List of wolf attacks in North America

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There are few documented wolf attacks on humans in North America in comparison to Eurasia and other larger carnivores.

Fatal attacks[edit]

There have been fatal wolf attacks on humans in North America:

Victim(s) Age Gender Date Type of attack Location Details Source(s)
Candice Berner 32 female 8 March 2010 Predatory Chignik, Alaska, US, 75 miles southwest of Kodiak Berner, a teacher and avid jogger, was discovered dead along a road by snowmobilers, who found wolf tracks in the adjacent snow. The Alaska State Medical Examiner ruled that her death was caused by "multiple injuries due to animal mauling." A series of necropsies performed on wolves culled in the surrounding area shortly after the attack ruled out rabies, sickness, or wolf-dog hybridisation as being causes of the attack. The verified case was notable as being the first recorded fatal wolf attack in Alaska in which DNA evidence was gathered to confirm wolf involvement. Findings, Alaska Department of Fish and Game [1]
Kenton Carnegie 22 male 8 November 2005 Predatory Points North Landing, Saskatchewan, Canada In the weeks leading up to the attack, natural prey for local wolves was becoming scarce. Four wolves at Points North Landing had begun feeding on camp garbage that fall and were habituating increasingly to human activities. On 4 November 2005 two of Carnegie's camp companions, an experienced bush pilot and a geophysicist, met up with two aggressive wolves on the airfield close to camp. The two young men beat back the attack, photographed the wolves and told everybody in camp. They later turned their photos over to the investigating authorities. This incident is now presumed to have been an exploratory attack by the wolves that fits a pattern leading up to predation. On 8 November, the bush pilot warned Carnegie to not walk near Wollaston Lake, but he ignored it. Carnegie hiked in the snow, but did not return to the geological surveyor camp. His body was found partially consumed in an area known to be frequented by four wolves (two gray-tans, one black, and one white) which regularly fed on human garbage. The pathologist who performed the autopsy testified Carnegie had lost about 25% to 30% of his body mass in the attack, with the top midsection to the thigh having been partially consumed. Although originally the possibility that the culprit was a black bear was not ruled out, a coroners' jury concluded after a two year inquiry that the attackers had indeed been a wolf pack. Dr. Valerius Geist, University of Calgary;[2][3] Evidence review and Findings, Alaska Department of Fish and Game[4]
Patricia Wyman 23–24 female 18 April 1996 Captive Haliburton Forest, Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada Wyman was a wildlife biologist who worked as a caretaker in the Wolf Centre section of the Haliburton Forest & Wildlife Reserve. She was killed by five captive wolves on the third day of her employment. Dr. Erich Klinghammer [5]
Alyshia Berczyk 3 female 3 June 1989 Captive Forest Lake, Minnesota, US By her family's wolf in the backyard of her father's home. She died of liver damage incurred when the wolf slammed her into the ground. Rochester, Minnesota Post-Bulletin[6]
Inuit boy Child male 1943 Rabid Wainwright, Alaska Died of rabies from a wolf bite. NINA: Norsk institutt for naturforskning "The Fear of Wolves: A review of wolf attacks on humans" John D. C. Linnell, et. al. January 2002[7]
Inuit hunter Adult male 1942 Rabid Noorvik, Alaska Died of rabies from a wolf bite. NINA: Norsk institutt for naturforskning "The Fear of Wolves: A review of wolf attacks on humans" John D. C. Linnell, et. al. January 2002[8]
Three men Adults males 23 December 1922 n/a 2 and 4 miles from Port Arthur, Ontario near the Sturgeon River On 12/23, an elderly trapper left his camp to "mush down" to the village to pick up his mail. Later in the day, two miles from the settlement, two First Nations men discovered his bones and blood in the snow amidst torn pieces of harness. The two men took their own dog teams and extra ammunition out in pursuit of the same wolves but did not return. The following day, two miles from the village beyond the scene of the first fatal attack, a search party discovered the rifles and bones of the two First Nations men amidst bits of clothing and empty shells. Scattered in a circle about the scene were the carcasses of 16 wolves. The Weekly Journal-Miner (Prescott, AZ)[9]
Ben Cochrane Adult male April 1922 n/a Fisher River near Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba Cochrane was employed in trapping animals when he was attacked by a large pack of timber wolves. When searchers arrived at the horrific scene they found the bones of Cochrane's body, a rifle with a broken buttstock, and the bones of eleven huge timber wolves. Seven of the wolves had been shot and four had been clubbed to death by Cochrane's rifle buttstock. The remaining wolf pack overwhelmed Cochrane causing his death. The Calgary Daily Herald [10]
Son of Alexander Belliveau Adult male 1893 n/a Northern Michigan Belliveau and a friend were hunting when a band of wolves surrounded and overcame them, despite the young men firing shots into the pack. The friend climbed a tree and watched as Belliveau was torn to pieces by the wolves at the foot of the same tree. The wolves kept Belliveau's companion trapped in the tree for several more hours until Belliveau's co-workers from a nearby railroad construction camp arrived and drove the wolves away. Southwest Sentinel [11]
Woman and her two children Adult and 2 children male and female Early 1890s n/a Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains between Durango and the Pacific coast A horseman met a woman and two children who were walking to a relative's remote home. He offered to accompany them as protection from the dangers of wolves (species Mexican wolf) and robbers. The mother declined. The next travelers a short time later found the remains of the three, scattered on the same trail. The cited source indicates the incident was not a lone anecdote but representative of frequent incidents, owing to the fact the local residents were poorly armed. J. Hampden Porter[12]
Surname "Olson" 2 Adults male 1888, 6 March Predatory New Rockford, North Dakota Mother from inside the house witnessed a large pack of wolves surround, attack, kill, and eat her husband and son, about ten rods (165 feet or 50 meters) away. The pack then tried and failed to get in the house. Investigators found their bones. The St. Paul Daily Globe[13]
Mr. Duging Adult male January 1885 n/a Menominee, Michigan The temperature had dropped to -43 °F one night in mid January, the weather was severe and small game had become scarce. Mr. Duging failed to return that night from a hunting trip. His friends found his body gnawed to the bone the following morning, within 2 miles of their logging camp. Thirteen wolves that he had shot dead lay scattered near his body. At his side was his Winchester rifle with one round still loaded in the chamber. Las Vegas Daily Gazette[14]
unidentified Adult male February 1873 n/a "20 mi. N. of Perry's Mills" in Wisconsin A farmer walked out of the woods and found a pair of boots with the deceased's feet still in them, particles of clothing, bones, a dead dog and two dead wolves. The presumption of cause was that the deceased was traveling between two lumber camps and the wolves attacked due to the harsh winter and dearth of prey. Wolves had been very problematic at that time. Presently, Perry's Lumber mill operates near New Auburn, Wisconsin. [15][16]Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Morris Powers Adult Male January 1871 n/a Logging camp near Pine City, Minnesota While eating dinner, Mr. Powers was attacked by wolves and devoured before assistance could reach him. Two wolves later killed by poison were found to have consumed portions of his clothing and twelve brass buttons. The news story first appeared in The Stillwater Messenger. The Saint Cloud Journal[17]
