List of weapons of mass destruction treaties

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A variety of treaties and agreements have been enacted to regulate the use, development and possession of various types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Treaties may regulate weapons use under the customs of war (Hague Conventions, Geneva Protocol), ban specific types of weapons (Chemical Weapons Convention, Biological Weapons Convention), limit weapons research (Partial Test Ban Treaty, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty), limit allowable weapons stockpiles and delivery systems (START I, SORT) or regulate civilian use of weapon precursors (Chemical Weapons Convention, Biological Weapons Convention). The history of weapons control has also included treaties to limit effective defense against weapons of mass destruction in order to preserve the deterrent doctrine of mutual assured destruction (Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) as well as treaties to limit the spread of nuclear technologies geographically (African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty).

There is a separate list of states parties to several of the major weapons of mass destruction treaties.

General[edit]

* Year of entry into force in parentheses

Delivery systems[edit]

Biological weapons[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force Number of states parties Objective
Geneva Protocol[2] 17 June 1925 8 February 1928 145 Ban the use of chemical and biological weapons
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC)[3] 10 April 1972 26 March 1975 183 (list) Comprehensively ban biological weapons
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 NA 28 April 2004 NA Prevent WMD proliferation, especially to non-state actors

Chemical weapons[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force States parties Objective
Strasbourg Agreement 27 August 1675 France and the Holy Roman Empire Ban the use of poison bullets
Treaty of Versailles 10 January 1920 Germany and the Allied Powers of WWI Ban Germany from manufacturing or stockpiling chemical weapons (among many things)
Geneva Protocol[4] 17 June 1925 8 February 1928 145 Ban the use of chemical and biological weapons
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)[5] 3 September 1992 29 April 1997 193 (list) Comprehensively ban chemical weapons

Nuclear weapons[edit]

Disarmament and non-proliferation[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force Number of states parties Objective
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency 29 July 1957 172 (list)
Outer Space Treaty[6] 27 January 1967 10 October 1967 111 Ban stationing of WMD in space
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)[7] 1 July 1968 5 March 1970 191 (list) 1. prevent nuclear proliferation; 2. promote nuclear disarmament; 3. promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy
Seabed Arms Control Treaty[8] 11 February 1971 18 May 1972 94 Ban stationing of WMD on the ocean floor
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 3 March 1980 8 February 1987 157 Ensure the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities
Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) (2021)[9] 20 September 2017 22 January 2021 54 (list) Comprehensively ban nuclear weapons

Regional restrictions[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force Number of states parties
Antarctic Treaty[10] December 1, 1959 June 23, 1961 54
Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean[11] 14 February 1967 22 April 1968 33
South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone NA 27 October 1986 24
South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty[12] 6 August 1985 11 December 1986 13
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany 12 September 1990 15 March 1991 6
Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty 15 December 1995 28 March 1997 10
India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement US and India
African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty[13] 1996 15 July 2009 41
Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone[14] 8 September 2006 21 March 2009 5

Weapons limitation[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force Number of states parties Objective
McCloy–Zorin Accords 20 December 1961 Establish a foundation for all future international (nuclear) disarmament negotiations
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty[15] 5 August 1963 10 October 1963 126 (list) Ban all nuclear weapons tests except for those conducted underground
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 26 May 1972 1972

(US withdrawal: 2002)

US and USSR Limit anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons
Threshold Test Ban Treaty 3 July 1974 11 December 1990 US and USSR Ban nuclear tests of devices having a yield exceeding 150 kilotons
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)[16] 10 September 1996 Not in force 170 (list) Ban all nuclear weapons tests
Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty NA NA NA Prohibit the further production of fissile material
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty 8 December 1987 1 June 1988

(expiration: 2 August 2019)

US and USSR Ban land-based ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and missile launchers with ranges between 500 and 5,500 km
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) 26 May 1972 US and USSR Limit the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers
SALT II June 18 1979 Never entered into force US and USSR Limit the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers
START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) 31 July 1991 5 December 1994 US and USSR Limit the number of deployed nuclear warheads to 6,000 and of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to 1,600
START II 3 January 1993 14 April 2000

(USSR withdrawal: 14 June 2002)

US and Russia Ban the use of multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) on ICBMs
START III not completed NA US and Russia Limit the number of deployed strategic nuclear warheads
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) 24 May 2002 1 June 2003

(expiration: 5 February 2011)

US and Russia Limit the number of deployed strategic nuclear warheads to between 1,700 and 2,200
New START 8 April 2010 5 February 2011 US and Russia Limit the number of deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 1,550, deployed missiles and bombers to 700, and deployed and non-deployed launchers (missile tubes and bombers) to 800

Cooperation[edit]

Agreement Date signed Date of entry into force States parties Objective
Quebec Agreement 19 August 1943 19 August 1943

(expiration: 7 January 1948)

UK and US Cooperation on nuclear energy and nuclear weapons
1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement 3 July 1958 4 August 1958 UK and US Exchange of nuclear materials, technology and information
Nassau Agreement 1962 UK and US Supply of UK with Polaris missiles, launch tubes, and the fire control system (see UK Polaris programme)
Polaris Sales Agreement 6 April 1963 UK and US Implementation of the Nassau Agreement
Nuclear Terrorism Convention[17] 14 September 2005 7 July 2007 117 Criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and promote police and judicial cooperation

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Convention on Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  2. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  3. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Biological Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  4. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: 1925 Geneva Protocol". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  5. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Chemical Weapons Convention". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  6. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  7. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  8. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Sea-bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  9. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  10. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  11. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty of Tlatelolco". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  12. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  13. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Pelindaba Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  14. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia (CANWFZ)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  15. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Partial Test Ban Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  16. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  17. ^ "Disarmament Treaties Database: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2021-03-03.