List of women in the Heritage Floor

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This list documents all 999 mythical, historical and notable women who are displayed on the handmade white tiles of the Heritage Floor as part of Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party art installation (1979). The names appear as they are spelled on the floor. Since 2007 the installation has been on permanent exhibition in the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum, New York.

This is a sortable list. Click on the column headers to reorder.
Name Birthdate Location Group (Related Place Setting) Notes
Abella of Salerno 1350Flourished c. 1350 Salerno, Italy Trotula Taught general medicine at Schola Medica Salernitana, the earliest medical school in Europe. She specialised in embryology,[1] and published two treatises.[2]
Abigail -965Flourished c. 965 BC[3] Ancient Israel Judith Earliest female pacifist in biblical record.[4] Her husband defied the future King David and to avoid war, she went behind her husband's back and prepared food for David, in order to keep the peace. Her husband died from the shock of her actions, and she would go on to become the third wife of David.[3][4]
Abigail Adams 1744 1744 Massachusetts, United States Anne Hutchinson Abolitionist, women's education advocate, influential political figure.[5]
Adela of Blois 1067c. 1067[6] France Eleanor of Aquitaine Filled as regent while her husband, Stephen Henry, participated in the First Crusade.[6][7]
Adela Zamudio-Ribero 18541854[8] Cochabamba, Bolivia[8] Virginia Woolf Poet, intellectual and founder of the Bolivian feminist movement.[8]
Adelaide 931931[9] France Theodora Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.[9][10]
Adelaide Labille-Guiard 17491749 France Artemisia Gentileschi Portrait painter, member of the Académie Royale, women's education advocate.[11][12]
Adelaide of Susa 1016c. 1016 Italy Eleanor of Aquitaine Philanthropist, heiress, countess of Savoy.[13] She also led an army to defend Turin.[14]
Adelberger 7018th century Italy Trotula Physician, member of the Guild of Lay Healers.[15] Possibly Adelperga, daughter of Desiderius, who fought against Charlemagne. Little to no information is easily available about the lay healer, Adelberger.
Adelheid Popp 18691869 Vienna, Austria Susan B. Anthony Leader of the Austrian Socialist Women's Movement, served in Austrian government.[16]
Eudocia 400c. 400[17] Athens; Jerusalem Theodora Philanthropist, politician, poet, was an Orthodox Christian who fought for the protection of Jews and pagans[17][18]
Eudoxia 380380[17] Constantinople Theodora Empress of Byzantium who influenced the political work of her husband, Emperor Arcadius.[17][19]
Aemilia 300c. 300 Gaul Hypatia Poet and physician, rejected marriage as it was a hindrance to her career.[20] Wrote books about gynecology and obstetrics.[21]
Æthelburg 673c. 673 England Theodora Queen of Wessex alongside husband King Ine of Wessex. Fought battles alongside Ine. In 728 they relinquished the crown to her brother and lived amongst the poor in Rome.[22]
Ethelberga 614c. 614[23] England Hrosvitha Daughter of Bertha of Kent and Æthelberht of Kent. After her husband, King Edwin of Northumbria, died, she founded the first Benedictine nunnery in England.[24]
Æthelflæd 869869 England Theodora Led troops against the Vikings. After her husband, Æthelred died, she became the sole ruler of Mercia.[6][22]
Agatha 235c. 235[25] Sicily Hypatia Rejected the advances of Roman military officials and was tortured by having her breasts cut off,[21] then, she was sentenced to burn at the stake but was saved by an earthquake. She died in prison and was canonized by the Church.[25] She is the patron saint of breast cancer patients.[26]
Ageltrude Benevento 8019th century Italy Trotula Holy Roman Empress. Used her political power to have her son, Lambert, confirmed as Roman emperor and also to support the election of Pope Stephen VI.[27]
Aglaonice -200Between 2nd and 4th century BC[17][28][29] Greece Aspasia Believed to be the first woman astronomer. She could predict lunar eclipses and was accused of sorcery; as people believed her ability to predict was actually the ability to create the eclipses.[17][28][29]
Agnes d'Harcourt 120113th century France Hildegarde of Bingen Abbess of the Abbey of Longchamp and author. She wrote the first biography about Saint Isabel, whom she also served as personal assistant to.[30][31]
Agnes 1184Flourished c. 1184 Germany Hrosvitha Abbess of St. Mary's in Quedlinburg, where fine needlework and weavings were created, as well as manuscript illustrations. Agnes encouraged artistic creation and supported a healthy art industry with her nuns' creations.[32][33]
Agnes 12111211[25] Bohemia Hildegarde of Bingen Former Bohemian princess who founded the Poor Clares religious order, an abbey, and a hospital. Canonized in 1989, she is the patron saint of Bohemia.[31]
Agnes of Poitou 1025c. 1024[34] France Eleanor of Aquitaine Second wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor; she governed the empire until her son, Henry IV came of age to rule.[14] She opposed Pope Gregory VII and helped to elect Cadalus, his rival, to throne. In 1062 her son Henry was kidnapped, and as ransom to save his life, she resigned as regent and remained the rest of her life in a convent.[34]
Agnes of Dunbar 13121312 Scotland Christine de Pisan Known as "Black Agnes," she successfully defended her family's castle while her husband, Patrick V, Earl of March, was at war, in 1337.[35][36]
Agnes Sampson 150116th century Scotland Petronilla de Meath Healer, she was a chief witness at the North Berwick witch trials. She was tortured, and forced to confess to conspiring with 200 other women to work with the devil to try to kill King James VI. She was found guilty and executed in 1591.[37][38]
Agnes Smedley 18921892 United States Virginia Woolf Journalist, who traveled to Berlin in 1920 and helped opened Germany's first birth control clinic. She continued to travel the world, seeing human and political rights violations first hand. She wrote numerous books, including an autobiography and coverage on China during World War II.[39][40]
Agnès Sorel 1422c. 1422[41][42] France Isabella d'Este Mistress of King Charles VII of France and the first to be publicly acknowledged.[42][43] All four of their children were also acknowledged and she died of dysentery at age 28, but some believe she was poisoned.[42]
Agnes Waterhouse 1503c 1503[33] England Petronilla de Meath First woman executed for witchcraft in England.[33][44]
Agnodice 505c 505[28] Greece Aspasia First female gynecologist.[45] She disguised herself as a man in order to go to medical school. She became a gynecologist, and when male doctors realized women preferred her services, they charged her with malpractice. She outed herself, and they tried to pass a law prohibiting women to practice medicine. The law was eventually changed, due to women speaking out, in the twelfth century.[28]
Agrippina I -14c 14 BC[46][47] Rome Marcella Married Germanicus and accompanied him into battle during wartime. After his death, she became a voice representing the political struggle of Rome, and her and her two teenage sons were accused of trying to overthrow Tiberius and they were eventually exiled.[43][46]
Agrippina II 1515 Rome Marcella Julia Agrippina, Roman noble woman, the wife of the emperor Claudius and mother of Nero, who effectively ruled the empire for two decades through her influence over both her husband and son.
Aisha 110112th century Spain Hrosvitha Spanish poet who presented her work at the Royal Academy of Córdoba, Andalusia.[32]
Ajysyt -10000Mythical Siberia Primordial Goddess Siberian goddess of birth. A fertility deity of the Turkic Yakut people from the Lena River region of Siberia. The name means "birthgiver" and may also be called the "Mother of Cradles" [48][49]
Albertine Necker de Saussure 17661766 France Emily Dickinson Cousin of writer Germaine de Staël,[50] whom she collaborated frequently with and wrote about. Women's rights advocate and supporter of physical education for girls.[51]
Aleksandra Kollantay 18721872 Russia Margaret Sanger Women's rights activist, and socialist.[52] She fled Russia in 1905 and lived in Germany, advocating women's issues. After the 1917 Revolution she returned to Russia and was elected Commissar of Social Welfare.[53]
Alessandra Giliani 13071307[45] Italy Isabella d'Este Invented a way to draw blood from veins and arteries of cadavers, and then replaced the blood with fluid dyes. These dyes allowed the veins to remain marked for students to study. She died suddenly at age 19.[45] She was a medical illustrator and assistant to Mondino de Liuzzi.[54]
Aletta Jacobs 18541854 Netherlands Susan B. Anthony First woman to graduate from a Dutch university and the first female physician in the Netherlands. She was also a women's rights advocate and translated Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women and Economics into Dutch, helping spread feminist ideals through the country. After World War I she created the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.[55][56]
Alexandra of Jerusalem -139139 BC Judea Boadaceia Took over the throne of Judea after the death of her husband, Alexander Jannaeus, in 76 BC.[57] She was a peacekeeper in the region and led Judea into a prosperous period during her rule. Upon her death in 67 BC, civil war began immediately as her son came to the throne.[58]
Alexandra van Grippenberg 1857c. 1857 Finland Susan B. Anthony Early advocate for temperance and women's rights. Established a branch of the International Council of Women in Finland.[55][59]
Alfonsina Storni 18921892 Argentina Virginia Woolf Poet, actress, educator and feminist. She founded the Argentine Society of Writers.[60] She had breast cancer, which moved to her throat. Failed treatments curbed her interest in further treatment, and she went to the ocean and killed herself by walking into the water.[61]
Alice Kyteler 1324c. 1324[62] Ireland Petronilla de Meath Called the Witch of Kilkenny, and was one of the earliest women in Ireland to be accused of witchcraft. All of her husbands died during marriage,[62] leaving her wealthy, and she was accused of murdering them. She was able to escape further accusations of witchcraft due to her aristocratic connections and escaped to England in 1325.[63]
Alice Milliat 18841884[64] France Elizabeth Blackwell Founded the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale[64] and launched the Women's World Games, also called the Women's Olympics.[64] The WWG led to the Olympic Committee to open up track-and-field events at the 1928 games to women.[65]
Alice Paul 18851885 United States Susan B. Anthony One of the most important leaders in the American suffragist movement, she wrote the Equal Rights Amendment and founded the National Woman's Party in the United States.[66]
Alice Pike Barney 18571857 United States Natalie Barney Mother of Natalie Barney, she was an advocate for the arts, an artist, and a philanthropist. She hosted salon evenings, with the who's who of Washington, D.C.'s society.[67] She gave her home, fully intact, to the Smithsonian Institution, who proceeded to sell it and its contents.[68]
Alice Samuel 150116th century England Petronilla de Meath As an elderly woman, she was accused of being a witch by the children of her employer. Her trial was held in 1593, and she was hung, along with two relatives, as the results of the children's testimony.[69]
Alice Stone Blackwell 18571857 United States Susan B. Anthony Daughter of Lucy Stone, she edited the Woman's Journal and assisted with the formation of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.[70]
Aliénor de Poitiers 1450Flourished late 15th century France Christine de Pisan Author who wrote Les honneurs de la cour, a book about court ritual and etiquette for all social classes. She was described as the Emily Post of the 15th century.[71]
Alison Rutherford 17121712 Scotland Mary Wollstonecraft Lyricist, Rutherford moved to Edinburgh in 1753 after becoming a widow and hung out in circles of Scotland's literary elite. She wrote a version of the Scottish folk song Flowers of the Forest.[72]
Almucs de Castelnau 1140c. 1140 France Eleanor of Aquitaine French trobairitz—female troubadour. A single poem of hers survives[73]
Aloara 90110th century Italy Trotula After the death of her husband, Pandolf, in 981, she ruled Capua until her death in 992.[15]
Alpis de Cudot 1156c. 1156[74] France Hildegarde of Bingen Cudot, who suffered from leprosy, had visions incited by her illness. Often religious in nature, one vision led her to believe that the earth was flat. As she promoted the concept, people did not believe her. She was canonized in the 19th century.[75]
Althea Gibson 1927 United States Elizabeth Blackwell First African American woman to compete in the Wimbledon Championships and the US Open. She went on to play golf, and became the first African American woman to participate in the Ladies Professional Golf Association.[76]
Alukah -10000Mythical Canaan Kali Succubus or vampire, Alukah may be associated with Lilith.[77]
Amat-Mamu -1750Flourished c. 1750 BC Babylonia Ishtar Priestess and temple scribe in Sippar . Her existence is known from the cuneiform tablets on which she wrote.[78]