Corporal Michael McGillicuddy of the 3rd Infantry, Company C Adult Male 5 August 1868 at 2200 hrs Rabid Fort Larned National Historic Site, 5.5 miles west of Larned, Kansas A rabid wolf entered the Ft. Larned military outpost on the Arkansas River, furiously snapping at everything and everyone, tearing tents, curtains, bed clothes etc. It entered the hospital and bit a bedridden patient, Corporal McGillicuddy, severely on the left hand and right arm and nearly severed off the left little finger. The wolf then rushed into a group of ladies and gentlemen who were gathered socially and singing on the front steps of Colonel Wynkoop's house. It bit Lt. Thompson of the 3rd U.S. Infantry, severely wounding him in both legs. Colonel Wynkoop and his scout James Morrison immediately took up arms and gave chase as the wolf ran into another structure and bit a Private soldier with the 10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers in two places. A sentry at the guard house fired a shot that went over the wolf's back as the wolf ran between his own legs. The wolf entered the quarters of the laundress and tried to attack her in her bed, but she was protected by the bed covers. The wolf finally charged at the sentinel at the haystack, but the guard shot it dead and escaped injury. The injuries were all cauterized with nitrate of silver and washed with alkali washes regularly at the base infirmary. Hospital records show that on the evening of 6 September, Corporal McGillicuddy began showing marked signs and symptoms of hydrophobia. No further treatment was given to him. He died on 9 September. A large Newfoundland dog that also had been bitten died with marked symptoms of hydrophobia. The other patients fully recovered. Hospital records indicated speculation that Corporal McGillicuddy's refusal to allow amputation of his finger may have contributed to his death. Lt -Col. Dodge made inquiry with Indians camped in the local vicinity. They told him attacks by rabid wolves that entered into their village were not infrequent, and they knew of no person who had received even the smallest scratch from a rabid wolf ever to have recovered. [18][19][20][21][22]
unidentified adult male February 1868 n/a Cacapon Mountain in West Virginia A resident living on the mountain was rumored to have been killed by wolves after first killing six wolves with an axe. [23]Winchester News
Mr. Moody Adult male March 1867 n/a White County, Texas Mr. Moody had killed a bear and had the bear's blood on his clothing when a pack of wolves attacked him. He killed three of the wolves before the remainder of the pack killed him. [24]
Deer hunter Adult male March 1867 n/a Searcy, Arkansas A hunter had killed a deer and was skinning it when he was attacked by wolves. His body was nearly devoured when discovered. [25]
unknown Adult male March 1859 n/a Six miles outside Lexington, Michigan A man was chopping wood outside his home when a wolf grabbed him by the throat. The man's wife saw the attack, picked up her husband's axe and killed the wolf but the bite to the man's throat was immediately fatal. The Cass County Republican[26]
unidentified person unknown unknown July or August 1857 Rabid near present day Green Valley, Arizona Rabid wolves were entering camps, towns and even homes where the doors were open. Six people were bitten, one was severely mangled and one died. [27]
Son and daughter of Mr. Stockdale children male & female 5 January 1857 n/a within two miles from a fork on the Little Sioux River near Woodbury County, Iowa Wolves had become "so ravenous as to destroy horses and cattle to a considerable extent, and that they have often attacked persons." On 5 January 1857, the Stockdale children left their residence for a party about two miles away and were never seen again. After a failed search, they were assumed killed and eaten by wolves. A letter from a gentleman who had been in that area indicated wolves had chased him four miles and he barely escaped. [28]
2 women Adult female 27 October 1856 n/a Mornington Township Perth County, Ontario Two women left home in the evening to search for cattle. They did not return. The next morning a search party found their skeletons. A third possible victim, an adult male, had also gone missing from the same area at the same time and had not been seen for ten days. [29]
Young woman 23 female Mid-January 1856 n/a Pottawattamie County, Iowa While returning home from a prayer meeting with her father and sister, the horse was attacked by wolves and became unmanageable. The source does not state whether the victim was mounted on the horse or riding in a wagon. The 23-year-old woman was partly thrown and partly dragged to the ground and devoured. This allowed the other two family members to escape. When the neighbors came to the spot to hunt for the wolves, they found only a few shreds of clothing and a shoe. Grand River Times[30]
Teenage boy 13 male Mid-January 1856 n/a Pottawattamie County, Iowa The boy hiked half a mile from his family's home to fetch water from a nearby spring and never returned. Bits of his bloody hair and clothing were later found. Grand River Times[30]
Jim Jenkins adult male winter 1852 n/a near White Fox Creek a few miles north of Webster City, Iowa Four men were on a holiday hunt but a major snowstorm rolled in and they were forced to camp near White Fox Creek. The next morning Jenkins told the others he'd make a circle and shoot some birds for breakfast. The storm worsened that day into 3-day siege on the campsite but Jenkins never returned. A search ensued when the storm passed but the snow was too deep. When the snow finally melted the following spring a partially dismembered human skeleton was found along with a sundered gun barrel and stock and the skeleton of a wolf, a mile from the camp. Jenkins was presumed to have been confused and numb from the cold and then attacked by wolves. [31]
T. Speers 13 male 1841 n/a Caledon, Ontario The boy had been helping his father raise a log house for a relative. Toward evening he was allowed to walk home by himself. He was never seen again and all that was found was one shoe between the two houses. Wolves were heard howling that entire night, and thus he was presumed killed by wolves.
Son of Ebenezer Farley 8-year-old child male mid-April 1840 n/a Coleman, Upper Canada (near Canada–US border with Michigan) The boy was presumed lost in the woods. A search party found some mangled body parts presumed to be the result of a wolf attack, since wolves were abundant in the area. The Columbia Democrat[32]
Farm worker Adult male March, 1836 n/a Liberty Valley, Perry County, Pennsylvania An African American worker who had spent a day helping neighbors slaughtering stock was attacked while returning home in the evening, carrying portions of meat given to him in pay. Before succumbing he had defended himself with his butchering knife, killing five of the wolves: this led to speculation the pack which attacked him had perhaps numbered "a dozen or more". The Times[33] The Burlington Free Press [34]
George Holmes, a member of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company Adult male midsummer 1833 Rabid fur rendezvous on the Green River (Colorado River) A rabid wolf got into Mr. Fontenelle's camp at the rendezvous and bit men, horses, and a bull. Mr. Holmes "became afflicted with rabies and died a horrible and agonizing death." [35]
Young person worker Adult male Winter, Circa 1820 Predatory Along the Ohio River in Kentucky Two young black workers walking on a path in an unpopulated area at night were attacked by a pack of wolves. They fought with axes and killed three wolves, but one young man was killed. The other escaped up a tree, where he witnessed the wolves consume his companion, and waited until the wolves left the next day. Blood and bones were found at the scene. John J. Audubon[36]
John Pencil Adult male Shortly after 1780 when the Tories had been driven out of the colonies n/a Canada In 1778 John Pencil, a Tory, caught his brother Henry fleeing with other Patriots to Monocacy Island, and murdered him as a rebel. After the Tories were driven out in 1780, John Pencil moved from Tryon County, New York to Canada (present-day Ontario). He was attacked there by wolves three different times. The Indians rescued him the first two times, but seeing him as wicked and cursed for killing his brother, they told him they would not help him a third time. John Pencil was attacked a third time by wolves, and having no rescuers, he was torn to pieces. [37][38]
Plains Indians and other tribes stricken with smallpox n/a n/a 1750 to 1782 n/a Atlantic seaboard, Delaware Bay and areas under control of Hudson's Bay Company Wolves were drawn by the stench of unburied corpses that they devoured. The wolves also entered tents and attacked and killed the sick and helpless. Sometimes but not always, the stronger tribe members were able to drive the wolves off. The tribe's starving dogs also joined in the depredations. [39]
Caroline Allen 17 Female January midnight between 1761 and 1781 n/a Bennington, Vermont Four young ladies and two young men including Harry Mason were traveling back to the settlement after a quilting "frolic". Wolves attacked and all six climbed an oak tree. The branch on which Caroline Allen was standing broke off. She fell screaming to the ground where the hungry wolves quickly tore her to pieces and devoured her. Her sweetheart, Harry Mason, witnessed her demise and was so disturbed by it that he drank himself to death not long afterward. An eyewitness described the wolves as starving. [40][41][42]

