List of weather records

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This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]

Temperature[edit]

Measuring conditions[edit]

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are in the air, 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight intensity (hence the term, x degrees "in the shade").[2] The following lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.

Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F).[2] A ground temperature of 84 °C (183.2 °F) has been recorded in Port Sudan, Sudan.[3] A ground temperature of 93.9 °C (201.0 °F) was recorded in Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, United States on 15 July 1972; this may be the highest natural ground surface temperature ever recorded.[4] The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C (194 and 212 °F) for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.[5]

Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in 5 of the 7 years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009). These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.[2]

Satellite measurements of the surface temperature of Antarctica, taken between 1982 and 2013, found a coldest temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) on 10 August 2010, at 81°48′S 59°18′E / 81.8°S 59.3°E / -81.8; 59.3. Although this is not comparable to an air temperature, it is believed that the air temperature at this location would have been lower than the official record lowest air temperature of −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).[6][7]

Heat[edit]

Highest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

A world map showing areas with Köppen BWh (hot desert climate). The temperatures in these regions have the potential to exceed 50 °C (122 °F) during the hottest seasons.

There are reports of temperatures higher than the listed world record of 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) during phenomena known as heat bursts, including a report of 87 °C (189 °F) in Abadan, Iran in June 1967. There are also reports made by satellite analysis, including one of 66.8 °C (152.2 °F) measured in the Flaming Mountains of China in 2008.[8] These temperatures have never been confirmed, and are not recognized as world records.[9] The former highest official temperature on Earth, held for 90 years by ‘Aziziya, Libya, was de-certified by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) in January 2012 as the record for the world's highest surface temperature. (This temperature of 58 °C (136 °F), registered on 13 September 1922, is currently considered to have been a recorder's error.[10])

Christopher C. Burt, the weather historian writing for Weather Underground who shepherded the Libya reading's 2012 disqualification, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least 2.2 or 2.8 °C (4 or 5 °F) too high,[11] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth is still at Death Valley, but is instead 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) recorded on 30 June 2013.[12] 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) was recorded another four times: 20 July 1960, 18 July 1998, 20 July 2005, and 7 July 2007.[13][14] On 21 July 2016, Mitribah in Kuwait also recorded a maximum temperature of 54.0 °C (129.2 °F), tying Death Valley's highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth, while Basra in Iraq reached 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) that day.[15] In a second part to his analysis, he gave a list of 11 other occasions in which temperatures of 52.8 °C (127.0 °F) or more were reliably measured as well the highest reliably measured temperatures on each continent.[16]

By Continent[edit]

Africa [notes 1][edit]

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
 Algeria 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) El Bayadh, El Bayadh Province 2 September 1979[17]
 Botswana 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Maun 7 January 2016[18]
 Burkina Faso 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Dori 1984[19]
 Chad 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) Faya-Largeau 22 June 2010[20]
 Ghana 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) Navrongo 10 April 2015[21]
 Niger 48.2 °C (118.8 °F) Bilma 23 June 2010[20]
 Nigeria 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Yola 3 April 2010[20]
 South Africa 50.0 °C (122 °F) Dunbrody, Eastern Cape 1918[22]
 Sudan 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Dongola 25 June 2010[20]
 Swaziland 47.7 °C (117.9 °F) Lavumisa  ?[23]
 Tunisia 55.0 °C (131 °F) * Kebili 7 July 1931[24][25]
 Western Sahara 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Semara 13 July 1961[16]
 Zambia 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Mfuwe, Eastern Province 13 October 2010[20]

Antarctica[edit]

 Antarctica 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula 24 March 2015[26]
South Pole −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station 25 December 2011[27]

Asia[edit]

