List of waterfalls by flow rate

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This list of waterfalls by flow rate includes all waterfalls which are known to have an average flow rate or discharge of at least 150 cubic metres per second (5,300 cu ft/s). The waterfalls in this list are those for which there is verifiable information for, and should not be assumed to be a complete list of waterfalls which would otherwise qualify as globally significant based on this metric.

Largest extant waterfalls[edit]

Waterfall Image Flow rate (m3/s) Drop (m) Width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes
Inga Falls Inga Falls 2.jpg 25,768 (est.) 21 914 Congo  DRC 5°26′56″S 13°35′18″E / 5.448835°S 13.588362°E / -5.448835; 13.588362 (Inga Falls) The Inga falls, whose status as a true waterfall is controversial, are currently incorporated into the Inga I and Inga II hydroelectric facilities. The volume of the river diverted is approximately 30% of the average discharge. The Grand Inga Dam, potentially the world's largest by generating capacity, is also proposed to be built on the falls.[1]
Livingstone Falls Chutes Livingstone.jpg 25,060 6 701 Congo  DRC
 Congo
4°52′41″S 14°26′08″E / 4.878146°S 14.435622°E / -4.878146; 14.435622 (Livingstone Falls) A set of rapids that drops 6 metres (20 ft). Located at the southern end of the Republic of the Congo's border with the Congo River.[2]
Boyoma Falls Zaire kisangani stroom 12 copy (cropped).jpg 16,990 5 1,372 Lualaba, Congo  DRC 0°29′27″N 25°12′24″E / 0.49091096°N 25.20680491°E / 0.49091096; 25.20680491 (Boyoma Falls) A series of seven cataracts, also referred to as the Stanley Falls. The last and most significant of these cataracts, at Kisangani, is known as Wagenia.[3] The Boyoma Falls marks the transition to the Congo River from the Lualaba River.[4]
Khone Phapheng Falls Khone Phapheng Falls, Si Phan Don, Laos, widest waterfall in the world.jpg 11,610 21 10,783 Mekong  Laos 13°57′18″N 105°54′10″E / 13.9549940°N 105.9027541°E / 13.9549940; 105.9027541 (Khone Phapheng Falls) A series of falls and rapids that when measured end-to-end is over 10 kilometres in width, making it the world's widest waterfall. Largest waterfall in Asia by average flow rate.[5]
Pará Falls Salto Para.jpg 3,540 ? 5,608 Caura
 Venezuela
6°19′01″N 64°30′33″W / 6.31699585°N 64.5090696°W / 6.31699585; -64.5090696 (Salto Pára) Largest extant waterfall in South America by average flow rate.[6]
Paulo Afonso Falls Cachoeira de Paulo Afonso BA.jpg 2,832 59 18 São Francisco  Brazil 9°23′21″S 38°11′45″W / 9.3890899°S 38.1957704°W / -9.3890899; -38.1957704 (Paulo Afonso Falls) Flow regulated by the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex.[7]
Niagara Falls Aerial view of the Canadian Falls (Horseshoe Falls) and the Hornblower Niagara Cruises boat; Niagara Falls.JPG 2,407 51 1,204 Niagara  Canada
 United States
43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.08°N 79.071°W / 43.08; -79.071 (Niagara Falls) Largest extant waterfall in North America by average flow rate. Flow regulated by the Robert Moses Niagara and Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations.[8]
Vermilion Falls Boat moored by the Vermilion Chutes.jpg 1,812 5 1,829 Peace  Canada 58°22′11″N 114°52′18″W / 58.3697239°N 114.871761°W / 58.3697239; -114.871761 (Vermilion Falls) [9]
Iguazú Falls Cataratas.jpg 1,746 64 2,682 Iguazú  Argentina
 Brazil
25°41′43″S 54°26′12″W / 25.695277°S 54.43667°W / -25.695277; -54.43667 (Iguazú Falls) [10]
Limestone Falls 2786 Limestone Falls (pano).jpg 1,464 22 335 Caniapiscau  Canada 57°28′45″N 69°18′36″W / 57.4791°N 69.3099°W / 57.4791; -69.3099 (Limestone Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[11]
Pyrite Falls 2432 Pyrite Falls.jpg 1,464 8 579 Caniapiscau  Canada 57°26′00″N 69°14′32″W / 57.4333°N 69.2422°W / 57.4333; -69.2422 (Pyrite Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[12]