Non-fatal attacks[edit]

Because of the relative rarity of documented wolf attacks on humans in North America, some non-fatal attacks have been of interest to experts.[43]

Victim(s) Age Gender Date Type of attack Location Details Source(s)
Toddler 3 Male 3 April 2017 Captive Olympia, Washington, USA The child’s mother was home, and unknown to her, her son wandered outside. He stuck his hand into a kennel containing two wolf-dogs and was attacked by one of the two wolf-dogs. The boy was later airlifted to Seattle's Harborview Medical Center. The Olympian[44]
Marcelo Vanzuita Adult Male February 2017 Predatory Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada Vanzuita, who hails from Wellington, had a pack of wolves stalk and track him during the Yukon Arctic Ultra race after an early lake crossing. This incident forced him to drop out of the race. Fairfax New Zealand[45]
Skiers Adult Men 7 December 2016 Unprovoked Smithers, British Columbia, and Mt Norquay, Alberta, Canada A lone wolf killed a domestic dog and tracked its owner back to Bulkley Valley Nordic Centre's parking lot. The male skier did not have any injures. After this incident, a small wolf pack approached another male skier near Banff National Park. He fled on a snowmobile at that moment. Three wolves in the Bow Valley were getting too close for comfort to the worker at Mount Norquay. They prompted him to hop on his snowmobile. The pack chased him for a very short time. CBC News[46] and National Post[47]
Brent Woodland 36 Male 1 November 2016 Unprovoked Ucluelet, British Columbia, Canada Two wolves stalked Brent and his two labrador retrievers while he was jogging near Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. After he found refuge at the Kwisitis Visitors Centre which was closed at the time, he climbed the stairs the balcony and saw two wolves sitting on the beach below. Brent called the emergency number and police sirens frightened the wolf pack away. Westerly News[48] and Grind TV[49]
Andrew Morgan 26 Male 8 October 2016 Predatory Canmore, Alberta, Canada Andrew was walking home through a forest near Banff National Park after departing from a bus. He took a shortcut and walked on a path. A few minutes later, he heard some rustling behind him. He noticed that a lone wolf was behind him at that moment. It snarled at him again, but lunged at him afterwards. Andrew turned in the opposite direction and fled from the wolf, but it chased him through the trail. He tried to lose the wolf by going off the trail and through the forest. Andrew fended the wolf with a tree branch multiple times until it released him. He subsequently climbed over a barbed-wire fence, but fell a few times. Andrew finally found his way out of the forest near Holiday Inn in Canmore. The next day, he went to a hospital to get checked over and reported the incident to conservation officers with Alberta Environment and Parks. Officials confirmed this report, but said they could not determine whether it was definitely an actual wolf attack. The Vancouver Sun[50] and Calgary Herald[51]
Worker 26 Male 29 August 2016 Unprovoked Cigar Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada An unidentified young contract worker on his midnight break was jumped and mauled by a lone wolf less than one hundred meters from the main camp. A nearby female security guard frightened the wolf away. She administered first aid and called for an air ambulance, which airlifted him 675 kilometers to a hospital in Saskatoon, where doctors expect him to recover. After the attack, authorities ordered that area wolves be shot, that food disposal systems and fencing be inspected, and that staff be educated. CKOM[52] and CBC News[53]
Matthew Nellessen Adult Male 23 September 2015 Predatory Colburn, Adams County, Wisconsin, U.S. Matthew was scouting a potential hunting area when he made eye contact with a wolf 30 yards away to his right. Then two more wolves began closing in from the left. Within 4 seconds the first wolf lunged and Matthew kicked it in the face, deflecting an attempted bite. Then he shot one of the other two wolves with his sidearm. The pack fled, one bleeding. Matthew quickly retreated to his truck and contacted the state wildlife authorities. American Hunter[54]
Two families on a snowmobile ride Adults and their children Men, women, and children 25 January 2015 Rabid On a trail between Wabush and Labrador City, Labrador, Canada Twenty minutes into the trip, they encountered a wolf on the trail that charged and lunged. They escaped and informed authorities, who soon tracked and killed the wolf, which tested positive for rabies. CBC News[55]
Michelle Prosser Adult Female 15 October 2013 Predatory Merritt, British Columbia, Canada Michelle went to do a forestry road traverse near Merritt, but she noticed a few wolves stalking her minutes after heading out of the forest. Michelle managed to escape with her two domesticated dogs, though only one survived the incident. Her other domesticated dog was sacrificially protecting her from the wolf pack. InfoNews[56]
Noah Graham, camper 16 Male 24 August 2013, 4:30AM Unprovoked Near Lake Winnibigoshish in Minnesota, U.S. Awake and talking to his girlfriend when a lone wolf attacked from behind, biting his head. He kicked, screamed, punched, and grabbed, and it disappeared. He was taken to the hospital for 17 staples to close a large head wound and to get precautionary injections. Authorities killed the wolf the next day and sent the body for rabies and DNA testing. The wolf tested negative for rabies but was diagnosed with deformities and brain damage. NBC News[57] Outside[58] and Star Tribune[59]
Mario Lagacé n/a Male 20 August 2013 Unprovoked Between markers 218 and 219 of route 175 in the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, Quebec, Canada While riding his bicycle, a wolf suddenly came out of the woods and pounced on Lagacé, pinning him to the ground in the middle of the two-lane highway. The animal was not growling, snapping, or biting. Upon hearing car noise, the wolf backed up onto the gravel in the shoulder, Lagacé stood up and walked in the opposite direction with his bike, then began flagging down cars. A man driving along the highway stopped to pick him up, and for about 5–7 minutes, the wolf was standing at the edge of the woods staring at them. Lagacé was taken to the emergency room, where he received first aid and precautionary rabies treatment. A month before the attack, another bicyclist had been pursued by a wolf in the same area. Upon learning of the attack on Lagacé, wildlife protection officers set up traps in the area according to their procedure. Rouge FM[60] and CHMP-FM[61]
William "Mac" Hollan, a schoolteacher on 2,750-mile hunger charity bicycle trek Adult Male 6 July 2013 Unprovoked Alaska Highway 60 mi. west of Watson Lake, Yukon, Canada Mr. Hollan was riding 1/2 mile ahead of his two buddies when a lone wolf sprinted out of the woods and surprised him with an attempted bite just missing his pedal. Hollan unsuccessfully attempted to outrace the wolf and deter it with pepper spray as the wolf ripped open the bike's rear packs. Four attempts to stop passing motorists failed. Hollan approached a hill. As he prepared to stop and use the bike as a weapon, a couple in a Humvee pulling a trailer came to his aid, and threw the passenger door open as Hollan was attempting to climb through the window. The wolf furiously attacked the bicycle packs. The female rescuer unsuccessfully stood in the vehicle's doorway shouting at the wolf from 8 feet away as passing motorists honked their horns. She threw a water bottle that hit it in the head. It retreated to a ditch. Other motorists threw rocks at the wolf until it left. Missoulian[62]
Dawn Hepp Adult Female 8 March 2013 Predatory Grand Rapids, Manitoba, Canada Dawn was driving along Highway 6 when she pulled over to help another driver, and was attacked by a lone wolf as she approached the other car. She drove herself to the hospital in Ashern and was treated for puncture wounds and rabies. CBC News[63] and NBC News[64]
Lance Grangaard 30 yrs Male week of 10 December 2012 Rabid 30 miles off Taylor Highway in remote area known as Ketchumstuk near Tok, Alaska, U.S. Grangaard was "putting along" on his snow machine on a frozen river when a lone wolf attacked his right arm, ripped through his parka and three layers of underclothing and inflicted a superficial 3" long laceration above Grangaard's elbow. Grangaard, taking the offensive, jumped onto the wolf's back and knocked it hard onto the ice. The wolf freed itself from his grip, ran 15–20 feet away, stopped and turned back again facing Grangaard. Grangaard threw his arms up and yelled, which scared the wolf away. Grangaard then escaped on his snow machine. Although the Alaska wildlife authorities were unaware of any rabid animals in the area, Grangaard was treated for potential rabies exposure. The wolf was never captured. Fairbanks Daily News-Miner[65]
Rene Anderson 55 yrs. Female 25 September 2011 Predatory Ten miles south of Pierce near Headquarters, Idaho, U.S. A lone wolf charged after Rene while she was hunting for elk when it jumped up from behind a pile of logs. Rene quickly thought about pulling her .44 magnum Smith and Wesson pistol and killed the 100-pound wolf with four shots.

The Spokesman Review[66]

Karen Calisterio 52 yrs. Female 27 November 2010, 4:35 P.M. Narrowly averted Driveway of her home between Tensed, Idaho and Plummer, Idaho, U.S. Calisterio was walking alone up her long snowy rural driveway at dusk when she saw a pack of four wolves about 200 yards ahead, near her house. The wolves saw her and began walking toward her. She turned and ran, but remembered that was not recommended in such situations. She then turned around to face the wolves, kept walking backwards as fast as she could, and used her cell phone to summon a neighbor, who arrived in an SUV to rescue her by 4:53PM. During that time, the wolves vanished into some bushes.

After the incident, tracks seemed to show that the wolves had come quite close to the woman when she was running, but after she turned to face them, ran off into the bushes and then left, instead of flanking or surrounding her as she had feared.

Before the incident, about forty elk had been watering at a nearby pond and using a nearby hay-field as a wintering ground.