 Azerbaijan 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[28]
 Bangladesh 45.1 °C (113.2 °F) Rajshahi 30 May 1972[29]
 Bhutan 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) Phuentsholing 27 August 1997[30]
 Cambodia 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) Preah Vihea 15 April 2016[31]
 China 50.3 °C (122.5 °F) Ayding Lake, Turpan, Xinjiang 24 July 2015[32]
 Hong Kong 37.9 °C (100.2 °F) Happy Valley 8 August 2015, 9 July 2016 [21]
 India 51 °C (124 °F) Phalodi, Rajasthan 19 May 2016[33]
 Indonesia 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) Jatiwangi, Cirebon, West Java /
Semarang, Central Java
December 2006 /
27 October 2015 [34]
 Iran 53.0 °C (127.4 °F) Dehloran
Gotvand
22 July 2016, 28 July 2011
17 July 2014[16][35]
 Iraq 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) Basra 22 July 2016[35][36]
 Israel 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) * Tirat Zvi 21 June 1942[37]
 Japan 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) Shimanto, Kōchi 12 August 2013[38]
 Jordan 50.0 °C (122.0 °F) ? 6 September 2002[39]
 Kuwait 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) Mitribah 21 July 2016[35][36][notes 2]
 Kyrgyzstan 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) ? ?[40]
 Laos 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Seno 12 April 2016[31]
 Malaysia 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Chuping 9 April 1998[41]
 Maldives 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Hanimaadhoo 16 April 2016[31]
 Mongolia 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Khongor, Darkhan-Uul Province 24 July 1999[42]
 Myanmar 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Myinmu 14 May 2010[43][44]
   Nepal 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Chisapani  ?[45]
 Pakistan 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) Mohenjo-daro, Sindh 26 May 2010[46][47]
 Philippines 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley 12 April 1912, 11 May 1969[48]
 Qatar 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Doha 14 July 2010[20]
 Russia 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Belogorsk, Amur Oblast 12 July 2010[49]
 Saudi Arabia 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Jeddah 23 June 2010[50]
 Singapore 36.7 °C (98.1 °F) Seletar 13 April 2016[51]
 South Korea 40.0 °C (104 °F) Daegu 1 August 1942[52]
 Syria 49.4 °C (120.9 °F)  ?  ?[53]
 Taiwan 40.2 °C (104 °F) Taitung County 9 May 2004[54]
 Thailand 44.6 °C (112.3 °F) Mae Hong Son 28 April 2016[31]
 Turkey 48.6 °C (119.5 °F) Cizre 30 August 2000[55]
 Turkmenistan 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, southeast Karakum Desert 28 July 1983[56][57]
 United Arab Emirates 52.1 °C (125.8 °F) Al Jazeera Border Gate July 2002[58][59]
 Vietnam 42.7 °C (108.9 °F) Con Cuong/Tuong Duong (tied) 30 May 2015[21]/12 May 1966[60]

Europe [notes 3][edit]

 Armenia 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) Meghri 1 August 2011[61][62]
 Austria 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) Bad Deutsch-Altenburg 8 August 2013[63]
 Belarus 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) Gomel 7 August 2010[20]
 Belgium 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) Uccle 27 June 1947[64][65]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 46.2 °C (111.16 °F) Mostar 31 July 1901[66]
 Bulgaria 45.2 °C (113.3 °F) Sadovo, Plovdiv Province 5 August 1916[67]
 Croatia 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) Ploče 5 August 1981[68]
 Cyprus 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) Lefkoniko 1 August 2010[20]
 Czech Republic 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) Dobřichovice, Prague-West District 20 August 2012[69]
 Denmark 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) Holstebro, Midtjylland 10 August 1975[70]
 Estonia 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Võru 11 August 1992[71]
 Finland 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) Liperi 29 July 2010[72]
 France 44.1 °C (111.4 °F) Conqueyrac / Saint-Christol-lès-Alès 12 August 2003[73]
 Germany 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Kitzingen, Lower Franconia, Bavaria 5 July 2015 / 7 August 2015[74]
 Greece 48.0 °C (118.4 °F ) Athens 10 July 1977[75]
 Hungary 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007[76]
 Iceland 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur 22 June 1939[77][78]
 Ireland 33.3 °C (92 °F) Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny 26 June 1887[79]
 Italy 47.0 °C (116.6 °F) Foggia, Apulia [notes 4] 25 June 2007[80][81]
 Latvia 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Ventspils 4 August 2014[82]
 Lithuania 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) Zarasai, Utena County 30 July 1994[83]
 Macedonia 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija 24 July 2007[84][85]
 Malta 43.8 °C (110.84 °F) Malta International Airport 9 August 1999[86][87]
 Moldova 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Falesti 7 August 2012[88]
 Montenegro 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Podgorica & Danilovgrad 16 August 2007 /
8 August 2012[89]
 Netherlands 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Warnsveld 23 August 1944[90]
 Norway 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Nesbyen, Buskerud 20 June 1970[91]
 Poland 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Proskau [notes 5] 29 July 1921[93]
 Portugal 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Amareleja, Beja 1 August 2003[94]
 Romania 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Ion Sion, Brăila County 10 August 1951[95]
 Russia 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Utta, Kalmykia 12 July 2010[96]
 Serbia 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje 24 July 2007[97]
 Slovakia 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Hurbanovo 20 July 2007[98]
 Slovenia 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Cerklje ob Krki 8 August 2013[99]
 Spain 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Murcia 4 July 1994[100]
 Sweden 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Ultuna, Uppsala County/
Målilla, Kalmar County (tied)
9 July 1933 /
29 June 1947[101]
  Switzerland 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Grono, Moesa District 11 August 2003[102]
 Ukraine 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) Luhansk 12 August 2010[103]
 England 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) Faversham, Kent 10 August 2003[104]
 Northern Ireland 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) Knockarevan, County Fermanagh /
Belfast, County Antrim (tied)
30 June 1976 /
12 July 1983[104]
 Scotland 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) Greycrook, Scottish Borders 9 August 2003[104]
 Wales 35.2 °C (95.4 °F) Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire 2 August 1990[104]

