List of waterfalls by flow rate

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This list of waterfalls by flow rate in the world includes waterfalls that have an average flow rate greater than 250 cubic metres (8,800 cu ft). This list is sorted by mean annual flow rate of the waterfall by default, but can also be sorted by other criteria, such as width, power, etc.

Largest extant and submerged waterfalls[edit]

Rank Waterfall Image Average flow rate (m³/s) Tallest drop (m) Average width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes Ref
1 Inga Falls Inga03.jpg 25,768 (est.) 21 914 Congo  DRC 5°26′56″S 13°35′18″E / 5.448835°S 13.588362°E / -5.448835; 13.588362 (Inga Falls) The Inga falls, whose status as a true waterfall is controversial, are currently incorporated into the Inga I and Inga II hydroelectric facilities. The volume of the river diverted is approximately 30% of the average discharge. The Grand Inga Dam, potentially the world's largest by generating capacity, is also proposed to be built on the falls. [1]
2 Livingstone Falls Chutes Livingstone.jpg 25,060 6 701 Congo  DRC
 Republic of the Congo
4°52′41″S 14°26′08″E / 4.878146°S 14.435622°E / -4.878146; 14.435622 (Livingstone Falls) A set of rapids that drops 6 metres (20 ft). Located at the southern end of the Republic of the Congo's border with the Congo River. [2]
3 Boyoma Falls Zaire kisangani stroom 12 copy (cropped).jpg 16,990 5 1,372 Lualaba, Congo  DRC 0°29′27″N 25°12′24″E / 0.49091096°N 25.20680491°E / 0.49091096; 25.20680491 (Boyoma Falls) A series of seven cataracts, also referred to as the Stanley Falls. The last and most significant of these cataracts, at Kisangani, is known as Wagenia.[3] The Boyoma Falls marks the transition to the Congo River from the Lualaba River. [4]
- Guaíra Falls (submerged) Salto das Sete Quedas.jpg 13,309 40 4,828 Paraná  Brazil
 Paraguay
24°04′03″S 54°17′00″W / 24.067547°S 54.283276°W / -24.067547; -54.283276 (Guaíra Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Itaipu Reservoir following the completion of the Itaipu Dam in 1982. The falls were later dynamited by the Brazilian government to promote safer navigation on the river. [5]
4 Khone Phapheng Falls Khone Phapheng Falls - 1.jpg 11,610 21 10,783 Mekong  Laos 13°57′18″N 105°54′10″E / 13.9549940°N 105.9027541°E / 13.9549940; 105.9027541 (Khone Phapheng Falls) A series of falls and rapids that when measured end-to-end is over 10 kilometres in width, making it the world's widest waterfall. Largest waterfall in Asia by average flow rate. [6]
- Celilo Falls (submerged) Corps-engineers-archives celilo falls color.jpg 5,366 ? 1,768 Columbia  United States 45°39′05″N 120°58′10″W / 45.65147°N 120.96941°W / 45.65147; -120.96941 (Celilo Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Columbia River following the completion of The Dalles Dam in 1957. The falls remain intact. [7]
- Kettle Falls (submerged) Kettlefalls.jpg 4,682 ? ? Columbia  United States 48°37′52″N 118°07′08″W / 48.63099°N 118.11897°W / 48.63099; -118.11897 (Kettle Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath Lake Roosevelt following the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1940. The falls remain intact. [8]
5 Pará Falls Salto Para.jpg 3,540 ? 5,608 Caura  Bolivia
 Venezuela
6°19′01″N 64°30′33″W / 6.31699585°N 64.5090696°W / 6.31699585; -64.5090696 (Salto Pára) Largest extant waterfall in South America by average flow rate. [9]
6 Paulo Afonso Falls Cachoeira de Paulo Afonso BA.jpg 2,832 59 18 São Francisco  Brazil 9°23′21″S 38°11′45″W / 9.3890899°S 38.1957704°W / -9.3890899; -38.1957704 (Paulo Afonso Falls) In 1948, the river was dammed upstream from the falls, drastically reducing its average flow rate. The falls act as a spillway during high rainfall years. [10]
- Urubupunga Falls (submerged) 2,747 13 2,012 Paraná  Brazil 20°36′S 51°33′W / 20.6°S 51.55°W / -20.6; -51.55 (Salto do Urubupunga) Submerged beneath the Paraná River following completion of the Engineer Souza Dias Dam in 1982. The falls remain intact. [11]
7 Niagara Falls Canadian Horseshoe Falls with city of Niagara Falls, Ontario in background.jpg 2,407 51 1,204 Niagara  Canada
 United States
43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.08°N 79.071°W / 43.08; -79.071 (Niagara Falls) Largest extant waterfall in North America by average flow rate. [12]
8 Vermilion Falls A scow transitting the Vermilion Chutes.jpg 1,812 5 1,829 Peace  Canada 58°22′11″N 114°52′18″W / 58.3697239°N 114.871761°W / 58.3697239; -114.871761 (Vermilion Falls) [13]