Skinny Moose Media[67]
Roderick Phillip 35 yrs. Male 10 September 2009, 2 A.M. Rabid along the Kuskokwim River near Kalskag, Alaska, U.S. Phillip and his hunting party were camped and Phillips took an unarmed stroll down to the river to look for moose. He was attacked by a rabid, white, 16-month old male lone wolf weighing more than 100 pounds. The wolf bit him in the upper right thigh, its teeth cutting through a pair of Carhartt pants, sweatpants and his boxers. He wrestled the wolf to the ground and kept him there until his two companions arrived. Then he jumped up and threw the wolf away from them. One of the men with him shot the wolf with a hunting rifle. They dressed the wound and headed for the hospital after daybreak, bringing the carcass with them. The wolf tested positive for rabies and Phillip was put through a series of 5 shots over the next 28 days. Alaska Dispatch News[68]
Becky Wanamaker 25 yrs. Female 7 July 2006 Predatory Dalton Highway near campground northwest of Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S. Ms. Wanamaker was walking along the highway and saw a big white lone wolf twenty yards away. She ran after it began to charge her. The wolf inflicted puncture wounds in both legs and a laceration in one. Wanamaker was able to take shelter in an outhouse until the wolf left. She made her way to another outhouse and awakened campers sleeping nearby, who assisted her. Wolf biologist Mark McNay speculated that human-habituation and the wolf's young age were key factors in the attack. The wolf was not captured. Wanamaker was medicated for potential exposure to rabies. Juneau Empire[69]
Fred Desjarlais, uranium miner 55 yrs. Male 31 December 2004 Predatory Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada Desjarlais was jogging three kilometres back to Canadian Mining and Energy Corporation's Key Lake campsite when he decided to not wait for a shuttle bus. A lone wolf attacked him from a ditch during the jog. Desjarlais tried to frighten it away, but the wolf continued approach and finally jumped on him. He grabbed it around the neck and tried to wrestle the wolf into submission. A busload of his colleagues spotted the incident and came to his aid. The wolf subsequently fled into the wilderness. Desjarlais received stitches when his colleagues took him to a nearby medical facility. A few hours later, an air ambulance took Desjarlais to Royal University Hospital where he began a series of rabies treatments. After the attack on Desjarlais, governmental authorities built an electric fence around Key Lake's landfill to prevent further predatory animal attacks on miners. CBC News[70] and Property Rights Research[71]
Scott Langevin 23 Male 2 July 2000 Predatory[72] Vargas Island Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada An 18 member, guided kayaking group stopped for the night at a well-known, remote campsite on Ahous Bay. Previous tour groups at this site were reported to have played with and fed meal scraps to a wolf pack (a breeding pair and 5 juveniles). Both this 18 member party and recent park visitors noted that this pack was habituated to humans and was begging for food. This was at a time when deer numbers in this region (typical prey for a wolf pack this size) had declined to historically low numbers.[73]

Early in the morning of 2 July, some members of the party were forced to use a bear banger to scare away a wolf that wouldn't leave the campsite. At about 2am, a wolf began dragging Langevin, who had been asleep in the open in a sleeping bag. The wolf had moved him several meters away from the campfire when he awoke, sat up, and shouted. The wolf stopped, stepped back, and attacked at the midsection, still encased in the sleeping bag. Langevin fought it with his hands and arms, and rolled back towards the fire pit. The wolf bit him on the back and head, leaving multiple lacerations and separating a part of his scalp from the skull before being chased away by a group of other campers. The attack lasted about five minutes.
The man was transported to hospital in Victoria, where his scalp flap was reattached with 50 stitches, and wounds to his hands and back were treated. The two adult wolves were killed the next day, tested negative for rabies. The same wolves had earlier menaced several nature photographers. The stomach contents showed no sign of scavenging human food.

A "Wolf Advisory" from the BC Ministry of the Environment (BC Parks) on 3 May 2016 warns that wolves in the vicinity of Vargas Island have learned to scavenge food by removing the hatch covers from kayaks. It recommends caching/hanging unattended food, never sleeping in the open and not bringing dogs to this destination.[74]