North America [notes 6][edit]

 Anguilla 34.2 °C (93.6 °F) The Valley 12 September 2015[21]
 Antigua and Barbuda 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 12 August 1995[105][106]
 Canada 45.0 °C (113 °F) Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan
Midale, Saskatchewan
5 July 1937[107]
 Cayman Islands 34.7 °C (94.5 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman  ?[108]
 Cuba 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) Jucarito (Granma Province) 17 April 1999[109]
 Dominica 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) Canefield Airport 3 October 2015[21]
 Dominican Republic 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) Mao 31 August 1954[110]
 Greenland 25.9 °C (78.6 °F) Maniitsoq 30 July 2013[111]
 Guatemala 45 °C (113 °F) Estanzuela, Zacapa  ?[112]
 Mexico 52.5 °C (126.5 °F) San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora 15 June 1966[113]
 Panama 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) San Francisco 20 March 1998[114]
 Puerto Rico 37.2 °C (99 °F) Arecibo 25 June 1985[115]
 United States 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) * Furnace Creek Ranch
(formerly Greenland Ranch),
Death Valley, California
10 July 1913[11][116]
 United States Virgin Islands 37.2 °C (99 °F) Saint Thomas 4 August 1994 /
23 June 1996[117]

Oceania [notes 7][edit]

 Australia 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Oodnadatta, South Australia 2 January 1960[118][119][120]
 New Zealand 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Rangiora, Canterbury /
Jordan, Marlborough (tied)
7 February 1973[121]
 Samoa 35.3 °C (95.5 °F) Asau 24 December 1968[122]
 Solomon Islands 36.1 °C (97.0 °F) Honiara, Guadalcanal Province 1 February 2010[20]
 Wallis and Futuna 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) Futuna Airport 19 January 2015[21]

South America [notes 8][edit]

 Argentina 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) * Rivadavia, Salta Province 11 December 1905[118][123][124]
 Bolivia 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) Villamontes, Tarija Department 29 October 2010 [20][notes 9]
 Brazil 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) Bom Jesus, Piauí 21 November 2005 [125]
 Colombia 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca 29 December 2015 [126]
 French Guiana 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni 22 October 2015 [34]
 Uruguay 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Paysandú, Paysandú Department 20 January 1943[127]
 Venezuela 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón 29 April 2015[21]

* Temperature record may be unreliable according to Christopher Burt.[16][128]

Other high-temperature records[edit]

  • Fastest temperature rise: 27 °C (49 °F) from −20 °C (−4 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F) in two minutes; Spearfish, South Dakota, 1943-01-22.[129]
  • Most consecutive days above 37.8 °C (100.0 °F): 160 days; Marble Bar, Western Australia from 31 October 1923 to 7 April 1924.[130]
  • Surface temperature: Heat records are measured by air temperature above the ground. Remote sensing can estimate ground or "skin" surface temperatures: the MODIS satellite found in a brief survey a ground temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), in the Lut Desert of Iran, the hottest detected.[131]