Victoria Falls Zimbabawe - Victoria Water Falls March 2017 04.jpg 1,088 105 1,707 Zambezi  Zambia Zimbabwe 17°55′27″S 25°51′22″E / 17.924028°S 25.856083°E / -17.924028; 25.856083 (Victoria Falls) Produces the largest sheet of falling water in the world.[13]
Virginia Falls Nahanni - VirginiaFalls.jpg 1,000 90 259 South Nahanni  Canada 61°36′27″N 125°44′20″W / 61.607391°N 125.738912°W / 61.607391; -125.738912 (Virginia Falls) [14]
Shale Falls 2094 Schist Falls - view from across the river (pano).jpg 934 18 610 Caniapiscau  Canada 56°44′39″N 69°01′04″W / 56.7443°N 69.0179°W / 56.7443; -69.0179 (Shale Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[15]
Shivanasamudra Falls Barahachukki.jpg 934 98 305 Cauvery  India 12°17′33″N 77°10′03″E / 12.2924778°N 77.16744866°E / 12.2924778; 77.16744866 (Shivanasamudra Falls) This waterfall divides around Sivasamudram Island. One side is known as Gagana chukki and the other side is known as Bara chukki.[16]
Willamette Falls Willamette Falls from drone.jpg 928 13 457 Willamette  United States 45°21′05″N 122°37′09″W / 45.35139°N 122.61917°W / 45.35139; -122.61917 (Willamette Falls) Prior to the development of the Oregon City area, it is thought the falls may have spanned as much as 762 metres across. Flow regulated by the T. W. Sullivan Hydroelectric Plant.[17]
Kongou Falls DIGITAL CROSSING - KONGOU 03.jpg 900 56 3,200 Ivindo  Gabon 0°17′17″N 12°35′17″E / 0.28815075°N 12.58801367°E / 0.28815075; 12.58801367 (Ivindo River) [18]
Kootenai Falls Kootenai Falls 2019-07-13.jpg 731 9 258 Kootenay  United States 48°27′20″N 115°45′48″W / 48.4555015°N 115.763198°W / 48.4555015; -115.763198 (Kootenai Falls) [19]
Kaieteur Falls GuyanaKaieteurFalls2004.jpg 663 226 113 Potaro  Guyana 5°10′30″N 59°28′50″W / 5.17497870°N 59.4804760°W / 5.17497870; -59.4804760 (Kaieteur Falls) [20]
Rheinfall Rheinfall. Img 3.jpg 595 24 122 Rhein   Switzerland 47°40′40″N 8°36′56″E / 47.677640°N 8.615512°E / 47.677640; 8.615512 (Rheinfall) Largest waterfall in Europe by average flow rate.[21]
Kalandula Falls Kalandula waterfalls of the Lucala-River in Malange, Angola.JPG 566 105 411 Lucala  Angola 9°04′26″S 16°00′03″E / 9.073885°S 16.000709°E / -9.073885; 16.000709 (Kalandula Falls) [22]
Chaudière Falls Chutes de la Chaudière (525652710).jpg 500 35 240 Chaudière  Canada 46°42′47″N 71°17′10″W / 46.71306°N 71.28611°W / 46.71306; -71.28611 (Chaudière Falls) Flow regulated by the Sartigan Dam.[23]
Great Falls Great Falls Potomac River VA.JPG 474 (est.) ? 107 Potomac  United States 38°59′51″N 77°15′09″W / 38.9975°N 77.2525°W / 38.9975; -77.2525 (Great Falls) Flow regulated by the Washington Aqueduct.[24]
Granite Falls 1662 Granite Falls.jpg 453 21 ? Caniapiscau  Canada 55°50′42″N 68°25′25″W / 55.8450°N 68.4235°W / 55.8450; -68.4235 (Granite Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[25]
Hidden Falls 425 30 ? Yarlung Tsangpo  China 29°46′34″N 95°10′54″E / 29.776°N 95.181599°E / 29.776; 95.181599 (Hidden Falls) [26]
Urriðafoss Urriðafoss2009.jpg 360 4 229 Þjórsá  Iceland 63°55′30″N 20°40′22″W / 63.92506°N 20.672678°W / 63.92506; -20.672678 (Urriðafoss) [27]
Little Eaton Canyon Falls 0925 Little Eaton.jpg 317 Caniapiscau  Canada 55°31′46″N 68°17′40″W / 55.5294°N 68.2945°W / 55.5294; -68.2945 (Little Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[28]
Lower Eaton Canyon Falls 1335 Eaton Canyon - second waterfall (pano).jpg 317 Caniapiscau  Canada 55°33′46″N 68°11′50″W / 55.5627°N 68.1973°W / 55.5627; -68.1973 (Lower Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[29]
Nastapoca Falls Nastapoka River Waterfall.jpg 317 35 35 Nastapoca  Canada 56°54′54″N 76°31′46″W / 56.915004°N 76.529509°W / 56.915004; -76.529509 (Nastapoca Falls) [30]
Tuktu Falls 317 Caniapiscau  Canada 55°32′36″N 68°14′44″W / 55.5432°N 68.2456°W / 55.5432; -68.2456 (Tuktu Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[31]