The Globe and Mail[75]
John Stenglein, logging camp resident 6 Male 26 April 2000 Predatory Icy Bay, Alaska, U.S. John and a 9-year-old boy were playing near the edge of a logging camp and 150 m from a mobile home. A wolf appeared, chased the boys, and attacked John when he fell. It then dragged him toward the woods. John was saved by his friend's Labrador retriever, Willie. Adults arrived and drove the wolf away. John's father arrived and shot the wolf. The wolf had been radio-collared three years earlier. It was neither sick nor starving, having been habituated to the presence of people. John received at least 15 laceration and puncture wounds on the back, legs, and buttocks. The boy received stitches to close the wounds. Infection later set in and he was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotics. Canadian Field-Naturalist[76]
Andy Greenblat, Bush pilot Male October 1997 Prey-testing Agonistic charge Joshua Green River Alaska, U.S. Greenblat was walking back to camp on a well-worn trail when he saw a wolf angling fast for a point ahead on the trail. When the wolf hit the trail it turned and ran directly at him, maintaining eye contact, ears forward. He yelled and waved his arms, and the wolf put its ears back but kept running and eye contact. At close range Andy was able to fire his weapon. The bullet missed, but the muzzle blast pushed the wolf off line, and the wolf missed. He swung the rifle and hit the wolf's skull; staggered, it ran off. Rabies was not suspected. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Tabitha Mullin Female June, 1995 Agonistic Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada A wildlife biologist, Mullin was standing about five paces outside her front door on the Park warden's base, observing and recording a pack of eleven wolves who approached and stopped inside 10 meters. One circled around closer, and she moved back toward the door. When she turned to open the door, the wolf grabbed and pulled her forearm. She pulled back, screamed, and her sleeves ripped; the wolf released; she got inside, closed the door, and the pack left. She suspected photographers had been luring the wolves in with food. She was uninjured. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Park visitors 1987–1998 Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada Five incidents, all of which were preceded by extensive habituation. At first, the incidents were minor. Years later, wolves began stalking children in a predatory fashion. In the first incident, in 1987, a sixteen-year-old girl was only briefly bitten. The attack was classified as "disciplinary", as the girl had shined a torch light into the wolf's eyes at close range just before it attacked. On 4 August 1994 a 9-year old boy received a single puncture wound and on 1 September an adult woman was bitten once on the leg. The wolf was shot and it tested negative for rabies.
In 1996 a wolf dragged a sleeping bag 2 meters with a 12-year old boy inside. The boy received a broken nose and 6 lacerations on his face that required 80 stitches. The wolf had visited several campsites in previous weeks and tried to grab clothing and equipment.The wolf may have bitten additional people. On 4 September 1998, a wolf that had been visiting campsites and had attacked three dogs earlier in the summer, approached and circled a family with a 4 year old girl. The father used pepper spray on the wolf and carried his daughter to the car. The next day the wolf attacked a fourth dog. On 27 September the wolf approached a family having a picnic. It grabbed and tossed a nineteen-month-old boy 1 meter. The boy was saved by his parents, but required two stitches.
The wolf was shot that afternoon. It was a healthy male with stomach contents scavenged from camps.
In all cases, the wolves were killed, and rabies tests were negative.
Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Robert Mulders, Biologist Male 13 December 1985 Prey-testing Agonistic Whale Cove, Nunavut, Canada Two biologists netted a caribou from a helicopter and landed to perform tests and attach a radio collar. While working near the running blades of the helicopter, Mulders saw a young wolf approaching. Both men stood, shouted, and waved their arms. When mulders stepped toward the wolf, it tried to circle around the men to get to the caribou, then rushed in and bit down on Mulders' lower leg and would not let go despite repeated punches by Mulders for 10–15 seconds until the other biologist, Mark Williams, knocked the wolf unconscious with the caribou radio collar. Mulders then took the collar and struck the wolf in the head twice and stabbed it in the chest with a knife. The bite tore open his pants but left only a small wound. It was thought that the wolf may be inexperienced because of its young age. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Christopher Nimitz 2 Male 18 October 1985 Captive Idyllwild, California, US His family's captive wolf pulled his arm into the cage and severed it. His mother saved him but was arrested for child endangerment. Los Angeles Times[78]
Hunter 19 Male January, 1982 Predatory Near Duluth, Minnesota, U.S. Attacked unseen out of thick cover. Knocked down, the pair rolled on the ground, where he was able to keep it away by grabbing its throat. He could not aim but managed to discharge his weapon, and the wolf fled at the sound. The hunter received claw wounds to the thigh. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Dr. M. Dawson, Paleontologist Female 1977, 28 June Prey-testing agonistic charge Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada Doing field work when they were approached by a pack of six wolves. They tried to drive them off by shouting, waving, and throwing clods of frozen dirt. The wolves were not deterred, and began to circle. The lead wolf leaped at Dawson's face, but Dawson pushed back with her arms and leaned backwards, pushing the wolf to the ground before it could bite her, and the wolves departed, but the strike was close enough for saliva from the wolf's flews to be left on her cheek. Munthe and Hutchinson (1978) interpreted the attack as testing of unfamiliar prey, but noted they didn't know if the wolves had encountered people before. McNay notes that the attack resembled others by wolves which had been fed. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
David Lawrence 7 Male 1976, Summer Prey-testing agonistic charge Salcha River, Alaska, US While his father, Roy Lawrence, stood near the plane talking to the pilot, Ed Galvin, Roy saw a wolf charging focused directly at his son, David, who was crouching down to touch the water’s edge about 30m/33yards away. The moment Roy saw the wolf charging, it was 50m/55.5 yards from David and moving fast. Roy shouted for David to hide in the brush. When the wolf lost sight of him, it stopped, hopped, and stood on its hind legs trying to sight the boy again, allowing Galvin time to ready his weapon and fire. It was a young adult, underweight female, 32 kg/70.5 lbs. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Dr. Bob Piorkowski, Alaska Fish and Game, and his wife Male/Female October, 1975 Prey-testing agonistic charge Tonzona River, Alaska, US, near Denali National Park Went outside their remote house near Denali National Park to see why their dog was barking, hoping it was a moose they could hunt. Five wolves came running straight at them, not at the dog, which was more than five meters away. Piorkowski was not ready to fire until the lead wolf was at point-blank range. He shot the next at ten meters away. Both wolves were dead, and the rest fled. Both wolves tested negative for rabies, and Piorkowski had one pelt mounted. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Infant 1 Female Fall, 1975 Captive New Jersey While posing for picture with the wolf at a charity event for the Fund for Animals; it bit the side of her face ripping it open. She was hospitalized and given plastic surgery. Field and Stream[79]
Pipeline workers Male 1971-1979 Along the right-of-way for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska, US There were ten "bites and charges", including a seriously bitten forearm. Causes included: a lack of trapping and hunting in certain areas; lack of barriers such as fencing, unsecured attractants such as trash, human attitudes and behaviors such as intentional feeding, and mutual habituation. [80]
Alex Lamont Adult Male Summer, 1969 Prey-testing agonistic charge Near Wien Lake, Alaska, US Lamont saw two wolves running directly at him while walking home. He shot both after one of them bit his leg. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Thomas Hamilton Adult Male 1950 Prey-testing agonistic charge Lower Foster Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada While out hunting wolves, he laid down to aim his rifle, when the wolves arose and started running at him. He waited for a better shot, expecting the pack to stop, but they did not. He shot the lead wolf at point blank range, prompting the rest to depart. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Inuit hunter Adult 1945 Rabid Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska A rabid wolf attacked an Inuit hunter. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Zacarias Hugo 14 Male 1943 Possibly rabid Etivluk River, Alaska, US While hunting caribou, Zacarias heard a sound, turned and saw a large black wolf coming for him. It knocked him down and bit his arm, so he could not use his rifle. It bit his legs, back, arm and neck and dragged him 18 metres before abandoning the attack and disappearing. He walked back to camp, but had lost a lot of blood, mostly from his forearm. His caribou skin Anorak protected him from greater injury or even death, but may have contributed to the attack if it caused the wolf to mistake him for a caribou. This attack had long been classified as "rabid" because it occurred during an epizootic of the disease in that area and because Zac's father, Inualuruk, tracked the wolf and observed to have been walking at times in the splayed manner of a sick animal. However, the facts that the attack was abandoned in the way it was and that Zacarias never developed the disease are not consistent with rabies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game[77]
Mike Dusiak, Railwayman Adult Male 29 December 1942 Possibly rabid Poulin, Ontario, Canada Riding a small rail vehicle called a speeder when a wolf leaped at him and bit his sleeve, knocking him down and knocking the vehicle off the track. Dusiak kept the wolf at bay for more than 25 minutes with an ax. He managed to hit the wolf repeatedly but not squarely enough. The wolf was not deterred by an approaching train which stopped to help Dusiak. Several railwaymen came running, but the wolf would not retreat. The men killed the wolf with picks and shovels. The carcass was inspected by a biologist, and it appeared healthy. However, Rutter and Pimlot reviewed the case in 1968 and concluded that it must have been rabid because of the sustained and determined nature of the attack. [77][81]