Cold[edit]

Lowest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

By Continent[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
 Algeria −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) Mécheria 28 January 2005[17]
 Burkina Faso 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) Markoye 1975-01[19]
 Lesotho −20.4 °C (−4.7 °F) Letseng-la-Draai (Letseng-la-Terae), Mokhotlong District 1967-06-12[132]
 Morocco −23.9 °C (−11 °F) Ifrane 1935-02-11[118]
 South Africa −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape 2013-08-23[133]
 Sudan −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Zalingei 1961-12 and 1962-01[134]
 Swaziland −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) Big Bend  ?[23]

Antarctica[edit]

Vostok Station −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) Vostok Station 1983-07-21[118][129][135]*
Dome A −82.5 °C (−116.5 °F) Dome A 2005–07[136]
South Pole −82.8 °C (−117.0 °F) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station 1982-06-23[137]

Asia[edit]

 Azerbaijan −33.0 °C (−27.4 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[28]
 Bangladesh 2.8 °C (37.0 °F) Sreemangal 1968-?-?[138]
 Hong Kong −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Tai Mo Shan 2016-01-24[139]
 India −33.9 °C (−29.0 °F) Dras, Jammu and Kashmir 1911-03-22[140]
 Iran −46 °C (−43.3 °F) Saqqez 1972[141]
 Israel −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) Merom Golan 2015-01-10[142]
 Japan −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Asahikawa, Hokkaidō 1902-01-25[38]
 Jordan −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Shoubak 15 December 2013[39]
 Kyrgyzstan −53.6 °C (−64.5 °F) ? ?[40]
 Malaysia 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Cameron Highlands 1978-02-01[41]
 Maldives 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) Hulhulé Island, located at Ibrahim Nasir International Airport 1978-04-11[143]
 Mongolia −55.3 °C (−67.5 °F) Züüngovi, Uvs Province 1976-12[42]
 Myanmar −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Hakha 1990-30-12[144]
   Nepal −26.0 °C (−14.8 °F) Thakmarpha, Mustang district  ?[45]
 North Korea −43.6 °C (−46.5 °F) Chunggangjin 1933-01-12[145]
 Pakistan −24.1 °C (−11.4 °F) Skardu, Gilgit–Baltistan 1995-01-07[146]
 Philippines 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) Baguio 1961-01-18[48][147]
 Russia −67.8 °C (−90 °F) Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
1892-02-07
1933-02-06[118]
 Saudi Arabia −12.0 °C (10.4 °F) Turaif  ?[148]
 South Korea −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Yangpyeong 1981-01-05[149]
 Syria −18.5 °C (−1.3 °F)  ?  ?[53]
 Thailand −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) Sakon Nakhon 1974-01-02[150]
 Turkey −50.3 °C (−58.5 °F) Ardahan Province 1941-01-14[55]
 Turkmenistan −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Daşoguz Region  ?[56]
 United Arab Emirates −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Rekna January 2008[151]
 Vietnam −6.1 °C (21.0 °F) Sa Pa 1974-01-04[152]

Europe[edit]