Amelia Earhart 1897 United States Elizabeth Blackwell Aviator and women's rights activist. She was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She was also a member of the National Woman's Party, and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment.[79]
Amelia Holst 17581758[80] Germany Susan B. Anthony German counterpart of Mary Wollstonecraft, she was an outspoken feminist and educator.[80] She wrote the first book in German arguing for women's educational opportunities.[55]
Amelia Villa 1900 Bolivia Elizabeth Blackwell The first female physician from Bolivia.[81]
Amy Beach 1867 United States Ethel Smyth American pianist and first female composer in the United States.[82]
Ana Betancourt 1832 Cuba Sacajawea She was a mambisa, and was one of the first generation Cuban feminists.[83]
Anaconda 1474 Haiti Sacajawea Taino chief, a poet and a songwriter.[84]
Anahita -10000Mythical Persia Ishtar Virgin goddess of fertility, love and war.[85]
Anaïs Nin 1903 Europe, United States Virginia Woolf Author and diarist. One of the first female authors to write erotica.[86]
Anastasia 1400 Flourished c. 1400 France Christine de Pisan Manuscript illumination artist. Nothing is known about her except for the praise heaped upon her by the medieval writer Christine de Pisan who describes her as the finest illuminator of her day.[87]
Anastasia 301Flourished early 4th century Rome Marcella Arrested and prosecuted in the last wave of Christian persecutions, dying in 304. She was sainted in the 5th century.[88]
Anath -10000Mythical Canaan Ishtar Goddess of love and warfare who is the sister and, according to a much disputed theory, the lover of the great god Ba‘al Hadad.[89]
Anasandra -201Flourished 3rd century BC Greece Sappho She was a painter. She was the daughter and student of Nealkes, a painter of mythological and genre scenes[90]
Andrea Villarreal 1881 Mexico; United States Sacajawea Teacher, poet, labor organizer and feminist who co-published La Mujer Moderna (English: The Modern Woman), with her sister.[91]
Angela Merici 1474 c. 1474 Italy Christine de Pisan Founded the Ursulines order for the education of girls and the care of the sick and needy. She was canonized in 1807.[92]
Angelberga 801Flourished in the 9th century Italy Trotula Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, co-ruled with her husband, Louis II of Italy. In 869 became abbess of San Sisto in Piacenza, which she had founded.[93]
Angéle de la Barthe 1230c. 1230 France Petronilla de Meath Noblewoman, she was accused of witchcraft and under torture she confessed. She was convicted and burned alive. The city of Toulouse has no records of her trial and historians question the validity of the story.[94]
Angelica Balabanoff 1878 Ukraine Margaret Sanger Russian socialist writer. She moved to Italy and became a leading member of the Italian Socialist Party then moved back to Russia to become active in the Bolshevik Party and worked with Emma Goldman, Lenin and Leon Trotsky.[95]
Angelica Kauffman 1741 Switzerland-Italy Artemisia Gentileschi Leading Italian portrait painter who was admitted to the academies of Florence, Bologna, and Rome, and in 1768 was a co-founder of the Royal Academy of Art, in London.[96]
Angelina Grimké 1805 United States Sojourner Truth Christian women's rights activist and abolitionist. Wrote the first tract in the United States about women's rights, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women (1838).[97][98]
Angelique du Coudray 1712 France Caroline Herschel Court midwife to Louis XV of France who trained around 4,000 poor French women as midwives. Invented the first lifesize obstetrical mannequin, for practicing mock births.[99]
Anna Amalia 1739 Germany Anna van Schurman German princess and composer. She became the duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, by marriage, and was also regent of the states of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach from 1758 to 1775. She transformed her court and its surrounding into the most influential cultural center of Germany.
Ann Lee 1736 United States Anne Hutchinson Joined the Shakers and moved to America after being placed in an English prison for a vision which influenced the Shaker belief system about celibacy. She went to jail again in New York for treason after refusing to pledge allegiance. She was called "Mother Ann" and preached in New England. Her work inspired her followers to found the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing.[100]
Anna Dalassena Comnena 1025 Byzantine Theodora Byzantine noblewoman and mother to emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Ruled as empress during her son's absence in military campaigns.[101]
Anna Karsch 1722 Germany Emily Dickinson Dubbed "the German Sappho". The daughter of an innkeeper, Karsch received no formal education and had a difficult life, marked by poverty and two abusive marriages. Her natural abilities as a poet, however, stunned her contemporaries.[102]
Anna Comnena 1083 Byzantine Theodora Wrote the Alexiad, which recounts the political and military history of the Byzantine empire under her father, Alexios I Komnenos.[103]
Anna Maria Schwagel 1729 Bavaria Petronilla de Meath Schwägel or Schwegelin was an alleged German (Bavarian) witch, who was long considered the last person to be executed for witchcraft in Germany. It is now believed she died forgotten in prison.[104]
Anna Manzolini 1714 Italy Caroline Herschel Anatomist and anatomical wax modeler. She was elected professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna in 1755.[105]
Anna Pavlova 1881 Russia Georgia O'Keeffe Russian ballerina whose delicacy and grace mesmerized audiences and inspired a generation of dancers and choreographers.[106]
Anna Schabanoff 1848 Russia Elizabeth Blackwell Pioneering Russian woman pediatrician and women's rights activist.[107]
Anna Sophia 1532 Denmark Elizabeth R. Danish princess who became the electress of Saxony. She was a pioneer in horticulture and agrarian reform.[108]
Annabella Drummond 1350 Scotland Isabella d'Este Queen Consort of Scotland as the wife of Robert III of Scotland. As the Kings health declined she acted strongly to secure the succession of their son David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay.[109]
Anne Askew 15201520/1521 England Anna van Schurman English poet who was condemned as a heretic. She was one of the earliest female poets to compose in the English language and the first Englishwoman to demand a divorce.[110]
Anne Bacon c. 1528 England Elizabeth R. Lady and scholar. She made a lasting contribution to English religious literature with her translation from Latin of John Jewel's Apologie of the Anglican Church (1564). She was the mother of Francis Bacon.[111]
Anne Baynard 1672/73 England Anna van Schurman British natural philosopher who was held up as model of piety. She made a particular appeal to her own sex to make an effort to educate themselves.[112]
Anne Bonney 1702 Ireland Natalie Barney Irish woman who became an infamous pirate, operating in the Caribbean. Her numerous love affairs, adventurous life, and sword fighting skills have inspired several film portrayals.[113]
Anne Bradstreet c. 1616 British North America Anne Hutchinson First poet and first female writer in the British North American colonies to be published. Her first volume of poetry was The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, (1650). It was met with a positive reception in both the Old World and the New World.[114]
Anne Clough 1820 England Emily Dickinson Pioneer in women's education, who was determined to create public educational opportunities for young women. She opened her first school in the family home in 1841. She later became the principal of Newnham College, Cambridge which opened in 1875 and was one of the first university colleges for women.[115]
Anne Dacier c. 1651 France Anna van Schurman Foremost classical scholar of her day. Her annotated prose editions of the Iliad and the Odyssey made her famous throughout Europe.[116]
Anne Ella Carroll 1815 United States Sojourner Truth American politician, pamphleteer and lobbyist who served as an advisor to Abraham Lincoln.[117]
Anne Halkett 1623 England Caroline Herschel Known for her candid autobiographical writings and religious meditations. Lady Halkett's Memoirs, begun in 1677–78, focuses on her pursuit of love.[118]
Anne of Beaujeu 1461 Belgium Isabella d'Este Shared the regency of France from 1483 to 1491 during the minority of her brother, Charles VIII. She was one of the most powerful women of the late fifteenth century and was referred to as "Madame la Grande".[119]
Anna 1204 Bohemia Hildegarde of Bingen Anne of Bohemia was married to Henry II, duke of Silesia, in 1216. She was widowed in 1241 and served as regent of Silesia on behalf of her sons. She was responsible for the founding of several religious institutions, including a nunnery of Poor Clares at Breslau.[120]
Anne of Brittany 1477 France Isabella d'Este Duchess of the semi independent Brittany Anne was forced into two marriages with French kings. As twice queen of France she introduced learning and erudition to the court. She sponsored the writing, translation, and publication of literary works about women, especially the first French edition of Christine de Pisan's Book of the City of Ladies.[121]
Anne Redfearne Unknown, late 15th century England Petronilla de Meath Hanged as a witch in 1612 as one of the eleven Witches of Pendle in the most famous witch trial in English history. She consistently refused to admit her guilt to the end, and gave no evidence against any of the other accused.[122]
Annie Jump Cannon 1863 United States Caroline Herschel Pioneering woman astronomer she cataloged over 350,000 stars and discovered 300 variable stars, five novae, and one binary star in her lifetime. She was also dedicated to the cause of women's suffrage. In 1929, the National League of Women Voters listed her as one of the twelve greatest living American women.[123]
Annie Kenney 1879 England Susan B. Anthony Militant working class suffragette who held leading positions in the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) which campaigned for women's suffrage.[124]
Annie Smith Peck 1850 United States Susan B. Anthony Professor of Latin at Smith College in Massachusetts, she enthusiastically took up mountain climbing in 1894 and became a celebrity for her feats. At the age of sixty-one, she claimed Mount Coropuna in Peru and placed a pennant on the summit that read "Votes for Women."[125]
Annie Wood Besant 1847 England Susan B. Anthony Prominent British socialist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule. She later became a leading member of the mystical Theosophical Society and moved to India.[126]
Antigone Legendary Greece Sophia Tragic character from Greek myth, she was the daughter of Oedipus. She defied King Creon who sentenced her to die by being sealed in a cave.[127]
Antiope -1300Legendary Greece Amazon Amazon warrior queen. She was the sister of the Amazon queen Hippolyte and the daughter of Ares, god of war.[128]
Antonia Brico 1902 Netherlands Ethel Smyth First woman to gain international recognition as a conductor of professional symphony orchestras.[129]
Antonia Padoani Bembo circa 1640 Venice Ethel Smyth Composer and singer, she composed numerous serenatas, arias, religious and secular cantatas, and the opera Ercole amante (1707).[130]
Amyte circa 225 Greece Sappho Arcadian poet, admired by her contemporaries and later generations for her charming epigrams and epitaphs.[131]
Aphra Behn 1640 English Anna van Schurman One of the first English professional female literary writers, producing over 19 plays, plus poetry, translation and novels.[132]
Aphrodite Mythical Greece Ishtar Goddess of love and beauty. According to legend she was born from the sea foam near Cyprus. Aphrodite was the wife of Hephaestus, god of smithing, but she had many lovers, most notably with Ares and Adonis [133]
Arachne Legendary Greece Sophia Inventor of woven cloth and net making. Angered Athena, the patron goddess of weaving, by bragging that her skills were greater than the deity’s[134]
Aretaphila of Cyrene c. 50 BC Cyrene - ancient Greek colony in North Africa Boadaceia Cyrenean noble woman who is said to have deposed the tyrant Nicocrates.[135]
Arete of Cyrene c. 350 BC Cyrene - ancient Greek colony in North Africa Aspasia Cyrenaic/ancient Greek philosopher, said to have written many books and taught natural and moral philosophy at academies of Attica. She founded the Cyrenaic school of hedonism, which promoted an ethic of pleasure as the supreme good in the world.[136]
Ariadne Mythical Crete Snake Goddess Helped Theseus overthrow Minos and in some accounts married him. She was worshipped on the Greek Islands and is mostly associated with mazes and labyrinths.[136]
Arianrhod Mythical Wales Kali Death goddess. A major character in the epic poem The Mabinogion, a descendant of Don, the mother goddess.[137]
Arinitti Mythical Anatolia Ishtar Main deity, queen of Hatti, Heaven and earth. Also known as Arinna.[138]
Aristoclea c. 6th Century BC Greece Aspasia Priestess at Delphi; philosopher; taught Pythagoras his moral doctrines.[139]
Arsinoe II c. 316 BC Greece Boadaceia Queen of Thrace, Macedonia, and later co-ruler of Egypt with brother. Shared all brother's titles, won chariot races in the Olympics,[140] had her image printed on coins, and even founded her own cult.