Dr. Charles R. Krueger and party Adult and unknown others male and unknown others 22 July 1919 n/a 80 miles east of Flagstaff, AZ along the transcontinental highway, which was the National Old Trails Road that later became Route 66 Dr. Krueger and his party were driving from Chicago to California and were stranded by a cloudburst. They made camp by the side of the road and were attacked by at least 8 wolves. They shot and killed three, and wounded five others before driving the band off. [82]
Lucy Ballard 12 female February 1917 n/a Benton center near Penn Yan near Rochester, New York A "starving" 80-lb wolf attacked Lucy as she was walking down a lonely point in a road. She screamed, hit it with her purse and ran. A neighbor, Adam Babcock heard the screams and when he appeared the wolf ran into the woods. An alarm was sounded and the villagers hunted the wolf down and killed it. [83]
Donald Baxter MacMillan and members of Crocker Land Expedition Adults Male and Female 31 March 1914 n/a western Arctic region MacMillan's party, traveling by dog sled, was approached and chased by 12 wolves. They stopped, turned around to face the wolves, shouted, threatened and snapped whips while restraining their own very excited dogs. The lead wolf stopped, surveyed them "critically for an instant," and then retreated with the rest of the pack following. By the time MacMillan and his men had their rifles uncovered the wolves were out of range. [85][86]
Arvid Anderson Adult male 1913 n/a Silver Creek district near Ishpeming, Michigan Anderson was returning from a day of hunting when a pack of wolves came up on him and one after the other came running toward him. To slow their pursuit he began to drop the contents of his game bag as he ran away from them. He had only five rounds of ammo left. When he got some distance he turned and fired all five rounds into the pack, and the wolves came after him again. He threw away his gun and ran and climbed the nearest tree. Looking down, he counted 27 wolves. The wolves circled the tree trying to nip him until after midnight, although after the second hour they seemed less enthusiastic. Anderson fell asleep and eventually fell out of the tree. It was daylight and the wolves had gone. Uninjured, he went home. The Day Book (Chicago, IL) [87]
Albert, a hunting guide Adult male 1909 n/a Tuya Range of the Cassiar Mountains in British Columbia No caribou had yet been seen or taken on this hunting trip. As Albert sat alone at a campfire while his client and crew were off clearing wood for a trail, he suddenly saw a wolf standing next to him. Immediately the wolf attacked him on the shoulder. Albert beat the wolf off with a burning log from the fire. After a sharp crack on the head, the wolf slunk away. [88]
Emilio Sirtori (driver) and Antonio Scarfoglio (journalist) Adults males 24 March 1908 n/a near Spring Valley, Wyoming The two Italian men were competing in the 1908 New York to Paris Race, driving a Zust. Along a muddy stretch of road, they heard wolf howls and a pack of wolves surrounded them. Tooting the horn and other nonlethal measures proved ineffective. When the wolves began nipping the vehicle's tires, the men shot several of them dead with a pistol and a rifle. [89][90]
Art Gillman n/a Male 9 January 1905 n/a On Pigeon Lake, near Dassel, Minnesota Gillman reported that he had heard the wolf attacking from behind, spun, and struck it in the head with his walking stick squarely enough to give him time to brandish his knife. At the wolf's second lunge, he stabbed it in the chest deeply enough to cause the wolf to run away. Gillman reported enough wolf blood to assume the animal probably soon died. [91]
Josiah Gregg Adult male circa 1900 n/a Missouri border Gregg was riding horseback when a very large and apparently famished wolf approached. Gregg picked up a cudgel and charged the wolf. The wolf did not flee. The cudgel broke over the wolf's head. The wolf then attacked the horse's legs. The horse threw Gregg off and ran away. The wolf charged Gregg again. Greg used his large black hat as a shield, thrusting it at the wolf's mouth. The wolf turned around and trotted off several paces and Gregg made his escape. [92][93]
David Tobuk Toddler Male 1900 Predatory Koyukuk River, Alaska, US In the 1920s, Tobuk was a Native Alaskan steamboat captain who bore severe scarring as a result of a wolf attack he had suffered as a toddler. He was playing along the riverbank when a wolf appeared out of some bushes, seized Tobuk by the head, lifted and ran off with him in its jaws, but was shot by a nearby man. [77]
Arctic explorer Adult Male 1900 n/a Axel Heiberg Island While on the trail, wolves attacked team member of expedition led by Otto Sverdrup. The man defended himself with a ski. Wolves had previously been entering their camps and killing sled dogs. [85][94]
Two sawyers and one teamster Adult male March 1885 n/a between Joseph Moses's logging camp on Jump River and Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin The three men were transporting a dead man's body around midnight when they were attacked by wolves. The teamster plied the whip on his team and the sawyers shot and killed 27 wolves The St. Johns Herald[95]
Sheep farmer Adult male November 1881 n/a near Dayton, Wisconsin The farmer saw a pack of seven wolves devouring a dead sheep. Wolves had recently been taking a toll on local flocks. He fired a gunshot into the pack, and the seven wolves turned and attacked him before he could climb a tree. He turned the gun around and clubbed one to death, which the rest immediately devoured. He killed one wolf at a time and kept this up for about one hour until the entire pack was dead. He kept enough of the remains to claim the $11 per head bounty offered by Waupaca County. [96]
Daughter of a frontiersman named "Baker" 18 Summer, 1881 Defending cows Northwestern Colorado, US Encountered a wolf resting on a hill while on her way to bring in cows at dusk. The animal attacked her after she shouted and threw rocks to scare it away. It seized her by the shoulder, threw her to the ground, and badly bit her arms and legs before being shot by her brother. George Bird Grinnell [97]
Postmaster Charles Kootz Adult male Late May 1875 n/a 1 mile from Bradshaw City, Arizona (near Prescott) Four large wolves attacked Mr. Kootz. It is unclear whether he was delivering mail or working his own farm field at the time of the attack. He whipped and drove the wolves away with a shovel. Arizona Weekly Miner[98]
2 men, one named Frank Adult male 23 Dec 1869 n/a Northern Minnesota The two men had skated 2 miles up a frozen river by moonlight, stopped to pick berries and two wolves came after them. They returned to the river and skated quickly back towards home but the two wolves gave chase on the ice. Arriving back near the house, they called out to a family member that had just stepped outside. He tossed rifles to them and they turned around and killed both wolves. The Arizona Sentinel[99]
Mail carrier Adult Male 17 January 1861 n/a 45 miles outside Baltimore, Maryland on Decatur-Baltimore route A mounted mail carrier was chased by a very large pack of wolves stated to be near one hundred, climbed a tree and waited them out till the next morning, suffered exposure and was carried home by the people who found him. His horse was not found again. [100]
Mr. Mitchell Adult male November 1857 n/a 20 miles outside Bangor, Maine A dozen wolves fiercely attacked the team pulling a mail wagon but the driver, Mr. Mitchell, checked the pursuit by firing shots from his rifle into the pack. [101][102]
5 unidentified persons unknown unknown July and August 1857 Rabid near present day Green Valley, Arizona Rabid wolves were entering camps, towns and even homes where the doors were open. Six people were bitten, one was severely mangled and one died. [27]
2 fur trappers working with Alexander Ross (fur trader) Adult male ca. 1855 n/a drainage of Columbia River 17 wolves forced the two men up a tree for several hours. The men shot two of the wolves before reaching the tree, but instead of dispersing, the remaining wolves kept pursuing them. [103]
Stephen Court, Master of the HMS Investigator on McClure Arctic Expedition Adult male 28 March 1853 n/a Mercy Bay in what is now Aulavik National Park Mr. Court was out shooting. Two wolves gradually closed in on him, one keeping in front and the other behind. Court shouted, waved his arms and ran at them, yet the wolves continued to move in. He fired on one at 60 feet and struck it in the throat but the wolf nevertheless closed its distance to within 9 feet of him before he was able to reload his single barrel gun and kill it. Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure [104]
Phil Jenkins Adult male 1848 n/a Newcastle, IA now Webster City, Iowa A dozen or so young adults were harvesting syrup from "sugarbushes." One couple, Jack and Cinda, were late in arriving back at the main camp and became imprisoned on a log bridge over a creek by pack of wolves. Jack fired his rifle into the wolf pack and the other men armed themselves to rescue the couple. Phil Jenkins fired a shot at a wolf and ran back into the firelight to reload. As soon as he again left the firelight a wolf attacked and lacerated his flesh. The women who had been staying in the safety of the firelight attacked the wolf with firebrands and rescued Jenkins. Thirteen wolves were killed before Jack and Cinda were freed. Jack killed four of the wolves within 12 feet of the log bridge. Local wolves recently had killed several pigs and a "fine yearling calf." [105]
William Jackson Adult male August 1846 n/a Canada Jackson was hunting in the woods and was attacked by 3 wolves. He backed up against a tree, shot two dead and killed the third after a "savage conflict" [106]
Two members of Lewis and Clark Expedition Adult Male n/a Upper Missouri River 1805 One night a wolf crept into camp and seized a sleeper's hand. When driven off, it attacked a second man. A third man shot it. [92]
Daniel Boone and Nathaniel Gist Adult male late autumn 1761 n/a Wolf Hills, Valley of the Holston River, near Black's Fort at Abingdon, Virginia Boone and Gist were both serving under Hugh Waddell (general). They temporarily detached themseleves from Waddell's command to lead a small party on a "long hunt." While camped at the site of Black's Fort which was subsequently built, a pack of wolves "violently assailed" them. They had considerable difficulty beating off the wolves. This incident caused the locality to be called the Wolf Hills (now Abingdon, VA). [107]

