prayers and can converse with humans by borrowing the voice of a medium; protects humans from sickness and crops from pests[72]
  • Tonong: divine Maranao spirits who often aid heroes; often lives in nonok trees, seas, lakes, and the sky realm[73]
  • Umboh Tuhan: also called Umboh Dilaut, the Sama-Bajau god of the sea and one of the two supreme deities; married to Dayang Dayang Mangilai[74]
  • Umboh Kamun: the Sama-Bajau totem of mantis shrimp[75]
  • Sumangâ: the Sama-Bajau spirit of sea vessels; the guardian who deflects attacks[76]

Indonesian[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

  • Động Đình Quân, Kinh Dương Vương's father-in-law, grandfather of Lạc Long Quân, he was a Long Vương who lived in Dongting Lake.
  • Lạc Long Quân, he is the ancestor of the Vietnamese people and is also one of the top Long Vươngs under the Water Palace.
  • Bát Hải Long Vương or Vua Cha Bát Hải Động Đình, he is a Long Vương and also the father of Mẫu Thoải. He is the son of Lạc Long Quân and one of the heads of the Water Palace.
  • Đông Hải Long Vương, was the 25th son of Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ who ruled the whole Bồ Sào region, ruled the Red River, gathered people scattered because of floods to re-explore the hamlets, and kept quiet villages throughout the delta form Ngã ba Hạc to the sea estuary.
  • Mẫu Thoải, the head goddess of all rivers, lakes and seas. She governs water and all things related to water.
  • Long Vương, the Long Vương is a common name for the gods who rule over the sea and ocean.
  • Tô Lịch Giang Thần, god of Tô Lịch River.
  • Hà Bá, the god who manages the rivers (note that each river has its own governing god, and each person's power may be less or more powerful than Hà Bá).
  • Bà Thủy, goddess with a job similar to Hà Bá
  • Cá Ông, this god often appears in the form of large fish (such as whales, dolphins, sperm whales,...) to help ships that have accidents due to weather at sea.
  • Độc Cước, god of protection for the people of the sea.
  • Thuồng Luồng or Giao Long, They can be water monsters, they can also be water gods.

Turkic[edit]

Polynesian[edit]

Fijian[edit]

Hawaiian[edit]

Māori[edit]

Samoan[edit]

other island nations[edit]

Australia[edit]

Native Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Inuit[edit]

  • Aipaloovik, an evil sea god associated with death and destruction.
  • Alignak, a lunar deity and god of weather, water, tides, eclipses, and earthquakes.
  • Arnapkapfaaluk, a fearsome sea goddess.
  • Idliragijenget, god of the ocean.
  • Kanajuk, the scorpionfish god and husband of the goddesses Nuliajuk and Isarraitaitsoq.
  • Nootaikok, god who presided over icebergs and glaciers.
  • Nuliajuk and Isarraitaitsoq, goddesses of the sea's depths and its creatures among the Netsilik Inuit.
  • Sedna, goddess of the sea and its creatures.

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Mexica[edit]

  • Atlaua, god of water, archers, and fishermen.
  • Chalchiuhtlicue, goddess of water, lakes, rivers, seas, streams, horizontal waters, storms, and baptism.
  • Opochtli, god of fishing and birdcatchers.
  • Tlāloc, god of water, fertility, and rain.
  • Tlaloque, a group of rain, water, and mountain gods.

Ewe / Fon[edit]

Mayan[edit]

  • Chaac, god of rain.
  • Kukulcan, god of the seas, oceans, and storms

Taíno[edit]

South America[edit]

Tupi-Guarani (Brazilian Myth)[edit]

Incan[edit]

  • Pariacaca, god of water and rainstorms.
  • Paricia, god who sent a flood to kill humans who did not respect him adequately.

Panche/Muisca[edit]

  • Mohan, a mischievous entity associated with rivers, lakes and water in general.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 謝婧, 下園知弥, 宮崎克則 (2015). "明清時代の中国における鯨資源の利用" (PDF). 西南学院大 学博物館研究紀要 第3号. Seinan Gakuin University: 9–14. Retrieved 2016-01-16.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Kalis, Simone, Médecine traditionnelle, religion et divination ches les Seereer Siin du Sénégal –La connaissance de la nuit, L’Harmattan (1997), p. 123, ISBN 2-7384-5196-9
  3. ^ Gravrand, Henry, La Civilisation Sereer – Pangool, vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), p. 327, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  4. ^ REPUBLIC DU SENEGAL, SECRETARIAT GENERAL DU GOUVERNMENT (JOURNAL OFFICIEL) : MINISTERE DE LA CULTURE ET DU PATRIMOINE HISTORIQUE CLASSE, ARRETE MINISTERIEL n° 2711 mcphc-dpc en date du 3 mai 2006, [1]
  5. ^ "Goddess Nantosuelta". 11 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Who Is Old Father Thames?". Londonist. 31 July 2015.
  7. ^ Brigit - The Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids
  8. ^ 村上健司編著 (2005). 日本妖怪大事典. Kwai books. 角川書店. p. 182. ISBN 978-4-04-883926-6.
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