9 Iguazú Falls Cataratas.jpg 1,746 64 2,682 Iguazú  Argentina
 Brazil
25°41′43″S 54°26′12″W / 25.695277°S 54.43667°W / -25.695277; -54.43667 (Iguazú Falls) [14]
- Maribondo Falls (submerged) 1,501 24 2,012 Rio Grande  Brazil 20°18′51″S 49°11′37″W / 20.314284°S 49.193689°W / -20.314284; -49.193689 (Saltos dos Patos e Maribondo) Partially flooded over by the Maribondo Dam built on top of half the falls. The bottom of part of the dewatered falls is visible to one side of the dam. [15]
10 Victoria Falls Victoriafälle.jpg 1,088 105 1,707 Zambezi  Zambia Zimbabwe 17°55′27″S 25°51′22″E / 17.924028°S 25.856083°E / -17.924028; 25.856083 (Victoria Falls) Produces the largest sheet of falling water in the world. [16]
11 Virginia Falls Nahanni - VirginiaFalls.jpg 1,000 90 259 South Nahanni  Canada 61°36′27″N 125°44′20″W / 61.607391°N 125.738912°W / 61.607391; -125.738912 (Virginia Falls) [17]
12 Shivanasamudra Falls Barahachukki.jpg 934 98 305 Cauvery  India 12°17′33″N 77°10′03″E / 12.2924778°N 77.16744866°E / 12.2924778; 77.16744866 (Shivanasamudra Falls) This waterfall divides around Sivasamudram Island. One side is known as Gagana chukki and the other side is known as Bara chukki. [18]
13 Willamette Falls Willamette Falls from drone.jpg 928 13 457 Willamette  United States 45°21′05″N 122°37′09″W / 45.35139°N 122.61917°W / 45.35139; -122.61917 (Willamette Falls) Prior to the development of the Oregon City area, it is though the falls may have spanned as much as 762 metres across. [19]
14 Kongou Falls DIGITAL CROSSING - KONGOU 03.jpg 900 56 3,200 Ivindo  Gabon 0°17′17″N 12°35′17″E / 0.28815075°N 12.58801367°E / 0.28815075; 12.58801367 (Ivindo River) [20]
15 Kootenai Falls Kootenai Falls 2019-07-13.jpg 731 9 258 Kootenay  United States 48°27′20″N 115°45′48″W / 48.4555015°N 115.763198°W / 48.4555015; -115.763198 (Kootenai Falls) [21]
16 Kaieteur Falls GuyanaKaieteurFalls2004.jpg 663 226 113 Potaro  Guyana 5°10′30″N 59°28′50″W / 5.17497870°N 59.4804760°W / 5.17497870; -59.4804760 (Kaieteur Falls) [22]
17 Rheinfall Rheinfall. Img 3.jpg 595 24 122 Rhein   Switzerland 47°40′40″N 8°36′56″E / 47.677640°N 8.615512°E / 47.677640; 8.615512 (Rheinfall) Largest waterfall in Europe by average flow rate. [23]
18 Kalandula Falls Kalandula waterfalls of the Lucala-River in Malange, Angola (2).JPG 566 105 411 Lucala  Angola 9°04′26″S 16°00′03″E / 9.073885°S 16.000709°E / -9.073885; 16.000709 (Kalandula Falls) [24]
19 Great Falls Great Falls Potomac River VA.JPG 474 (est.) ? 107 Potomac  United States 38°59′51″N 77°15′09″W / 38.9975°N 77.2525°W / 38.9975; -77.2525 (Great Falls) [25]
20 Hidden Falls 425 30 ? Yarlung Tsangpo  China 29°46′34″N 95°10′54″E / 29.776°N 95.181599°E / 29.776; 95.181599 (Hidden Falls) [26]
21 San Rafael Falls AMA Cascada de San Rafael limite provincial de Napo y Sucumbíos (8227381138).jpg 400 94 23 Coca  Ecuador 0°06′15″S 77°34′51″W / 0.104303°S 77.580967°W / -0.104303; -77.580967 (San Rafael Falls) [27]
22 Urriðafoss Urriðafoss2009.jpg 360 4 229 Þjórsá  Iceland 63°55′30″N 20°40′22″W / 63.92506°N 20.672678°W / 63.92506; -20.672678 (Urriðafoss) [28]
23 Augrabies Falls Augrabie, Waterfalls, South Africa.jpg 313 56 24 Orange  South Africa 28°35′29″S 20°20′25″E / 28.591389°S 20.340296°E / -28.591389; 20.340296 (Augrabies Falls) [29]
24 Murchison Falls Murchison Falls, Uganda (23475021234).jpg 300 43 15 Victoria Nile  Uganda 2°16′43″N 31°41′09″E / 2.2785°N 31.6858°E / 2.2785; 31.6858 (Murchison Falls) [30]
25 Alexandra Falls Alexandra Falls Hay River.jpg 282 32 117 Hay River  Canada 60°30′02″N 116°16′46″W / 60.5006°N 116.2794°W / 60.5006; -116.2794 (Alexandra Falls) [31]
25 Louise Falls Louise Falls Hay River.jpg 282 15 183 Hay River  Canada 60°30′12″N 116°14′29″W / 60.5033°N 116.2414°W / 60.5033; -116.2414 (Louise Falls) [32]
27 Dettifoss Dettifoss TimBekaert.JPG 269 51 171 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°48′53″N 16°23′04″W / 65.8146330°N 16.3843220°W / 65.8146330; -16.3843220 (Dettifoss) [33]
27 Hafragilsfoss Hafragilsfoss-2006-burras.de.jpg 269 27 85 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°49′56″N 16°23′57″W / 65.8322810°N 16.3991539°W / 65.8322810; -16.3991539 (Hafragilsfoss) [34]
27 Selfoss IJsland Selfoss woaterval.jpg 269 13 387 Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°48′18″N 16°23′12″W / 65.80495°N 16.38657°W / 65.80495; -16.38657 (Selfoss) [35]
27 Réttarfoss Aerial View of Réttarfoss 21.05.2008 15-49-46.JPG 269 ? ? Jökulsá á Fjöllum  Iceland 65°52′47″N 16°26′09″W / 65.879645°N 16.435802°W / 65.879645; -16.435802 (Réttarfoss) [36]