Artemis Mythical Greece Snake Goddess Agricultural deity, moon goddess, watcher of forests ... many meanings in many cultures.[141]
Artemisia I c. 480 BC Greece Boadaceia Queen of Halicarnassus, fought for Xerxes I (commanding naval ships) against the Greeks during the Second Persian Invasion of Greece.[142]
Artemisia II 4th century BC Greece Boadaceia Sister and wife of the famous King Mausolus, she created the Mausoleum, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in memory of her husband.[143]
Asherah Mythical Canaan Ishtar Goddess of sexuality and procreation worshipped by Semitic peoples of Syria and Israel.[144]
Ashtoreth Mythical Hebrew Ishtar Goddess of fertility and reproduction, worshipped by Semitic peoples of Phoenicia.[145]
Aspasia of Athens c. 5th century Greece Aspasia Practiced obstetrics and gynecology, and seems to have been the teacher of Aetius, the royal physician to Byzantine emperor Justinian I. Not to be confused with Aspasia of Miletus who has a place setting at the table.[146]
Astarte Mythical Phoenicia Ishtar Fertility goddess. The Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Ishtar. She was also worshipped in Egypt.[147]
Atalanta Legendary Greece Sophia Legendary virgin huntress, warrior and athlete, unwilling to marry, she was loved by the hero Meleager.[148]
Athaliah c. 9th century BC Jerusalem Judith Daughter of Jezebel, Queen regent who seized control of the throne of Judah and fought to establish worship of her god, Baal, instead of Yahweh.[149]
Athanarsa c. 790 Byzantine Empire Hrosvitha Saint known for her miraculous healing of the sick and those seen as possessed. She was for a while adviser to the Empress Theodora II.[150]
Athene Mythical Greece Snake Goddess Virgin goddess, warrior and patron of culture, deity of artists and architects, weavers, protector of Athens.[151]
Atira Mythical North America Primordial Goddess Goddess of the Earth in Pawnee mythology. Her name means "Vault of the Sky" .[152]
Augusta Fickert 1855 Austria Susan B. Anthony (Auguste Fickert) Austrian feminist[153] and social reformer.[154]
Augusta Savage 1892 United States Georgia O'Keeffe Influential African-American Sculptor[155] associated with Harlem Renaissance.
Augusta Schmidt 1833 Germany Susan B. Anthony Pioneering German feminist, educator, journalist and women's rights activist.[156]
Augustina Saragossa 1786 Spain Margaret Sanger Also known as Agustina de Aragón, she was the 'Spanish Joan of Arc'. Fought as an officer in the Peninsular War / Spanish War of Independence.[157]
Awashonks 17th century United States Sacajawea Sachem (chief) of the Sakonnet tribe in Rhode Island. Historical figure connected to colonial history of the US.[158]
Axiothea c. 350 BC Greece Aspasia Student of Plato and Speusippus, who studied at the academy dressed as a man.[159]
Baba Petkova 1826 Bulgaria Emily Dickinson Pioneer of women's education. Founded the first girls' schools in Bulgaria when it was under Ottoman rule. Government officials tried to stop her and she was arrested and put on trial. She was released through lack of evidence and continued her campaign to educate women .[160]
Babe Didrikson June 26, 1911 United States Elizabeth Blackwell Excelled at multiple sports in the early-to-mid twentieth century. Olympic gold medalist; in the top ten of multiple "Greatest Athlete" lists.[161]
Baptista Malatesta c. 1384 Italy Isabella d’Este Renaissance poet who was a learned woman of the aristocracy, educated in philosophy, languages, poetry and oratory. She corresponded with other scholars of her time such as Leonardo Bruni.[162]
Baranamtarra -2500c. 2500 BC Sumer Ishtar Co-ruler with her husband city of Lagash, a city in Sumaria. Records which survive show she conducted business and trade in her own right.[163]
Barbara Bodichon 1827 United Kingdom Susan B. Anthony Landscape artist and activist, known for her efforts in women's rights and suffrage campaigns.[164]
Barbara Hepworth 1903 United Kingdom Georgia O’Keeffe Modernist artist and sculptor from England.
Barbara Strozzi 1619 Italy Isabella d'Este Baroque composer and singer
Barbara Uttman c. 1514 Germany Anna van Schurman Established the lacemaking industry in her city around 1560.[165]
Barbe de Verrue 13th century France Eleanor of Aquitaine French Trouvère and singer
Baroness de Beausoleil c. 1600 France Caroline Herschel Pioneering female mining engineer and mineralogist who travelled extensively in Europe in search of mineral deposits.
Basilea Mythical Ancient Greece Boadaceia The first queen of the legendary Kingdom of Atlantis in ancient Greek folk tradition.
Basine c. 438 Thuringia Saint Bridget Queen of Thuringia in the middle of the fifth century.
Bathilde c. 626 Burgundy and Neustria Theodora Anglo-Saxon of noble birth, Wife and Queen of Clovis II and then Queen regent to her son Clotaire II. Led a humble life, published a hagiography and was herself canonised. She instituted many reforms relating to the rights of individuals, abolition of the slave trade in France and equal taxation for men and women.
Bathsua Makin c. 1600 England Anna van Schurman Proto-Feminist, middle-class Englishwoman who contributed to the emerging criticism of woman's position in the domestic and public spheres
Baudonivia 7th century France Hrosvitha French nun and scholar. Created a memoir of saint and convent founder Radegund.
Beatrice de Die c. 1175 French Eleanor of Aquitaine Trobairitz—a female troubadour (poet-musician) in Provence, France.
Beatrice Webb 1858 English Margaret Sanger English socialist, economist and historian. She studied the conditions of the working class in England and wrote numerous books on the root causes of poverty. She co-founded the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Beatrix Galindo 15th century Spain Christine de Pisan Writer, humanist, and a teacher of Queen Isabella of Castile and her children.
Begga 615 Belgium Hrosvitha On the death of her husband, she took the veil, founded seven churches, and built a convent at Andenne on the Meuse River (Andenne sur Meuse) where she spent the rest of her days as abbess. She is a saint. Some hold that the Beguine movement which came to light in the 12th century was actually founded by St Begga; and the church in the beguinage of Lier, Belgium, has a statue of St Begga standing above the inscription: St. Begga, our foundress.
Bel-Shalti-Narrar -540c. 540 BC Babylonia Hatshepsut High priestess, together with father responsible for first museum collection.
Belva Lockwood 1830 United States Elizabeth Blackwell Activist for women's rights, including suffrage, property rights, and education. One of the first female lawyers in the United States, and the first to serve on the Supreme Court. She was also the first woman to appear on a ballot for U.S. president.
Berenguela 1179 or 1180 Spain Hildegarde of Bingen Queen of Castile in 1217 and Queen consort of León from 1197 to 1204. She was responsible for the re-unification of Castile and León under her son's authority, and supported his efforts in the Reconquista. She was a patron of religious institutions and supported the writing of a history of the two countries.
Bernarda de la Cerda 1596 Portugal Anna van Schurman Portuguese scholar, writer and playwright. Her skill was celebrated in verse by the poets Manuel de Gallegos and Lope de Vega [166]
Bertha Lutz 1894 Brazil Susan B. Anthony A Brazilian zoologist, politician, and diplomat. Lutz became a leading figure in both the Pan American feminist movement and human rights movement.
Bertha of England Estimated around c. 565 England Theodora Queen of Kent whose influence led to the Christianization of Anglo-Saxon England. She was canonized as a saint for her role in its establishment during that period of English history.
Bertha of Sulzbach 1110s Germany Trotula First wife and Empress of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus.
Bertha von Suttner 9 June 1843 Austria Emily Dickinson Czech-Austrian pacifist and novelist. In 1905 she was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, thus being the second female Nobel laureate after Marie Curie's 1903 award, and the first Austrian laureate.