See also[edit]

Species:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Butler, L., B. Dale, K. Beckmen, and S. Farley. 2011.Findings Related to the March 2010 Fatal Wolf Attack near Chignik Lake, Alaska. Wildlife Special Publication, ADF&G/DWC/WSP-2011-2. Palmer, Alaska.
  2. ^ Valerius Geist, PhD., Professional Biologist Professor Emeritus of Environmental Science The University of Calgary (29 September 2007). "Statement by Valerius Geist pertaining to the death of Kenton Carnegie." (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Geist, Valerius. "Death by Wolves and Misleading Advocacy". Boone and Crockett Club. Missoula, MT: Boone and Crockett Club. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  4. ^ McNay, M. E., 2007. A Review of Evidence and Findings Related to the Death of Kenton Carnegie on 8 November 2005 Near Points North, Saskatchewan. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Alaska.
  5. ^ Based on an investigation by Erich Klinghammer, Ph.D. Director Institute of Ethology, NAWPF-WOLF PARK (21 March 2000). "Ontario Wolf Attack Information CAPTIVE NON-HUMAN SOCIALIZED WOLVES KILL CARETAKER IN A CANADIAN FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESERVE.". www.wolfpark.org. © 1997 - 2000 Monty Sloan / WOLF! Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-03-22. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "Boy, 5, bitten by captive wolf, is still critical". Paragraph Ten: postbulletin.com. 4 July 1989. Retrieved 23 February 2014. A tied-up wolf on June 5 attacked and killed Alyshia Berczyk, 3, of Big Lake, in the back yard of her father's home near Forest Lake. The girl suffered mostly scratches and cuts, but she is believed to have suffered massive liver damage after being slammed to the ground. 
  7. ^ Linnell, John D. C.; Reidar Andersen; Zanete Andersone; Linas Balciauskas; Juan Carlos Blanco; Luigi Boitani; Scott Brainerd; Urs Breitenmoser; Ilpo Kojola; Olof Liberg; Jonny Loe; Henryk Okarma; Hans C. Pedersen; Hakan Sand; Erling Solberg; Harri Valdmann; Peter Wabakken (January 2002). "The Fear of Wolves: A review of wolf attacks on humans". Digital Commons. p. 30. Retrieved 16 August 2016. (Johnson 1995) 
  8. ^ Linnell, John D. C.; Reidar Andersen; Zanete Andersone; Linas Balciauskas; Juan Carlos Blanco; Luigi Boitani; Scott Brainerd; Urs Breitenmoser; Ilpo Kojola; Olof Liberg; Jonny Loe; Henryk Okarma; Hans C. Pedersen; Hakan Sand; Erling Solberg; Harri Valdmann; Peter Wabakken (January 2002). "The Fear of Wolves: A review of wolf attacks on humans". Digital Commons. p. 30. Retrieved 16 August 2016. (Rausch 1958) 
  9. ^ "Ravening Wolves Devour Canadian Hunters; Leave Only Bloodstained Snow". The Weekly Journal-Miner. Associated Press. 27 December 1922. p. 1. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  10. ^ "The Calgary Daily Herald - Google News Archive Search". 
  11. ^ "Cor. Toronto Mail" (11 July 1893). "A Young Man's Awful Death". The Southwest Sentinel. p. 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  12. ^ J. Hampden Porter (1894). "The Wolf". Wild Beasts: A Study Of The Characters And Habits Of The Elephant, Lion, Leopard, Panther, Jaguar, Tiger, Puma, Wolf, And Grizzly Bear. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 337. LCCN 04024919. OCLC 266212. Retrieved 26 June 2015. In the Sierra Madre two wolves are commonly considered to be a match for a man armed as these people usually are, and unless the whole population have conspired together for the purpose of propagating falsehoods on this particular subject, it must be believed that the lobo is often guilty of manslaughter. It has not happened to the writer to be personally cognizant of the death of any victim of theirs, but riding westward one day through the forests of that mountainous country lying between Durango and the Pacific coast, in the interval between two divisions of a large train of arrieros separated from each other by a distance of several miles, a woman and two children, boy and girl, were met. Struck by the beauty of the little girl, and knowing the way to be unsafe, some conversation took place in which the mother made light of those dangers suggested, and declined, with a profusion of thanks, an offer to see the party safe to her sister's rancho in a neighboring valley. They had only a little distance to go along the ridge, she said, and would then soon descend to their place of destination. The wolves were like devils, it was true, but robbers were worse, and she had many times crossed there from her home without meeting with either. In short, muchissimas gracias Senor, y todos los santos, etc., etc. Adios! All of them were devoured a very short time after. Their clothes and bones were found scattered on the trail which they had not yet left before they were killed. The muleteers in rear who found these fragments collected and buried them, putting up the usual frail cross which is to be seen along this route, literally by scores. 
  13. ^ "Special to the Globe" (8 March 1888). "Killed by Wolves". The St. Paul Daily Globe. p. 5. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Eaten by Wolves". Las Vegas Daily Gazette. Las Vegas, New Mexico. 24 January 1885. p. 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "Man Eaten by Wolves". The Daily Phoenix. 25 February 1873. p. 1. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  16. ^ DepartmentofNaturalResources, Wisconsin. "List of mills for production and custom sawing of Wisconsin Local Use Dimension Lumber" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "(no title)". St. Cloud, MN. The St. Cloud Journal. 26 January 1871. p. 3. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Linnell 2002, p. 29
  19. ^ Wynkoop, Edward W. (19 August 1869). "Ferocious Attack by a Rabid Wolf". The National Republican. p. 4. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  20. ^ Barnitz, Cpt. Albert. "Rabid Wolf Attacks Fort Larned". Fort Larned National Historic Site, Larned, KS. Larned, KS: National Park Service. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  21. ^ Barnitz, Cpt. Albert (10 August 1868). "Letter to wife". Santa Fe Trail Research. Larned, KS. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  22. ^ Young, Stanley P.; Goldman, Edward A. (1964). "IV: Natural Checks, Parasites and Diseases". The Wolves of North America (paperback) (Volumes I and II ed.). New York: Dover. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0486211930. Retrieved 27 July 2015. Indians say that wolves not unfrequently go mad, rush into their villages and do great damage. The following most interesting and perfectly authenticated facts are taken from the records of the hospital at Fort Larned on the Arkansas River. 
  23. ^ "no title". The Daily Phoenix. 16 February 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 4 July 2015. The Winchester (Virginia) News mentions a rumor that... 
  24. ^ "(none)". The Sun. New York, NY. 23 March 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "(none)". Washington, D.C. The National Republican. 17 March 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 
  26. ^ "A Man Killed by a Wolf". Jones & Campbell. Cass County Republican. 17 March 1859. p. 2. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  27. ^ a b Way, Phocion R. (Autumn 1960). Duffen, William A., ed. "Overland via "Jackass Mail" in 1858: The Diary of Phocion Way (Part III)". Arizona and the West. Journal of the Southwest. 2 (3): 289. ISSN 0004-1408. JSTOR i40004452. . . .they tell me there is one danger which threatens out door sleepers during July and August, which fills me with more dread than all the venomous reptiles and Indians thrown in- this new danger is from "mad wolves."37 I have always associated everything that is horrible with the disease Hydrophobia and I would run faster from a Mad Dog than I would from a legion of Devils. The wolves are numerous here and in the two above named months they sometimes go made [sic] and in this condition they will enter a camp or town or even a house if the door is left open and bite everything in their course. At this season the Mexicans generally (those that have no doors) sleep on top of their houses out of reach of this danger.This horrible disease is much more common here among the wolves than it is among our dogs in the States. They are a terror to the whole country. One of our men told me of six persons who were bitten in this thinly settled neighborhood last year. One of them was badly mangled by the rabid animal, and in one instance the wolf entered a house and bit two persons. But what appears very singular to me, only one of these persons died. I have always been accustomed to look upon this disease as incurable, but here they have a stone which attracts the poison and when it is applied in time it never fails to cure.38 This fact is so well established that I cannot reasonably doubt it, and it should be known far and wide that others may profit by it. Footnote 37:The wolf was common in the area at that time. Way's informant probably included the coyote, with the wolf, as subject to hydrophobia. Footnote 38: An interesting documented instance of the use of a madstone to draw poison from an animal bite. Described by the Encyclopedia Americana as " a vegetable substance or stone which, when applied to a wound caused by the bite of a mad dog, is said to prevent hydrophobia," the madstone has been celebrated in literature (e.g. Sir Walter Scott's The Talisman') and is occasionally chronicled in the annals of Western lore. Some 130 cases of healing, attributed to the madstone, are on record; and there are reported to be three authenticated stones in the United States today. Madstones and Twisters, ed. Mody C. Boatwright, Wilson M. Hudson, and Helen Maxwell (Southern Methodist U. Press, 1958), is reviewed in Arizona and the West, v. 1 (1959), p. 185. 
  28. ^ "Ravenous Wolves". The Daily Dispatch. Richmond, VA. 11 February 1857. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  29. ^ "Shocking Occurrence-Women Eaten by Wolves.". Holmes County Republican. Millersburg, OH. 6 November 1865. p. 1. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  30. ^ a b "Wolves in Iowa". Grand River Times. Grand Haven, MI. 6 February 1856. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  31. ^ Closz, Harriet M. Bonebright; Bonebright, Sarah Brewer (1921). Reminiscences of Newcastle, Iowa, 1848: A. Des Moines: Historical Dept. of State of Iowa. pp. 222–223. Jenkins must have been bewildered by the storm and benumbed with cold when he was attacked and devoured by wolves. 
  32. ^ "(no title)". The Columbia Democrat. Bloomsburg, PA. 25 April 1840. p. 3. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  33. ^ The Times (London, England), 4 April 1836, p.6 (reprinted report from the Juniata Journal.