Twin Falls 317 48 61 Nastapoca  Canada 56°53′54″N 76°24′12″W / 56.8984°N 76.4032°W / 56.8984; -76.4032 (Twin Falls (Nastapoca River)) [32]
Upper Eaton Canyon Falls 1149 Eaton Canyon - first waterfall (pano).jpg 317 Caniapiscau  Canada 55°33′29″N 68°12′57″W / 55.5581°N 68.2158°W / 55.5581; -68.2158 (Upper Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[33]
Augrabies Falls Augrabie, Waterfalls, South Africa.jpg 313 56 24 Orange  South Africa 28°35′29″S 20°20′25″E / 28.591389°S 20.340296°E / -28.591389; 20.340296 (Augrabies Falls) [34]
Murchison Falls Murchison Falls, Uganda (23475021234).jpg 300 43 15 White Nile  Uganda 2°16′43″N 31°41′09″E / 2.2785°N 31.6858°E / 2.2785; 31.6858 (Murchison Falls) Flow regulated by the Karuma Hydroelectric Power Station.[35]
Alexandra Falls Alexandra Falls Hay River.jpg 282 32 117 Hay River  Canada 60°30′02″N 116°16′46″W / 60.5006°N 116.2794°W / 60.5006; -116.2794 (Alexandra Falls) [36]
Louise Falls Louise Falls Hay River.jpg 282 15 183 Hay River  Canada 60°30′12″N 116°14′29″W / 60.5033°N 116.2414°W / 60.5033; -116.2414 (Louise Falls) [37]
Dettifoss Dettifoss TimBekaert.JPG 269 51 171 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°48′53″N 16°23′04″W / 65.8146330°N 16.3843220°W / 65.8146330; -16.3843220 (Dettifoss) [38]
Hafragilsfoss Hafragilsfoss-2006-burras.de.jpg 269 27 85 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°49′56″N 16°23′57″W / 65.8322810°N 16.3991539°W / 65.8322810; -16.3991539 (Hafragilsfoss) [39]
Réttarfoss Aerial View of Réttarfoss 21.05.2008 15-49-46.JPG 269 ? ? Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°52′47″N 16°26′09″W / 65.879645°N 16.435802°W / 65.879645; -16.435802 (Réttarfoss) [40]
Selfoss IJsland Selfoss woaterval.jpg 269 13 387 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°48′18″N 16°23′12″W / 65.80495°N 16.38657°W / 65.80495; -16.38657 (Selfoss) [41]
Sandstone Falls Sandstone Falls, WV (Lower Falls).jpg 222 4 549 New River  United States 37°45′24″N 80°54′21″W / 37.75667°N 80.90583°W / 37.75667; -80.90583 (Sandstone Falls) [42]
Huka Falls Abaconda qfse huka fall.jpg 220 ? ? Waikato River  New Zealand 38°38′55″S 176°05′24″E / 38.6486°S 176.0901°E / -38.6486; 176.0901 (Huka Falls) [43][44]
Big Falls Ryan Dam.jpg 213 27 183 Missouri River  United States 47°34′08″N 111°07′26″W / 47.5689°N 111.1238°W / 47.5689; -111.1238 (Big Falls) Flow regulated by the Ryan Dam.[45][46]
Black Eagle Falls GREAT FALLS PORTAGE, CASCADE COUNTY, MONTANA.jpg 213 8 183 Missouri River  United States 47°31′11″N 111°15′44″W / 47.5197°N 111.2623°W / 47.5197; -111.2623 (Black Eagle Falls) Flow regulated by the Black Eagle Dam.[47][46]
Crooked Falls Image 213 6 457 Missouri River  United States 47°32′06″N 111°11′47″W / 47.5350°N 111.1964°W / 47.5350; -111.1964 (Crooked Falls) Flow regulated by the Rainbow Dam.[48][46]
Rainbow Falls Rainbow Falls Great Falls MT2.jpg 213 13 305 Missouri River  United States 47°32′00″N 111°12′19″W / 47.5334°N 111.2052°W / 47.5334; -111.2052 (Rainbow Falls) Flow regulated by the Rainbow Dam.[49][46]
Storforsen Storforsen1.jpg 187 35 76 Pite River  Sweden 65°50′59″N 20°24′16″E / 65.84983°N 20.40435°E / 65.84983; 20.40435 (Storforsen) [50]
Rearguard Falls 2019-06 Rearguard Falls (02).jpg 171 6 61 Fraser River  Canada 52°58′24″N 119°21′51″W / 52.97333°N 119.36408°W / 52.97333; -119.36408 (Rearguard Falls) [51]
Cohoes Falls Cohoesfallsinlatespring.jpg 161 20 290 Mohawk River  United States 42°47′17″N 73°42′31″W / 42.78797°N 73.70853°W / 42.78797; -73.70853 (Cohoes Falls) Flow regulated by the School Street Hydroelectric Generating Facility.[52][53]
Jog Falls Jog Roarer.JPG 153 253 472 Sharavati River  India 14°13′45″N 74°48′45″E / 14.22923°N 74.81247°E / 14.22923; 74.81247 (Jog Falls) Flow regulated by the Linganamakki Dam.[54]