Bertha of France 800 France Hrosvitha Daughter of Charlemagne, who forbade his daughters to marry. She focused on scholarly pursuits, but was banished to a convent when her illegitimate children by an official in her father's court were discovered.[167]
Berthe Morisot 1841 France Georgia O’Keeffe Painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt.
Berthildis c. 626 France Hrosvitha A saint, and the wife and queen of Clovis II, the king of Burgundy and Neustria (639–658). From her donations, the abbeys of Corbie and Chelles were founded: it is likely that others such as Jumièges, Jouarre and Luxeuil were also founded by the queen. She provided support for Saint Claudius of Besançon and his abbey in the Jura Mountains.
Bertille Unknown; died 692 France Hrosvitha Saint and abbess of Chelles Abbey in France. She was known for her devotion to self-denial.[168]
Bertha Born between 710 and 727 France Hrosvitha Frankish queen. She was the wife of Pepin the Short and the mother of Charlemagne, Carloman, and Gisela.
Elizabeth Talbot 16th century England Elizabeth R. Notable figure of 16th century Elizabethan English society. Through three marriages she accumulated huge wealth and built on a grand scale, notably Hardwick Hall.[169]
Bessie Smith 1894 United States Sojourner Truth American blues singer, nicknamed the "Empress of the Blues" [170]
Betsy Kjelsberg 1866 Norway Elizabeth Blackwell Norwegian politician for the Liberal Party, being the first female board member of the party, Norway's first female factory inspector from 1910–1936, and a member of the feminist movement.
Bettina von Arnim 1785 Germany Emily Dickinson Writer, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist, an illustrator, patron of young talent, and a social activist. She was the archetype of the Romantic era’s zeitgeist and the crux of many creative relationships of canonical artistic figures.
Bettisia Gozzadini 1209 Italy Trotula An Italian lawyer who flourished around 1250, and lectured in law at the University of Bologna. She reputedly obtained her education disguised as a man and taught from behind a screen so that she would not distract the students. She was probably the first woman to hold a post at a university.
Blanche of Castile 1188 France Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of France as the wife of Louis VIII. She acted as regent twice during the reign of her son, Louis IX.
Blandina Unknown; died 177 Italy Hypatia Christian martyr during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Blodeuwedd Mythical Wales Ishtar Goddess of the white flower.
Bona-Dea Mythical Rome Fertile Goddess "Good Goddess", procreation, agriculture.
Bourgot Unknown France Christine de Pisan Daughter of a French manuscript illuminator active in Paris between 1335 and 1380; she assisted with much of his work.
Bridget Bevan 1698 Wales Mary Wollstonecraft Welsh philanthropist and public benefactor.
Birgitta 1303 Sweden Hildegarde of Bingen Mystic and saint, and founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years. Outside of Sweden, she was also known as the Princess of Nericia and was the mother of Catherine of Vadstena.
Bridget Tott 1610 Denmark Anna van Schurman Produced the first translations of Roman Classical literature into Danish.
Brigh Brigaid 50 Ireland Saint Bridget Celtic brehon (judge). Some of her work was cited as legal precedences for centuries.
Brigid Mythical Celtic Ireland Fertile Goddess Fertility goddess
Britomartis Mythical Crete Snake Goddess Moon goddess, huntress, ruler of women's societies.
Brunhilde 543 Spain, France Theodora Visigoth Queen Regent known for both political acumen and ruthlessness.
Beruiah 1012nd century Palestine Judith Mentioned in the Talmud as a sage with extensive knowledge of Jewish rabbinical law.
Brynhild Mythical Germanic culture Boadaceia Shieldmaiden and a valkyrie in Germanic mythology, where she appears as a main character in the Völsunga saga and some Eddic poems treating the same events. Under the name Brünnhilde she appears in the Nibelungenlied and therefore also in Richard Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. She may be inspired by the Visigothic princess Brunhilda of Austrasia.
Buto Mythical Egypt Snake Goddess Also called Wadjet. The patron and protector of Lower Egypt.
Caelia Macrina Unknown Italy Marcella Known for endowing an alimentary fund for girls, which was more generous to girls than was commonly done at the time.
Cambra Britain circa 4th century Saint Bridget According to John Lewis's The history of Great-Britain : from the first inhabitants thereof, 'till the death of Cadwalader, last king of the Britains, Cambra was known for teaching noblemen to build cities and castles, herself building the cities Neomag and Noepag, giving laws and judgments, and being a prophet.
Camilla Legendary Rome Sophia Hunter, warrior, Diana avenged her death.
Candelaria Figueredo 1852 Cuba Sacajawea Cuban patriot who fought in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain.
Capillana 16th century Peru Sacajawea Peruvian ruler who befriended Spanish conquistadors.
Lady Carcas Legendary France Hrosvitha Legendary Saracen Princess who headed the army of Carcas and saved the city by tricking Charlemagne's forces into believing Carcas was unseizable.
Cardea Mythical Rome Fertile Goddess Goddess of changing seasons.
Carlota Matienzo 1881 Puerto Rico Sacajawea Puerto Rican feminist and educator. Worked for educational reform and one of the founders of two women's rights organizations.
Carlotta Ferrari 1837 Italy Ethel Smyth Italian composer noted for opera.
Carmenta Mythical Italy Sappho Goddess of childbirth and prophecy, associated with technological innovation as well as the protection of mothers and children, and a patron of midwives. She was also said to have invented the Latin alphabet.
Caroline Norton 1808 England Susan B. Anthony An English feminist, social reformer, and author of the early and mid-nineteenth century. Caroline abandoned her husband in 1836, following which her husband sued her close friend Lord Melbourne, the then Whig Prime Minister, for criminal conversation. The jury threw out the claim, but Caroline was unable to obtain a divorce and was denied access to her three sons. Caroline's intense campaigning led to the passing of the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 and the Married Women's Property Act 1870. Caroline modelled for the fresco of Justice in the House of Lords by Daniel Maclise, who chose her because she was seen by many as a famous victim of injustice.
Caroline Schlegel 1763 Germany Mary Wollstonecraft Noted German intellectual.
Carrie Chapman Catt 1859 America Susan B. Anthony American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920. Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women.
Carrie Nation 1846 America Susan B. Anthony American woman who was a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol before the advent of Prohibition. She is particularly noteworthy for attacking alcohol-serving establishments (most often taverns) with a hatchet.
Cartismandua 43 England Boadaceia 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England. She came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome. Our only knowledge of her is through the Roman historian Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain.
Cassandra Fidelis circa 1465 Italy Isabella d’Este Most renowned woman scholar in Italy during the last decades of the Quattrocento.
Cassandra Legendary Greece Sophia Apollo fell in love with her, among other tales.
Caterina Cornaro 1454 Cyprus Isabella d’Este The last Queen of Cyprus from 26 August 1474 to 26 February 1489 and declared a "Daughter of Saint Mark" in order that Venice could claim control of Cyprus after the death of her husband, James II ("James the Bastard").
Caterina Sforzia 1463 Italy Isabella d’Este Italian noblewoman and Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola firstly with her husband Girolamo Riario, and after his death as a regent of her son Ottaviano.
Caterina van Hemessen 1528 Antwerp, Southern Netherlands Artemisia Gentileschi Renaissance painter. She was a member of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke.
Catharine Fisher Unknown; died after 1577 Netherlands Elizabeth R. Dutch woman who fled to England to escape religious persecution during the 16th Century. According to Venator, Tishem was a remarkably erudite woman, fluent in Latin, Greek, French, Italian, and English. She supervised the education of her son, who became a celebrated classical scholar.
Catherine Beecher 1800 America Margaret Sanger American educator known for her forthright opinions on female education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education.
Catherine de Rambouillet 1588 France Natalie Barney Society hostess and a major figure in the literary history of 17th-century France.
Catherine Deshayes circa 1640 France Petronilla de Meath French fortune teller, poisoner and an alleged sorceress, one of the chief personages in the affaire des poisons, during the reign of Louis XIV. Her cult (Affair of the Poisons) was suspected to have killed anywhere between 1000-2500 people in Black Masses.
Catherine Greene 1755 America Anne Hutchinson Wife of the American Revolutionary War general Nathanael Greene, mother of five and noted for being a supporter of the inventor Eli Whitney.
Catherine circa 282 Italy Hypatia According to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius.
Catherine of Aragon 1485 England Elizabeth R. Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Prince Arthur.
Catherine Adorni 1447 Italy Isabella d’Este Italian Roman Catholic saint and mystic, admired for her work among the sick and the poor and remembered because of various writings describing both these actions and her mystical experiences.
Catherine of Siena 1347 Italy Hildegarde of Bingen Tertiary of the Dominican Order and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian. She also worked to bring the papacy of Gregory XI back to Rome from its displacement in France and to establish peace among the Italian city-states. Since 18 June 1939, she is one of the two patron saints of Italy, together with St. Francis of Assisi. On 3 October 1970, she was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI.
Catherine Pavlovna 1788 Russia / Germany Elizabeth R. Daughter of Paul I, emperor of Russia her second marriage to Wilhelm, crown prince of Württemberg allowed her to create the earliest welfare state in Europe.[171]
Catherine II (The Great) 1729 Russia Elizabeth R. Most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia. An example of an enlightened despot, she was a correspondent of Voltaire and an amateur opera librettist. Catherine presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment.[172]
Celia Fiennes 1662 England Mary Wollstonecraft Diarist and travel writer.[173]
Cerridwen Mythical Wales Ishtar Barley and moon goddess who symbolised the continuous cycle of life and death.[174]
Caritas Pirckheimer 1466 Germany Anna van Schurman Learned woman who maintained a correspondence with many of the great scholars of her day.[175]
Charlotte Brontë 1816 England Emily Dickinson Author of the novel Jane Eyre which mirrors Brontë's own struggle for integrity and self-sufficiency.[176]
Charlotte Corday 1768 France Mary Wollstonecraft Assassin of French Revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat. At her trial, Corday revealed her idealistic ambition, allegedly proclaiming, "I killed one man to save 100,000."[177]
Charlotte Guest 1812 Britain Elizabeth Blackwell English aristocrat who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of The Mabinogion which is the earliest prose literature of Britain. Guest established The Mabinogion as a source literature of Europe, claiming this recognition among literati in the context of contemporary passions for the Chivalric romance of King Arthur and the Gothic movement.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman 1860 America Susan B. Anthony Prominent American feminist, sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was a utopian feminist during a time when her accomplishments were exceptional for women, and she served as a role model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts and lifestyle. Her best remembered work today is her semi-autobiographical short story "The Yellow Wallpaper" which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis.