  34. ^ "A Terrible Recontre and Death". Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. 1 April 1836. p. 4. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  35. ^ Young, Stanley P.; Goldman, Edward A. (1944). The Wolves of North America (1964 ed.). Dover. p. 161. ISBN 978-0486211930. 
  36. ^ Audubon, John James (1851). The Quadrupeds of North America (First ed.). V. G. Audubon. pp. 128–129. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "The Battle of Wyoming". The Ashland Union. Ashland, OH. 29 December 1858. p. 4. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  38. ^ Peck, George (1858). Wyoming: Its history, stirring incidents and romantic adventures. New York: Harper Brothers. pp. 371–375. 
  39. ^ Young, Stanley P.; Goldman, Edward A. (1944). The Wolves of North America (1964 ed.). Dover. pp. 131–132,139. ISBN 978-0486211930. 
  40. ^ "Wild Beasts". Bradford, VT. National Opinion. 1 January 1869. p. 1. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  41. ^ Hall, Samuel R. (1868). White, Pliny, ed. Geography and History of Vermont (2nd ed.). Montpiliar, VT: C.W. Willard. pp. 160–161. 
  42. ^ Whittier, John Greenleaf (1998). "A Night Among the Wolves" in Legends of New England (1831): a facsimile reproduction (web ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Humanities Text Initiative. pp. 104–111. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  43. ^ Linnell 2002, p. 28
  44. ^ "Child attacked by wolf-dog in Thurston County taken to Harborview". Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  45. ^ "Kiwi adventurer Marcelo Vanzuita hunted by wolves during epic race in Canada pulls out". Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  46. ^ "Wolf kills dog, stalks skier near Smithers, B.C.". 
  47. ^ "Alberta ski hill employee flees wolf pack on snowmobile, prompting Banff to issue a stern warning". 
  48. ^ "Leashes and owner's actions keep Ucluelet dogs safe during wolf encounter - Tofino-Ucluelet Westerly News". 14 November 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  49. ^ "Wolves stalk man and his dogs in ‘freaky’ close encounter; video - GrindTV.com". 9 November 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  50. ^ "Canmore man says he was attacked by a wolf after cutting through forest". Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
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  53. ^ Zareski, Dan (30 August 2016). "Wolf attack in northern Saskatchewan 3rd in 12 years". CBC News Saskatoon. CBC/Radio-Canada. Retrieved 5 September 2016. Conservation officers are investigating and the company is educating staff on wildlife interactions, and making sure food is properly disposed of. 
  54. ^ Draper, Jon. "Wisconsin Deer Hunter Fends off Wolves with Walther PK .380". AmericanHunter.org. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  55. ^ "Rabid wolf chases 2 Labrador families on snowmobile trip". CBC News Newfoundland and Labrador. CBC. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015. The animal began to charge at them, and started attacking the skis on their snowmobiles. "There was nowhere you could put your kids safe enough or get away fast enough because he was right behind you," said Sexton. "He came directly at the Ski-Doo, right for us, showing his teeth." She said the wolf began lunging at both snowmobiles, standing up on its hind legs near the children. Michelle Sexton family Michelle Sexton feared for the safety of her children during Sunday's encounter with a rabid wolf while they were snowmobiling in Labrador. (Sexton family) "I screamed in my helmet, but no one could hear me," Patey said. When she tried to get her family away from the animal, she flipped her snowmobile. "When I turned to look back, the wolf was right behind me. I put my hand out to stop it from coming to me and at the same time, I hit my gas and I lost control of my snow machine again. I didn't stop, and in my head all I could think of was Jena, Jena, Jena, my daughter." 
  56. ^ "How her dog died saving her from a pack of wolves". 
  57. ^ Rosenbaum, Sophia (28 August 2013). "Teen survives first known wolf attack in Minnesota". NBC News. Retrieved 18 November 2013. Noah Graham, 16, of Solway, Minn. was camping with friends from church near Lake Winnibigoshish when, while talking to his girlfriend at 4:30 a.m. Saturday, a wolf pounced and bit him in the head. 
  58. ^ Spring, Joe (6 January 2014). "When Wolves Attack". OUTSIDE ONLINE. Mariah Media. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  59. ^ Smith, Mary L. (27 September 2013). "Deformed wolf that bit Minnesota teen had brain damage". Star Tribune. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  60. ^ Bergeron, Julie (2013-08-26). "Attaqué par un loup dans le Parc des Laurentides : un cycliste nous raconte". quebec.rougefm.ca. Bell Media Radio. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Un cycliste a été attaqué par un loup la semaine dernière dans la Réserve faunique des Laurentides. L'événement est survenu entre les kilomètres 218 et 219 mardi dernier. Heureusement pour Mario Lagacé, ses blessures se limitent à des ecchymoses. En juillet dernier, un autre cycliste a été approché par une bête dans le même secteur de la route 175. L'agent de la protection de la faune, Régis Girard, explique que ce sont les deux seuls événements du genre qui ont été portés à son attention dans les derniers mois. Voici le reportage de Julie Bergeron: 
  61. ^ Lacroix, Louis (28 August 2013). "Titre : Un cycliste de Saguenay s'est fait attaqué par un loup. Les détails avec la victime." (MP3). 985fm.ca (in French). Cogeco. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Détails : Mario Lagacé, cycliste attaqué par un loup. 
  62. ^ Landers, Rich (11 July 2013). "Idaho Bicyclist Rescued from Pursuing Wolf". Missoulian Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  63. ^ "Attacked by wolf, Manitoba woman drives to hospital". 
  64. ^ http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/03/20/17386543-stay-calm-woman-walks-away-after-canada-wolf-attack
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  66. ^ "Woman bowhunter glad to have .44 mag when wolf came". 
  67. ^ "Idaho Woman Encounters Wolves In Her Driveway". 
  68. ^ Halpin, James (18 September 2009). "Rabid WolfAttacks Hunter in Southwest Alaska". Alaska Dispatch News. Anchorage. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  69. ^ AP (13 July 2006). "Anchorage Woman Attacked by Wolf". JuneauEmpire.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
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  75. ^ "Wolf attack has science community mystified". 
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  79. ^ Nichols, Margaret G. (May 1976). "Cleveland Amory and the Kingdom of the Kind". Field and Stream: 130. 
  80. ^ Erich H. Follmann; et al. (October 1980). "A Review of Human-Carnivore Encounter Problems and Animal Deterrent Methodology" (PDF). Recommended Carnivore Control Program for the Northwest Alaskan Pipeline Project. University of Alaska. pp. 22–24. Retrieved 29 October 2013. ...a worker's forearm was grabbed by a wolf but the skin was not broken. The wolf could easily have broken the bones of the forearm in this situation." 
  81. ^ Peterson, Randolph L (19 August 1947). "A Record of a Timber Wolf Attacking a Man". Journal of Mammalogy. 28 (3): 294–295. doi:10.1093/jmammal/28.3.294. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
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  83. ^ "Wolf Attacks Little Girl". Charlevoix County Herald. (East Jordan, Mich.). 9 February 1917. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  84. ^ Jenness, Stuart E. (June 1985). "Arctic Wolf Attacks Scientist–A Unique Canadian Incident" (PDF). Arctic. 32 (2): 129–132. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  85. ^ a b Young and Goldman 1944, p. 138
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  87. ^ "Hunter Clings to Tree All Night Long, Besieged by Pack of Hungry Wolves". The Day Book. 14 June 1913. pp. 27–28. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
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  95. ^ "(A Wolf Story)". The St. Johns Herald. St. Johns, Apache County, Arizona Territory. 26 March 1885. p. 1. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  96. ^ "Fight With Wolves". Arizona Weekly Citizen. Tucson, AZ. 27 November 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  97. ^ George Bird Grinnell (1897). "Wolves and Wolf Nature". Trail and Camp-fire: The Book of the Boone and Crockett Club. New York: Forest and Stream Publishing Company. pp. 174–175. ISBN 1162964197. I have known of but one person being attacked by a wolf and this attack was apparently not made because the animal was hungry but because it was cross. The person who was injured was a daughter of old Jim Baker, one of the few old-time trappers still living, who resides on Snake River in the northwest corner of Colorado. The occurrence took place about sixteen years ago and in summer. The young girl, then eighteen years old, went out just at dusk to drive in some milk cows. As she was going toward them, she saw a gray wolf sitting on the hillside just above the trail. She shouted to frighten it away, and when it did not move, took up a stone and threw at it. The animal snarled at her call and when she threw stone came jumping down the hill, caught her by the shoulder, threw her down, and tore badly on the arms and legs. She screamed, and her brother, who happened to be near and had his gun, ran up and killed the wolf. It was a young animal, barely full grown. 
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  100. ^ "Mail Carrier Attacked by Wolves". Baltimore, MD. The Daily Exchange. 18 January 1861. 
  101. ^ "no title". Evansville Daily Journal. 16 December 1857. p. 3. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  102. ^ "no title". The Athens Post. Athens, TN. 25 December 1857. p. 1. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  103. ^ Young, Stanley P.; Goldman, Edward A. (1944). The Wolves of North America (1964 ed.). Dover. p. 133. ISBN 978-0486211930. 
  104. ^ McClure, Sir Robert (1856). Osborn, Sherard, ed. The discovery of the North-West passage by H.M.S. "Investigator," Capt. R. M'Clure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman and Roberts. pp. 258–259. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  105. ^ Closz, Harriet M. Bonebright (1921). Reminiscences of Newcastle, Iowa, 1848: A history of the founding of Webster City, Iowa (First ed.). Des Moines, Iowa: Historical Department of Iowa. pp. 61–63. 
  106. ^ "A Brave Fellow;". The American Republican and Baltimore Daily Clipper. Baltimore, MD. 28 August 1846. p. 4. Retrieved 26 Jun 2015. 
  107. ^ Young, Stanley P (1944). The Wolves of North America, Part I. New York: Dover. p. 131. ISBN 978-0486211930. 

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