 Armenia −42.0 °C (−43.6 °F) Paghakn and Ashocq 1961[61]
 Austria −47.1 °C (−52.78 °F) Grünloch doline 1932-02-19[153]
 Belarus −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast 1940-01-17[154]
 Belgium −30.1 °C (−22.2 °F) Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort 1940-01-20[155]
 Bulgaria −38.3 °C (−37 °F) Tran 1947-01-25[67]
 Croatia −35.5 °C (−31.5 °F) Čakovec 1929-02-03[68]
 Czech Republic −42.2  °C (−44.0 °F) Litvínovice 1929-02-11[69]
 Denmark −31.2  °C (−24.2 °F) Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region 1982-01-08[70]
 Estonia −43.5 °C (−46.0 °F) Jõgeva, Jõgeva County 1940-01-17[71]
 Finland −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) Kittilä, Lapland 1999-01-28[156]
 France −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Mouthe, Doubs 1985-01-17[157]
 Germany −45.9 °C (−50.6 °F) Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria 2001-12-24[158]
 Greece −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) Ptolemaida 1963-01-27[159]
 Hungary −35.0 °C (−31.0 °F) Görömbölytapolca 1940-02-16[76]
 Iceland −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F) Grímsstaðir 1918-01-21[77]
 Ireland −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) Markree Castle, County Sligo 1881-01-16[79]
 Italy −49.6 °C (−57.2 °F) Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino 2013-02-10[160]
 Latvia −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) Daugavpils 1956-02-08[82]
 Lithuania −42.9 °C (−45.2 °F) Utena, Utena County 1956-02-01[83]
 Macedonia −31.5 °C (−24.7 °F) Berovo, Berovo Municipality 1954-01-27[161]
 Malta 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) Malta International Airport 1981-01-29[86][87]
 Moldova −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) Brătușeni, Edineț District 20 January 1963[88]
 Netherlands −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) Winterswijk 1942-01-27[90]
 Norway −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F) Karasjok, Finnmark 1886-01-01[91]
 Poland −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship 1940-01-11[93]
 Portugal −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
1945-01-16 and 1954-02-05[162]
 Romania −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) Bod, Braşov County 1942-01-25[163]
 Russia (European part only) −58.1 °C (−72.6 °F) Ust' Shchugor, Komi Republic 1978-12-31[75]
 Serbia −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District 1985-01-13[97]
 Slovakia −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Vígľaš-Pstruša 1929-02-11[98]
 Slovenia −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F) Babno Polje 1956-02-15 / 1956-02-16 / 1968-01-13[notes 10][164]
 Spain −30.0 °C (−22.0 °F) Calamocha Airport, Teruel Province 17 December 1963[100]
 Sweden −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F) Malgovik, Västerbotten County 1941-12-13[101]
  Switzerland −41.8 °C (−43.2 °F) La Brévine 1987-01-12[102]
 Ukraine −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) Luhansk 1935-01-08[103][165]
 England −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) Newport, Shropshire 1982-01-10[104]
 Northern Ireland −18.7 °C (−1.7 °F) Castlederg, County Tyrone 2010-12-24[166]
 Scotland −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
1895-02-11 and 1982-01-10
1995-12-30[104]
 Wales −23.3 °C (−9.9 °F) Rhayader, Powys 1940-01-21[104]

North America[edit]

 Antigua and Barbuda 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 31 December 1974 and 28 January 1976[105][106]
 Canada −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F) Snag, Yukon 1947-02-03[129][167]
 Cayman Islands 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman  ?[108]
 Cuba 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) Bainoa, Mayabeque Province 1996-02-18[109][168]
 Dominican Republic −7 °C (19.4 °F) Valle Nuevo, Constanza 1983-01-17[169]
 Greenland −66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) North Ice 1954-01-09[170]
 Guatemala −11.5 °C (11.3 °F) Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango  ?[112]
 Panama 2.0 °C (35.6 °F) Bajo Grande 20 February 1995[114]
 Puerto Rico 4.4 °C (40 °F) Adjuntas
Aibonito
Corozal
1989-12-28[171]
1906-02-26[171]
1945-01-19[171]
 US Virgin Islands 11.1 °C (52 °F) Saint Thomas 1999-11-26[117]
 United States
( Alaska)
−62.1 °C (−80 °F) Prospect Creek, Alaska 1971-01-23[172]
 United States
(Mainland)
−57 °C (−70 °F) Rogers Pass, Montana 1954-01-20[173]

South America[edit]

 Argentina −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Sarmiento, Chubut Province 1907-06-01[174]
 Brazil −14 °C (7 °F) Caçador, Santa Catarina 1952-06[175][176]
 Paraguay −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 2000-07-13[177]
 Peru −25.2 °C (−13.4 °F) Mazo Cruz, Puno Region 1966-06-30[178]
 Uruguay −11 °C (12 °F) Melo, Cerro Largo Department 1967-06-14[179]

Oceania[edit]