Chicomecoatl Mythical Mesoamerica Snake Goddess Maize goddess.
Chiomara Unknown Turkey Boadaceia Galatian noblewoman and the wife of Orgiagon, chieftain of the Tectosagi, one of three Galatian tribes during the Galatian War with Rome, of 189 BC.
Christabel Pankhurst 1880 England Susan B. Anthony Suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913. In 1914 she supported the war against Germany. After the war she moved to the United States, where she worked as an evangelist for the Second Adventist movement.
Christina of Sweden 1626 Sweden Elizabeth R. Queen regent of Sweden for a brief period, but abdicated and went to Italy where she became involved in music and theater. Scandalized the Swedish court with her androgynous appearance and penchant for cross dressing, though the truth of her sexuality and gender identity is not truly known.[178]
Christina Rossetti 1830 United Kingdom Emily Dickinson English poet famous for her long poem Goblin Market.
Circe Legendary Greece Sophia Appeared in the Odyssey, turned men into swine, lived alone on her island.
Clara Barton 1821 America Elizabeth Blackwell Pioneering nurse who founded the American Red Cross. She worked as a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, and as a teacher and patent clerk. Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work at a time when relatively few women worked outside the home.
Clara Hatzerlin 1430 Germany Christine de Pisan Professional scribe in 15th century Augsburg.
Clara Schumann 1819 Germany Ethel Smyth German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era. She exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital and the tastes of the listening public. She was the first to perform publicly any work by Brahms.
Clara Zetkin 1857 Germany Margaret Sanger German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights.[1] In 1911, she organized the first International Women's Day. Until 1917, she was active in the Social Democratic Party of Germany, then she joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) and its far-left wing, the Spartacist League; this later became the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), which she represented in the Reichstag during the Weimar Republic from 1920 to 1933.
Clare of Assisi 1194 Italy Hildegarde of Bingen Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares.
Claricia 13th century Germany Hrosvitha German illuminator who included a self-portrait in a South German psalter of c.1200.
Claudine de Tencin 1682 France Natalie Barney French salonist and author.
Clémence Royer 1830 France Elizabeth Blackwell Self-taught French scholar who lectured and wrote on economics, philosophy, science and feminism. She is best known for her controversial 1862 French translation of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Cleobuline Ancient times. Greece Sappho Ancient Greek poet. She wrote poetry in hexameter verse and was particularly skilled in writing riddles or enigmas. Aristotle quotes her in both his Poetics and the Rhetoric. She was sufficiently well-known to be satirized in a play by the comic dramatist Cratinus.
Cleopatra 69 BC Egypt Boadaceia The last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Clodia c. 95 BC Ancient Rome Hypatia One of three known daughters of the ancient Roman patrician Appius Claudius Pulcher and either Caecilia Metella Balearica, or her cousin, Caecilia Metella daughter of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Diadematus. Her life, immortalized in the writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero and also, it is generally believed, in the poems of Gaius Valerius Catullus, was characterized by perpetual scandal.
Clotilda 475 France Theodora Venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church, she was instrumental in her husband Clovis I's famous conversion to Catholicism and, in her later years, was known for her almsgiving and penitential works of mercy.
Clytemnestra Legendary Greece Sophia Sister of Helen of Troy, she murdered her second husband, who forced her to marry him and had her daughter sacrificed.
Coatlicue Mythical Mesoamerica Kali Aztec earth goddess
Cobhlair Mor Unknown, died 1395 Ireland Christine de Pisan Affluent Irish woman and the preserver of Gaelic customs at a time when they were being undermined by Edward III of England.
Colette 1873 France Virginia Woolf French novelist and performer. She is best known for her novel Gigi, the basis for the film and Lerner and Loewe stage production of the same title. Colette was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948.
Constance Lytton 1869 Britain Susan B. Anthony Influential British suffragette activist, writer, speaker and campaigner for prison reform, votes for women, and birth control. She sometimes used the name Jane Warton.
Constantia 1154 Sicily Trotula Heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily and the wife of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Queen of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her husband from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198.
Corinna of Tanagra Unknown; her life is traditionally attributed to the 6th century BC Greece Sappho Ancient Greek poet. According to ancient sources such as Plutarch and Pausanias, she came from Tanagra in Boeotia, where she was a teacher and rival to the better-known Theban poet Pindar. Although two of her poems survive in epitome, most of her work is preserved in papyrus fragments.
Cornelia Scipio Around 54 BC Ancient Rome Hypatia Sister of Cornelius Scipio, and the elder half-sister of Julia the Elder. Cornelia died in the same year of her brother's consulship; if this brother is identified as P. Cornelius Scipio, the date was 16 BC. Emperor Augustus, her stepfather, grieved her death as he found her a worthy elder sister to his daughter, Julia. The poet Propertius wrote an elegy of Cornelia for her funeral, praising her virtue and family, including Scipio and Scribonia.
Cornelia Gracchi 190 BC Ancient Rome Hypatia Second daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the hero of the Second Punic War, and Aemilia Paulla. She is remembered as a prototypical example of a virtuous Roman woman.
Cresilla Ancient times Greece Sappho Judy Chicago believes she was a female sculptor who won the third honor in a competition to sculpt seven Amazons for the Temple of Diana at Ephesus; the first honor was given to Polyclitus, and the second to Phidias.[179][180] However, it is believed by the Brooklyn Museum that he was actually a male sculptor called Kresilas who did those things, and was mistakenly included in the The Dinner Party.[181]
Cristina Trivulzio 1808 Italy Natalie Barney Italian noblewoman who played a prominent part in Italy's struggle for independence. She is also notable as a writer and journalist.
Sibyl of Cumae c. 500 BC Rome Sophia Prophet
Cunegund circa 975 Luxembourg Hildegarde of Bingen Saint and the wife of Holy Roman Emperor Saint Henry II.
Cybele Mythical Phrygia Ishtar Mountain mother, personification of earth
Cynane Unknown; died BC Macedon Boadaceia Half-sister to Alexander the Great, and daughter of Philip II by Audata, an Illyrian princess. Polyaenus writes, "Cynane, the daughter of Philip was famous for her military knowledge: she conducted armies, and in the field charged at the head of them. In an engagement with the Illyrians, she with her own hand slew Caeria their queen; and with great slaughter defeated the Illyrian army."
Cynisca c. 440 BC Greece Aspasia Greek princess of Sparta who became the first woman in history to win at the ancient Olympic Games.
Damo c. 500 BC Greece Aspasia Pythagorean philosopher said by many to have been the daughter of Pythagoras and Theano.
Danielis Flourished 9th century Greece Theodora Widowed Byzantine noblewoman from Patras.[182]
Danu (Irish goddess) Mythical Celtic Ireland Fertile Goddess Goddess of plenty
Daphne Legendary Greece Sophia Nymph, hunter
Deborah Sampson 1760 America Anne Hutchinson Woman who disguised herself as a man in order to serve in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. She is part of a small number of women with a documented record of military combat experience in that war. She served 17 months in the army, as "Robert Shurtliff" of Uxbridge, Massachusetts, was wounded in 1782 and honorably discharged at West Point, New York in 1783.
Deborah Ancient times Israel Judith Prophet of the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel, counselor, warrior, and the wife of Lapidoth according to the Book of Judges chapters 4 and 5. The only female judge mentioned in the Bible, Deborah led a successful counterattack against the forces of Jabin king of Canaan and his military commander Sisera; the narrative is recounted in chapter 4. Judges chapter 5 gives the same story in poetic form. This passage, often called The Song of Deborah, may date to as early as the 12th century BC and is perhaps the earliest sample of Hebrew poetry.
Demeter Mythical Greece Snake Goddess Goddess of agriculture
Dervorguilla c. 1210 Scotland Eleanor of Aquitaine 'Lady of substance' in 13th century Scotland, the wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of John I, a future king of Scotland.
Dhuoda c. 803 France Hrosvitha Author of the Liber Manualis, a handbook written for her son.
Dido c. 850 BC North Africa Hatshepsut Phoenician princess, founded Carthage
Diemud About 1060 Germany Hrosvitha Recluse at Wessobrunn Abbey in Upper Bavaria, Germany.
Diotima Ancient times Greece Aspasia Philosopher and priestess who plays an important role in Plato's Symposium. Her ideas are the origin of the concept of Platonic love. Since the only source concerning her is Plato, it is uncertain whether she was a real historical personage or merely a fictional creation; however, nearly all of the characters named in Plato's dialogues have been found to correspond to real people living in ancient Athens
Djuna Barnes 1892 America Natalie Barney American journalist, playwright, poet, short-story writer, and visual artist, whose work continues to “beguile, excite and inspire readers”. She is best known for her novel Nightwood (1936, England; 1937 United States), which is a masterpiece of high modernism.
Dolores Ibárruri 1895 Spain Margaret Sanger Spanish Republican leader of the Spanish Civil War and communist politician of Basque origin.
Dorcas 1st century Israel Marcella Christian disciple who lived in Joppa, referenced in the Book of Acts (9:36–42) in the New Testament.
Doris Lessing 1919 Britain Virginia Woolf British novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer.
Dorotea Bucca 1360 Italy Isabella d’Este Italian physician. Little is known of her life, except that she held a chair of medicine and philosophy at the University of Bologna for over forty years from 1390.
Dorothea Dix 1802 Italy Margaret Sanger American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
Dorothea Lange 1895 America Georgia O’Keeffe Influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the consequences of the Great Depression and influenced the development of documentary photography.
Dorothea Leporin-Erxleben 1715 Germany Caroline Herschel First female medical doctor in Germany
Dorothea von Rodde 1770 Germany Elizabeth Blackwell German scholar and the first woman to receive a doctor of philosophy degree in Germany. She was one of the so-called Universitätsmamsellen, a group of five academically active women during the 18th-and 19th centuries, daughters of academics at Göttingen University, alongside Meta Forkel-Liebeskind, Therese Huber, Philippine Engelhard, and Caroline Schelling.
Dorothy Arzner 1897 America Georgia O’Keeffe American film director whose career in feature films spanned from the silent era of the late 1920s into the early 1940s. She was one of the very few women who established a name for herself as a director in the film industry during this time. Her body of work remains to this day the largest by a woman director within the studio system.
Dorothy Richardson 1873 Britain Virginia Woolf British author and journalist. Author of Pilgrimage, a sequence of 13 novels, she was one of the earliest modernist novelists to use stream of consciousness as a narrative technique. Richardson also emphasizes in Pilgrimage the importance and distinct nature of female experiences.
Dorothy Wordsworth 1771 England Caroline Herschel English author, poet and diarist. She had no ambitions to be an author, and her writings consist only of series of letters, diary entries, poems and short stories.