The first five waterfalls by power (Guaíra, Khone Phapheng, Iguazú, Niagara, and Victoria) are called the Great Five Waterfalls.[55][56]

Largest historic waterfalls[edit]

This list comprises the waterfalls which have ceased to exist due to the impoundment of their river(s) by a dam, or due to the diversion of the watercourse.

Waterfall Image Flow rate (m3/s) Drop (m) Width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes
Guaíra Falls Salto das Sete Quedas.jpg 13,309 40 4,828 Paraná  Brazil
 Paraguay
24°04′03″S 54°17′00″W / 24.067547°S 54.283276°W / -24.067547; -54.283276 (Guaíra Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Itaipu Reservoir following the completion of the Itaipu Dam in 1982.[57]
Celilo Falls Corps-engineers-archives celilo falls color.jpg 5,366 6.1 1,768 Columbia  United States 45°39′05″N 120°58′10″W / 45.65147°N 120.96941°W / 45.65147; -120.96941 (Celilo Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Columbia River following the completion of The Dalles Dam in 1957. The rock formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[58][59]
Kettle Falls Kettlefalls.jpg 4,682 ? ? Columbia  United States 48°37′52″N 118°07′08″W / 48.63099°N 118.11897°W / 48.63099; -118.11897 (Kettle Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath Lake Roosevelt following the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1940. The formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[60]
Urubupunga Falls 2,747 13 2,012 Paraná  Brazil 20°36′S 51°33′W / 20.6°S 51.55°W / -20.6; -51.55 (Salto do Urubupunga) Submerged beneath the Paraná River following completion of the Engineer Souza Dias Dam in 1982. The formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[61]
Marimbondo Falls 1,501 24 2,012 Rio Grande  Brazil 20°18′35″S 49°12′06″W / 20.30972°S 49.20167°W / -20.30972; -49.20167 (Saltos dos Patos e Marimbondo) The Marimbondo Dam was built atop the upper portion of the falls in 1971. The section further upstream was submerged beneath the Rio Grande, while the section below the dam was dewatered and are visible.[62]
San Rafael Falls AMA Cascada de San Rafael limite provincial de Napo y Sucumbíos (8227381138).jpg 400 94 23 Coca  Ecuador 0°06′15″S 77°34′51″W / 0.104303°S 77.580967°W / -0.104303; -77.580967 (San Rafael Falls (former)) On 2 February 2020, a large sinkhole formed just above the falls, diverting its flow beneath a large band of rock (the former brink of the falls) which survived the collapse and became a natural bridge. Although the river initially still fell over 100 m (330 ft) into the sinkhole, very rapid headward erosion has since left no significant waterfall at this location.[63][64][65]

Prehistoric waterfalls[edit]

Waterfall Maximum daily flow rate (m3/s) Tallest single drop (m) Width (m) River Countries
Gibraltar (Zanclean deluge hypothesis) 2×1013[66] Strait of Gibraltar Spain Spain
Morocco Morocco
Dry Falls 1,906,000[67] 120 4,828 Columbia United States United States
Bosphorus (Black Sea deluge hypothesis) 482,407[68] 80 Bosphorus Strait Turkey Turkey

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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