 Australia −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 1994-06-29[119]
 New Zealand −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F) Ranfurly, Central Otago 1903-07-18[180]
 Samoa 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Afiamalu 29 September 1971[122]
* This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. Satellite analyses made on 10 August 2010 pointed to a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land, but this record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.
† It is reported by local news outlet that temperatures in Mt. Pulag in the Philippines which is 2,922 meters above sea level plunges as low as 2 °C (35.6 °F). PAGASA cannot verify[181]

Other low-temperature records[edit]

Precipitation[edit]

Rain[edit]

Snow[edit]

  • Most in a 24-hour period: 2.56 meters (100.8 inches) in Capracotta, Italy on 5 March 2015.[184]
  • Most in one-year period: 31.5 meters (102 ft); Mount Rainier, Washington, United States, 19 February 1971 to 18 February 1972.[129]
  • Most in one season (1 July – 30 June): 29.0 meters, (95 ft); Mount Baker, Washington, United States, 1998 through 1999.[185]
  • Most in one calendar month: 9.91 meters (390 inches) of snow fell in Tamarack, California in January 1911, leading to a snow depth in March of 11.46 meters (451 inches) (greatest measured in North America).[185][186]
  • Deepest snowfall recorded: 11.82 meters (38.8 ft) on Mt. Ibuki, Japan on 14 February 1927.[187]

Wind speed[edit]

Tornadoes[edit]

Main article: Tornado records
The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in history[edit]

Outbreaks[edit]

  • Largest and most severe: The 2011 Super Outbreak: 207 confirmed tornadoes occurred in a span of 24 hours, with a total of 337 occurring throughout the duration of the outbreak. They affected six US states, and included 11 EF4s and 4 EF5s.[195]

Tropical cyclones[edit]

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)[edit]

[196]

  • Most intense ever recorded on land: 892 hPa (26.35 inHg); Craig's Key, Florida, eye of the Labor Day Hurricane, 2 September 1935. While other landfalling tropical cyclones potentially had lower pressures, data is vague from areas other than the Atlantic basin, especially before the invention of weather satellites.[197]

Other severe weather[edit]

A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

Hail[edit]

Lightning[edit]

Ultraviolet index[edit]

  • Highest ultraviolet index measured: On 29 December 2003, UV index of 43.3 was detected at Chile/Bolivia's Licancabur volcano.[204]

Other categories[edit]

  • Highest air pressure ever recorded (above 750 meters): 1,084.8 hPa (32.03 inHg); Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia, 19 December 2001.[205] This is the equivalent sea-level pressure; Tosontsengel is located at 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) above sea level. The highest adjusted-to-sea-level barometric pressure ever recorded (below 750 meters) was at Agata, Evenhiyskiy, Russia (66°53’N, 93°28’E, elevation: 261 m (856.3 ft)) on 31 December 1968 of 1,083.3 hectopascals (hPa) (31.99 inHg).[206] The discrimination is due to the problematic assumptions (assuming a standard lapse rate) associated with reduction of sea level from high elevations.[205][206]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Christopher Burt, Africa's hottest reliably measured temperature is 50.7°C (123.3°F) at Semara, Western Sahara on July 13, 1961.[16]
  2. ^ According to the World Meteorological Organization, the reported temperature is currently under investigation.[36]
  3. ^ According to Christopher Burt, Europe's hottest reliably measured temperature is 48.5°C (119.3°F) at Catenanuova, on Sicily, Italy on August 10, 1999.[16]
  4. ^ A disputed record temperature of 48.5 °C (119.3 °F) was measured on 10 August 1999 in Catenanuova, Sicily.[80] Christopher Burt considered this measurement reliable in 2016.[16]
  5. ^ Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0 °C.[92]
  6. ^ According to Christopher Burt, Europe's hottest reliably measured temperature is 48.5°C (119.3°F) at Catenanuova, on Sicily, Italy on August 10, 1999.[16]
  7. ^ On 16 January 1889, a temperature of 53 °C (128 °F) was recorded at Cloncurry, Queensland. It was measured with a non-standard thermometer, so it is unknown if this reading was valid or not.[118] The reading is not recognised by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.[119]
  8. ^ According to Christopher Burt, South America's hottest reliably measured temperature is 47.3°C (117.1°F) at Campo Gallo, Argentina on October 16, 1936.[16]
  9. ^ Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
  10. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).

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