Douceline de Digne c. 1215 France Hildegarde of Bingen Founder of the Beguines of Marseilles and the subject of a vita that survives today, The Life of Douceline de Digne.
Eachtach Mythical Ireland Boadaceia In one version of a myth, Eachtach begged Fionn to help her father but he refused. To avenge her father’s death, Eachtach gathered her brothers into an army and harried Fionn for four years until he was near death from the constant battles. In the end, however, Eachtach did not manage to kill Fionn.
Eadburga Flourished from 787 to 802 England Hrosvitha Wife of King Beorhtric of Wessex; according to Asser's Life of Alfred the Great she accidentally killed her husband by poison. She fled to Francia, where she is said to have been offered the chance of marrying Charlemagne, but ruined the opportunity. Instead she was appointed as the abbess of a convent. Here she is said to have fornicated with an English exile. As a result, she was eventually expelled from the monastery and ended her days begging in the streets of Pavia.
Eanswith Circa 614 England Hrosvitha Anglo Saxon princess. In 630, Eanswith founded the Benedictine Folkestone Priory, the first nunnery in England.
Ebba Unknown; died 870 Scotland Hrosvitha Abbess of Coldingham Priory in south-east Scotland.
Edith Cavell 1865 England Elizabeth Blackwell British nurse celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from both sides without discrimination and in helping some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during the First World War, for which she was arrested and executed.
Edith Evans 1888 England Georgia O’Keeffe English actress best known for her work on the stage, but also appeared in films towards the beginning and end of her career.
Edith c. 1025 England Eleanor of Aquitaine English Queen who was also a highly educated, multilingual royal advisor. Was crowned, unlike most queens of her era.
Edith Sitwell 1887 Britain Virginia Woolf British poet and critic and the eldest of the three literary Sitwells. Her home was always open to London's poetic circle, to whom she was unfailingly generous and helpful. Sitwell published poetry continuously from 1913, some of it abstract and set to music. With her dramatic style and exotic costumes, sometimes she was labelled a poseur, but consistently, her work was praised for its solid technique and painstaking craftsmanship.
Edith Wharton 1862 America Virginia Woolf Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, short story writer, and designer.
Edmonia Lewis circa 1844 America Sojourner Truth African American and Native American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome. She gained fame and recognition as a sculptor in the international fine arts world. Her work is known for incorporating themes relating to black and American Indian people into Neoclassical style sculpture. By the end of the 19th century, she was the only black woman who had participated in and been recognized to any degree by the American artistic mainstream.
Edna St. Vincent Millay 1892 United States Virginia Woolf Pulitzer prize-winning lyrical poet and playwright; feminist activist; bisexual icon
Egee Legendary, 12th century BC Libya Amazon Amazonian leader of women's army
Ehyophsta Unknown; died 1915 America Sacajawea Cheyenne woman who fought in the Battle of Beecher Island in 1868, and also fought the Shoshone that same year, where she counted coup against one enemy and killed another. She fought the Shoshone again in 1869. She was also a member of a secret society composed exclusively of Cheyenne women.
Eileen Gray 1878 Ireland Georgia O’Keeffe Irish furniture designer and architect and a pioneer of the Modern Movement in architecture.
Eleanor Roosevelt 1884 America Margaret Sanger American politician, diplomat, and activist.
Eleonora Duse 1858 Italy Georgia O’Keeffe Italian actress, often known simply as Duse. She was the subject of the 1947 biographical film Eleonora Duse.
Elfrida Andree 1841 Sweden Ethel Smyth Swedish organist, composer, and conductor.
Elin Kallio 1859 Finland Elizabeth Blackwell Celebrated pioneering Finnish gymnast, considered the founder of the women’s gymnastic movement in Finland.
Elisabeth de La Guerre 1665 France Ethel Smyth French musician, harpsichordist and composer.
Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun 1755 France Artemisia Gentileschi Prominent French painter.
Elisabetta Gonzaga 1471 Italy Isabella d’Este Influential noblewoman of the Italian Renaissance.
Elisabetta Sirani 1638 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi Italian Baroque painter and printmaker who died in still-unexplained circumstances at the early age of 27. She was the most famous woman artist in early modern Bologna and established an academy for other women artists.
Eliška Krásnohorská 1847 Czech Republic Susan B. Anthony Czech feminist author.
Eliza Lucas Pinckney 1722 America Anne Hutchinson Woman who changed agriculture in colonial South Carolina, where she developed indigo as one of its most important cash crops. Its cultivation and processing as dye produced one-third the total value of the colony's exports before the Revolutionary War. Manager of three plantations, she had a major influence on the colonial economy.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1806 England Emily Dickinson One of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian era. Her poetry was widely popular in both Britain and the United States during her lifetime.
Elizabeth Bekker 1738 The Netherlands Emily Dickinson Dutch writer
Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1815 America Susan B. Anthony American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.
Elizabeth Carter 1717 England Mary Wollstonecraft English poet, classicist, writer and translator, and a member of the Bluestocking Circle.
Elizabeth Cellier Flourished 1668–1688, London, England England Caroline Herschel Catholic midwife in seventeenth-century England. She stood trial for treason in 1679 for her alleged part in the "Meal-Tub Plot" against the future James II but was acquitted. She later became a pamphleteer and made attempts to advance the field of midwifery.
Elizabeth Cheron 1648 France Artemisia Gentileschi 17th century poet, musician, artist, and academic.
Elizabeth Danviers 1545/1550 England Elizabeth R. English noblewoman.
Elizabeth Druzbacka 1695 or 1698 Poland Emily Dickinson Polish poet.
Elizabeth Farren circa 1759 England Artemisia Gentileschi English actress of the late 18th century.
Elizabeth Fry 1780 England Margaret Sanger English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons". Fry was a major driving force behind new legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane, and she was supported in her efforts by the reigning monarch.
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson 1836 England Elizabeth Blackwell English physician and feminist, the first Englishwoman to qualify as a physician and surgeon in Britain, the co-founder of the first hospital staffed by women, the first dean of a British medical school, the first female doctor of medicine in France, the first woman in Britain to be elected to a school board and, as Mayor of Aldeburgh, the first female mayor and magistrate in Britain.
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 1890 America Margaret Sanger Labor leader, activist, and feminist who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Flynn was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union and a visible proponent of women's rights, birth control, and women's suffrage. She joined the Communist Party USA in 1936 and late in life, in 1961, became its chairwoman. She died during a visit to the Soviet Union, where she was accorded a state funeral.
Elizabeth Hamilton She was most probably born on 25 July 1756, though the date is often given as 1758. Scotland Mary Wollstonecraft Scottish essayist, poet, satirist and novelist.
Elizabeth Hoby 1528 England Elizabeth R. English noblewoman. She was an influential member of Queen Elizabeth I's court and was known in her time for her refined poetry as well as her musical talent. In 1596, she was a vocal opponent of the reconstruction of Blackfriars Theatre in that London district.
Jane Weston 1582 England, Czech Republic Elizabeth R. English-Czech poet, mostly known for her Neo-Latin poetry. She had the unusual distinction for a woman of the time of having her poetry published.
Elizabeth Lucar 1510 England Elizabeth R. English calligrapher. She was the author of Curious Calligraphy (1525) the first English essay on calligraphy, and she was also fluent in Latin, Spanish, and Italian, and an accomplished musician and needleworker.
Elizabeth Montagu 1718 England Mary Wollstonecraft British Social reformer and founder of Bluestockings group.
Elizabeth Ney 1833 Germany, America Georgia O’Keeffe Celebrated German-born sculptor who spent the first half of her life and career in Europe, producing sculpted works of famous leaders such as Otto von Bismarck, Giuseppe Garibaldi and King George V of Hanover. At age 39, she immigrated to Texas with her husband Edmund Montgomery and became a pioneer in the development of art there. Some of her most famous works during her Texas period included sculptures of Sam Houston and Stephen F. Austin. Her works can be found in the Texas State Capitol, the US Capitol, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Elizabeth 1207 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen Princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness. Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20. After her husband's death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized.
Elizabeth of Schönau 1126 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen German Benedictine visionary.
Elizabeth Petrovna 1709 Russia Elizabeth R. Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
Elizabeth Southern Unknown England Petronilla de Meath One of the accused witches in the trials of the Pendle witches in 1612, which are among the most famous witch trials in English history, and some of the best recorded of the 17th century. She died while awaiting trial.
Elizabeth Stagel c. 1300 Switzerland Hrosvitha Dominican nun and prioress of the Töss Convent.
Elizabeth Vesey 1715 Ireland Mary Wollstonecraft Wealthy intellectual connected to the Bluestockings group - a women's social and educational circle.
Ellen Richards 1842 America Margaret Sanger Industrial and environmental chemist in the United States during the 19th century.
Elpinice Flourished c. 450 BC Greece Aspasia Noble woman of classical Athens.
Emilia Pardo-Bazán 1851 Spain Virginia Woolf Galician (Spanish) novelist, journalist, essayist, critic and scholar from Galicia.
Emilie du Chatelet 1706 France Caroline Herschel French mathematician, physicist, and author during the Age of Enlightenment. Her main achievement is considered to be her translation and commentary on Isaac Newton's work Principia Mathematica. The translation, published posthumously in 1759, is still considered the standard French translation.
Emilie Snethlage 1868 Germany and Brazil Elizabeth Blackwell German-born Brazilian naturalist and ornithologist who worked on the bird fauna of the Amazon. Snethlage collected in Brazil from 1905 until her death.
Emily Blackwell 1826 England and the United States Elizabeth Blackwell Second woman to earn a medical degree at what is now Case Western Reserve University, and the third openly identified woman to earn a medical degree in the United States.
Emily Brontë 1818 England Emily Dickinson Author of the novel Wuthering Heights which challenged strict Victorian ideals of the day, including religious hypocrisy, morality, social classes and gender inequality.
Emily Carr 1871 Canada Georgia O’Keeffe Canadian artist and writer heavily inspired by the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. One of the first painters in Canada to adopt a Modernist and Post-Impressionist painting style.
Emily Faithfull 1835 England Elizabeth Blackwell English women's rights activist, and publisher.
Emma Goldman 1869 Russia and the United States Margaret Sanger Anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century.
Emma Paterson 1848 England Margaret Sanger An English feminist and trade unionist.
Emma Willard 1787 America Emily Dickinson American women's rights activist who dedicated her life to education. She worked in several schools and founded the first school for women's higher education, the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York. With the success of her school, Willard was able to travel across the country and abroad, to promote education for women. The Troy Female Seminary was renamed the Emma Willard School in 1895 in her honor.
Emmeline Pankhurst 1858 England Susan B. Anthony British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.
Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence 1867 England Susan B. Anthony British women's rights activist.
Emmy Noether 1882 Germany and the United States Elizabeth Blackwell German mathematician known for her contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. She was described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, and Norbert Wiener as the most important woman in the history of mathematics. As one of the leading mathematicians of her time, she developed the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether's theorem explains the connection between symmetry and conservation laws.
Enheduanna c. 2050 BC Sumer Ishtar Sumerian priestess of Inanna. Earliest recorded author. Wrote poetry and hymns.
Ende Unknown Spain Hrosvitha Manuscript illuminator who worked on a 10th-century group of manuscripts, of which there are 24 known copies with illustrations. These manuscripts contain the Commentary on the Apocalypse compiled by the Spanish monk Beatus of Liébana in 786. Her signature appears in the Beatus located now at the Girona cathedral, known as Girona Beatus but maybe she worked in some other codex.
Engleberga c. 830 Italy Theodora Wife of Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor, she remained the Holy Roman Empress to his death on 12 August 875, although she did not play a role in political life until after the death of his father, Lothair I, in 855.
Epicharis unknown; died 65 Ancient Rome Hypatia An Ancient Roman freedwoman and a member of the Pisonian conspiracy against the emperor Nero
Ereshkigal Mythical Sumer Kali Goddess of death
Erinna Flourished about 600 BC (however, according to Eusebius, she was well known in 352 BC) Greece Sappho Greek poet. Her best-known poem was the Distaff (Greek Ἠλᾰκάτη).
Esther -480Biblical, flourished c. 450 BC Persia Judith Eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther.
Etheldreda About 636 England Trotula An Anglo-Saxon saint known, particularly in a religious context, as Etheldreda or Audrey. She was an East Anglian princess, a Fenland and Northumbrian queen and Abbess of Ely.
Ethylwyn Unknown England Hrosvitha A tenth century noblewoman known for her embroidery work and encounter with Saint Dunstan.
Eugenia Unknown; died c. 258 Ancient Rome Saint Bridget An early Christian Roman martyr.
Europa Mythical Crete Snake Goddess Carried off to Crete by Zeus, married King of Crete, Minos.
Euryleon Fl. c. 370 BC Ancient Greece Aspasia A celebrated woman Olympic charioteer. Euryleonis was an athlete from Sparta who won the 2 horse chariot races of the Ancient Olympic Games in 368 BC. She is sometimes referred to a princess, wealthy woman, and horse breeder.
Eurynome Mythical Greece Primordial Goddess Goddess of all things
Eurypyle Mythical Near East Amazon Amazon leader of women's expedition against Babylon
Eustochium c. 368 Rome and Palestine Marcella A saint and an early Desert Mother.
Eve Ancient times Garden of Eden; rest of world Judith A figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. According to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman.
Failge Unknown; died 1451 Ireland Eleanor of Aquitaine A fifteenth-century Gaelic Irish noblewoman (d. 1451 in Ireland) who was mainly remembered for her hospitality and piety. She earned the nickname Mairgréag an Einigh ('Margaret of the Hospitality') after hosting two incredible feasts in the year 1433 and went on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in 1445.
Fanny Burney 1752 England Emily Dickinson An English novelist, diarist and playwright.
Fanny Mendelssohn 1805 Germany Ethel Smyth A German pianist and composer.
Faustina Bordoni 1697 Italy Ethel Smyth An Italian mezzo-soprano.
Fede Galizia 1578 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi An Italian Renaissance painter, a pioneer of the still life genre.
Federica Montseny 1905 Spain Margaret Sanger A Spanish anarchist, intellectual and Minister of Health during the social revolution that occurred in Spain parallel to the Civil War. She is also known as a novelist and essayist.
Fibors c. 1130 France Eleanor of Aquitaine The earliest attestable trobairitz, active during the classical period of medieval Occitan literature at the height of the popularity of the troubadours.
Finola O'Donnel Unknown; died 1528 Ireland Hildegarde of Bingen A 15th-century Irish noblewoman remembered for cofounding the Franciscan Monastery in Donegal.
Flavia Julia Helena c.  250 Ancient Rome Marcella The consort of the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the emperor Constantine the Great. She is an important figure in the history of Christianity and the world due to her major influence on her son and her own contributions in placing Christianity at the heart of Western Civilization.
Florence Nightingale 1820 England Elizabeth Blackwell A celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War, where she organized the tending to wounded soldiers.
Fortuna Mythical Rome Snake Goddess Goddess of turning wheel, divination, fertility
Frances Brooke 1724 England Emily Dickinson An English novelist, essayist, playwright, and translator.
Frances Harper 1825 America Sojourner Truth An African-American abolitionist, poet and author. She was also active in other types of social reform and was a member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, which advocated the federal government taking a role in progressive reform.
Frances Perkins 1880 America Margaret Sanger The U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.
Frances Power Cobbe 1822 Ireland Susan B. Anthony An Irish writer, social reformer, anti-vivisection activist, and leading women's suffrage campaigner
Frances Willard 1839 America Susan B. Anthony An American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist.
Frances Wright 1825 Scotland, America Susan B. Anthony A Scottish-born lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist, and social reformer, who became a U. S. citizen in 1825. That year she founded the Nashoba Commune in Tennessee as a utopian community to prepare slaves for emancipation, intending to create an egalitarian place, but it lasted only three years. Her Views of Society and Manners in America (1821) brought her the most attention as a critique of the new nation.
Francesca Caccini 1587 Italy Isabella d’Este An Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher of the early Baroque era. She was also known by the nickname "La Cecchina", originally given to her by the Florentines and probably a diminutive of "Francesca". She was the daughter of Giulio Caccini. Her only surviving stage work, La liberazione di Ruggiero, is widely considered the oldest opera by a woman composer.
Francesca of Salerno Unknown Italy Trotula A possibly historic, possibly legendary female figure, Trota of Salerno, a physician and medical writer who was associated with one of three texts on women's medicine, the Trotula, that were composed in the southern Italian port town of Salerno in the 12th century.
Francisca de Lebrija Unknown Spain Christine de Pisan A 16th-century lecturer at the University of Alcalá de Henares in Spain.
Françoise de Maintenon 1635 France Mary Wollstonecraft The second wife of King Louis XIV of France. Her marriage to the king was never officially announced or admitted, though she was very influential at court. She started a school for girls from poorer noble families.
Frau Ava c. 1060 Germany Hrosvitha The first named female writer in any genre in the German language.
Frau Cramer 1656 Germany, The Netherlands Caroline Herschel An accomplished Dutch midwife, known for her extensive journal of birthing accounts in the Early Modern Era.
Fredegund Unknown; died 597 France Theodora The Queen consort of Chilperic I, the Merovingian Frankish king of Soissons.
Frederika Bremer 1801 Sweden Susan B. Anthony A Swedish writer and a feminist activist. She had a large influence on the social development in Sweden, especially in feminist issues.
Freya Mythical Norway Fertile Goddess Goddess of love, marriage, fertility
Frida Kahlo 1907 Mexico Georgia O’Keeffe A Mexican painter who is best known for her self-portraits.
Frija Mythical Germany Fertile Goddess Goddess of marriage, love and home
Gabriela Mistral 1889 Chile Virginia Woolf A Chilean poet-diplomat, educator and feminist. She was the first Latin American to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Gabriele Münter 1877 Germany Georgia O’Keeffe A German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century.
Gabrielle Petit 1893 Belgium Margaret Sanger A Belgian woman who spied for the British Secret Service during World War I. Executed in 1916, she became a Belgian national heroine after the war's end.
Gaia (mythology) Mythical Greece Primordial Goddess Earth mother
Galla Placidia 388 Ancient Rome Marcella Daughter of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, she was the Regent for Emperor Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life. She was consort to Ataulf, King of the Goths from 414 until his death in 415, and briefly Empress consort to Constantius III in 421.
Gaspara Stampa 1523 Italy Isabella d’Este An Italian poet. She is considered to have been the greatest woman poet of the Italian Renaissance, and she is regarded by many as the greatest Italian woman poet of any age.
Gebjon Mythical Sweden Primordial Goddess Fertility goddess
Geillis Duncan Unknown Scotland Petronilla de Meath Scottish woman accused of being a witch.
Genevieve d'Arconville 1720 France Caroline Herschel A French author and chemist.
Genevieve c. 419 France Saint Bridget The patron saint of Paris in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition.
George Eliot 22 November 1819 England Emily Dickinson Author, translator, journalist. Wrote Middlemarch, Silas Marner, Daniel Deronda, Adam Bede, among other works.
George Sand 1804 France Emily Dickinson A French novelist and memoirist.
Georgiana Cavendish 1757 England Elizabeth R. The first wife of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and mother of the 6th Duke of Devonshire.
Germaine de Staël 1766 France, Switzerland Mary Wollstonecraft An important writer, and one of Napoleon's main opponents.
Gertrude Käsebier 1852 America Georgia O’Keeffe One of the most influential American photographers of the early 20th century.
Gertrude of Hackeborn 1232 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen The abbess of the Benedictine convent of Helfta, near Eisleben in modern Germany.
Gertrude of Nivelles c. 621 Belgium Hrosvitha A seventh-century abbess who, with her mother Itta, founded the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles in present-day Belgium.
Gertrude Stein 1874 United States, France Natalie Barney Celebrated modernist writer, poet, and playwright.
Gertrude Svensen 1656 Sweden Petronilla de Meath A confessed witch whose confession marked the beginning of the Mora witch trial and eventually the Swedish witch trials.
Gertrude the Great 1256 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen A German Benedictine, mystic, and theologian.
Gisela of Kerzenbroeck Unknown; died by 1300 Germany Hrosvitha A nun in the northern German city of Rulle who probably worked most of her life writing and illustrating manuscripts, as well as being choirmistress.
Gisela 757 France Hrosvitha A nun at Chelles Abbey, where she was eventually made abbess.
Giustina Renier Michiel 1755 Italy Caroline Herschel An aristocratic woman who helped intellectual and social Venetian life flourish.
Glueckel von Hameln 1646 Germany Anna van Schurman A Jewish businesswoman and diarist, whose account of life provides scholars with an intimate picture of German Jewish communal life in the late-17th-early 18th century Jewish ghetto.
Golda Meir 1898 Kiev, Russian Empire, Present-day Ukraine; Israel Margaret Sanger Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, one of 24 signatories (including two women) of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.
Goody Glover Unknown; died 1688 Ireland, America Petronilla de Meath The last person to be hanged in Boston as a witch, which occurred in 1688, although the Salem witch trials in nearby Salem, Massachusetts occurred mainly in 1692.