The first five waterfalls by power (Guaíra, Khone Phapheng, Iguazú, Niagara and Victoria) are called the Great Five Waterfalls.[37][38]

Prehistoric waterfalls[edit]

Waterfall Maximum daily flow rate (m³/s) Tallest single drop (m) Width (m) River Countries
Dry Falls 1,906,000[39] 350 4,828 Columbia United States United States
Bosphorus (Black Sea deluge hypothesis) 482,407[40] 80 Bosphorus Strait Turkey Turkey

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Inga Falls, Congo, Democratic Republic of the - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  2. ^ "Livingstone, Chutes de, Congo, Democratic Republic of the - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  3. ^ Ndeo, Oscar; Hauffe, Torsten; Delicado, Diana; Busanga, Alidor; Albrecht, Christian (2017-05-02). "Mollusk communities of the central Congo River shaped by combined effects of barriers, environmental gradients, and species dispersal". Journal of Limnology. 76. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2017.1585.
  4. ^ "Wagenia, Chutes, Congo, Democratic Republic of the - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  5. ^ "Guaíra, Salto del, Brazil - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  6. ^ "Khone, Chutes de, Laos - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  7. ^ "Celilo Falls, Oregon, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  8. ^ "Kettle Falls, Washington, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  9. ^ "Pará, Salto, Venezuela - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  10. ^ "Paulo Afonso, Cachoeira de, Brazil - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  11. ^ "Urubupunga, Salto do, Brazil - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  12. ^ "Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  13. ^ "Vermilion Falls, Alberta, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  14. ^ "Iguazú, Cataratas del, Argentina - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  15. ^ "Patos e Maribondo, Saltos dos, Brazil - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  16. ^ "Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  17. ^ "Virginia Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  18. ^ "Sivasamudram Falls, India - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  19. ^ "Willamette Falls, Oregon, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  20. ^ "Kongou Falls, Gabon - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  21. ^ "Kootenai Falls, Montana, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  22. ^ "Kaieteur Falls, Guyana - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  23. ^ "Rheinfall, Switzerland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  24. ^ "Kalandula Falls, Angola - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  25. ^ "Great Falls, Maryland, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  26. ^ "Hidden Falls, China - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  27. ^ "San Rafael, Cascada de, Ecuador - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  28. ^ "Urriðafoss, Iceland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  29. ^ "Augrabies Falls, South Africa - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  30. ^ "Murchison Falls, Uganda - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  31. ^ "Alexandra Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  32. ^ "Louise Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  33. ^ "Dettifoss, Iceland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  34. ^ "Hafragilsfoss, Iceland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  35. ^ "Selfoss, Iceland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  36. ^ "Réttarfoss, Iceland - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  37. ^ Г. Т. Арсеев. Водопады. — М.: Мысль, 1987. — С. 14. — 127 с.
  38. ^ В. И. Задорожный, К. В. Зворыкин. Методология и региональные физико-географические исследования. — М.: Географическое общество СССР, 1975. — С. 60. — 78 с.
  39. ^ The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington, United States Geological Survey, retrieved 2012-03-15
  40. ^ Ryan, W.B.F.; Pitman III, W.C., et al. 1997. An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology, 138: 119–126.

External links[edit]