Gormlaith c. 960 Ireland Hrosvitha Supposedly the cause of the Battle of Clontarf in 1014 due to encouraging the fighting, although this was only recorded in writing long after her death and thus is probably not true.
Grace O'Malley c. 1530 Ireland Elizabeth R. Ran a shipping and trading business inherited from her father; sometimes considered a pirate.
Gracia Mendesa 1510 Portugal and Syria Elizabeth R. One of the wealthiest Jewish women of Renaissance Europe.
Guda Unknown Germany Hrosvitha A 12th-century nun and illuminator.
Guillemine Unknown; died 1279-82 Italy Petronilla de Meath A woman who preached that she would be resurrected as the Holy Spirit incarnate, and that this would lead to a new church led by women.
Gunda Beeg Unknown Germany Susan B. Anthony She was a women's dress reformer who helped found the first German organization for women's dress reform and designed a new uniform blouse for the German telephone and postal service.
Hannah Adams 1755 America Anne Hutchinson An author of books on comparative religion and early US history. She was the first woman in the United States who worked professionally as a writer.
Hannah Arendt 1906 Germany, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, France, and America Virginia Woolf A German-born political theorist.
Hannah Crocker 1752 America Anne Hutchinson An American essayist and one of the first advocates of women's rights in America.
Hannah Höch 1889 Germany Georgia O’Keeffe A German Dada artist.
Hannah More 1745 England Mary Wollstonecraft An English religious writer and philanthropist.
Hannah Senesh 1921 Hungary, Mandatory Palestine, Yugoslavia Margaret Sanger She parachuted into Yugoslavia to rescue Hungarian Jews from the Nazis, but was captured and executed.
Hannah Woolley 1622 England Anna van Schurman An English writer who published early books on household management
Hannahanna Mythical Hittite Empire Ishtar "Grandmother" major deity
Harlind Unknown; died 750 Belgium Hrosvitha Saint and Benedictine abbess, created illuminated manuscript of the Christian Gospels with her sister Relindis of Maaseik.
Reinhild Unknown; died 750 Belgium Hrosvitha Saint and Benedictine abbess, created illuminated manuscript of the Christian Gospels with her sister Herlindis of Maaseik.
Harriet Beecher Stowe 1811 America Sojourner Truth An American abolitionist and author.
Harriet Hosmer 1830 America, Italy Georgia O’Keeffe An American sculptor.
Harriet Martineau 1802 England Emily Dickinson An English social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
Harriet Tubman 1822 America Sojourner Truth An escaped slave who rescued about seventy others from slavery, and later worked for women's suffrage.
Hartense Lepaute 1723–1788 France Caroline Herschel Mathematician and astronomer.
Hashop c. 2420 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Another name for "Hatshepsut", who was Egypt's first woman pharaoh.
Hasta Hansteen 1824 Norway Susan B. Anthony A Norwegian painter, writer, and early feminist.
Hathor Mythical Egypt Ishtar Mother of sun god.
Hawisa Unknown; died 1214 England Eleanor of Aquitaine The daughter and heiress of William, Count of Aumale and Cicely, daughter and co-heiress of William fitz Duncan.
Hecate Mythical Greece Kali Goddess of the moon and underworld.
Hecuba Legendary Greece Sophia In the Iliad, Queen of Troy.
Hedwig Nordenflycht 1718 Sweden Emily Dickinson A Swedish poet, feminist and salon hostess.
Hedwig 1174 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen A saint, who served as Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231, in addition to High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238.
Hel (being) Mythical Norway Kali Goddess of underworld
Helen Cornaro 1646 Italy Anna van Schurman The first woman to receive a doctoral degree from a university, which she did from the University of Padua.
Helen Diner 1874 Austria Virginia Woolf An Austrian feminist historian, intellectual, travel journalist, and writer. She wrote, among other things, Mothers and Amazons (1930), which was the first book to focus on women's cultural history.
Helen Keller 1880 America Margaret Sanger An American author, lecturer, and political activist, as well as the first deafblind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree.
Helen of Troy Legendary Greece Sophia Husband's attempts to lure her back started Trojan War.
Helena Unknown; active during the 4th century BC in Egypt Egypt Sappho A painter.
Helena Blavatsky 1831 Russia Anne Hutchinson Leading figure in the New Age movement, co-founded the Theosophical Society.
Helene Kottauer Unknown Hungary Elizabeth R. A handmaiden to Queen Elisabeth of Hungary, who dictated her own life story in German, and helped Queen Elisabeth in a successful royal succession plot.
Héloïse c. 1090 France Hildegarde of Bingen An abbess, nun, scholar, and writer, best known for her love affair and correspondence with Peter Abélard.
Henrietta Johnston c. 1674 America, unknown origin before that Anne Hutchinson The earliest recorded female artist and the first known pastelist working in the English colonies
Henrietta Szold 1860 United States Margaret Sanger Jewish Zionist leader and founder of Hadassah
Hera Mythical Greece Fertile Goddess Chief feminine deity, married to Zeus
Hermine Veres 1815–1895 Hungary Emily Dickinson Educator and feminist, founded the first secondary school for girls in Hungary
Herrad of Landsberg c. 1130 France Hildegarde of Bingen An Alsatian nun and abbess of Hohenburg Abbey in the Vosges mountains, known for being the author of the pictorial encyclopedia Hortus deliciarum (The Garden of Delights).
Hersend Fl. 1249–1259 France Hildegarde of Bingen A French female surgeon who went on the Seventh Crusade in 1249 with King Louis IX of France.
Hersilia c. 800 BC Rome Sophia Hero of the Rape of the Sabine Women
Hester Stanhope 1776 Britain Mary Wollstonecraft A British adventurer, socialite, and traveler. In 1815 she did the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology.
Hestiaea Unknown Alexandrea Troas near modern Turkey Hypatia Greek grammarian and Homeric scholar, influenced Strabo's Homeric scholarship
Hiera Mythical Asia Minor Amazon General of army of Mysian women who fought in Trojan War
Hilda of Whitby c. 614 England Hrosvitha A saint and the founding abbess of the monastery at Whitby.
Hipparchia Flourished c. 325 BC Ancient Greece Aspasia A Cynic philosopher
Hippo Unknown Ancient Greece Aspasia A Greek woman mentioned by the author Valerius Maximus as an example of chastity, and included among the Famous Women written about by Giovanni Boccaccio in the 14th century. It is said that she was abducted by an enemy fleet and threw herself overboard to her death rather than be raped by her captors.
Hippolyte 13th century BC Scythia Amazon Co-ruler with sisters of Amazon capital of Themiscyra.
Honorata Rodiana 1403 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi A "semi-legendary" Italian painter and condottiere.
Hortensia Unknown Ancient Rome Hypatia An orator, best known for giving a speech in 42 BC in front of the members of the Second Triumvirate that resulted in the partial repeal of a tax on wealthy Roman women.
Hortensia von Moos 1659 Switzerland Anna van Schurman Swiss scholar who had extensive knowledge of many subjects, including theology and medicine. Known for her writings on the status of women and is regarded as a precursor by the Swiss women's movement.[183]
Huldah Unknown Ancient Israel Judith A prophet mentioned briefly in the Bible in 2 Kings 22, and 2 Chronicles 34.
Hygeburg Flourished 780 Germany Hrosvitha An Anglo-Saxon nun at the Abbey of Heidenheim in Germany, who wrote a life of Willibald, and a life of Willibald's brother Wynnebald.
Ida B. Wells 1862 America Sojourner Truth A leader in the civil rights movement, who documented lynching in the United States, showing that it was not caused by black criminality but rather by whites wishing to control and punish blacks. She also established women's organizations.
Ida Kaminska 1899 Russian Empire Georgia O’Keeffe A Polish-Jewish actress.
Ida Pfeiffer 1797 Austria Mary Wollstonecraft An Austrian travel book author and traveler.
Ilmatar Mythical Finland Primordial Goddess Virgin daughter of air
Iltani c. 1685 BC Babylonia Ishtar Wealthy priestess
Ima Shalom Unknown Ancient Rome Hypatia One of the few women who are named and quoted in the Talmud.
Imogen Cunningham 1883 America Georgia O’Keeffe An American photographer.
Inanna Mythical Sumer Ishtar Queen of heaven
Inessa Armand 1874 France and Russia Margaret Sanger A communist politician.
Ingrida Unknown; died 28 March 1524 Sweden Christine de Pisan A Swedish nun who lived at the convent of Saint Birgitta in Vadstena, famous for having written of her love to a knight named Axel Nilsson.
Irène Joliot-Curie 1897 France Elizabeth Blackwell A scientist who was given the 1935 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with her husband, for their discovery of artificial radioactivity.
Irene c. 752 Byzantine Empire Theodora Byzantine empress regnant from 797 to 802, previously empress consort from 775 to 780, and empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797.
Irkalla Mythical Babylonia Kali Babylonian goddess of the underworld
Isabel de Guevara Flourished 1530 Spain, Argentina Sacajawea One of the few European women to accept the offer from the Spanish crown to join colonizing missions during the first wave of Spanish conquest and settlement of the New World.
Isabel of France 1224 France Hildegarde of Bingen Considered a saint by the Franciscan Order, she founded the Poor Clare Monastery of Longchamp.
Isabel Pinochet 1845 Chile Sacajawea She led the reform of girls' education in Chile.
Isabela Czartoryska 1746 Poland Anna van Schurman A Polish aristocrat, art collector, and writer. She also founded Poland's first museum, the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.
Isabella Andreini 1562 Italy Isabella d’Este An Italian actress and writer; her character, the Isabella role of the commedia dell'arte, was named after her.
Isabella Bird Bishop 1831 England Mary Wollstonecraft An explorer, naturalist, photographer, and writer. She co-founded the John Bishop Memorial hospital with Fanny Jane Butler, and she was the first woman to be elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
Isabella Cortese Flourished 1561 Italy Isabella d’Este An Italian alchemist and writer of the Renaissance.
Isabella de Forz 1237 England Eleanor of Aquitaine One of the richest women in England. A weir on the River Exe is named after her, and she is the subject of at least two legends.
Isabella de Joya Roseres c. 1508 Spain Elizabeth R. A humanist, Latinist, philosopher, and specialist on the theology of Dun Scotus.
Isabella Losa 1491 Spain Elizabeth R. A doctor of theology. Founded a hospital at Loreto in Italy
Isabella I of Castile 1451 Spain Elizabeth R. Queen of Castile and León. United the Spanish kingdoms though her marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon concluding the Reconquista of Muslim Spain. Set up universities open to women and sponsored Christopher Columbus on his voyages of discovery.
Isabella of Lorraine 1400 Lorraine Isabella d’Este Suo jure Duchess of Lorraine from 1431 to 1453; also Queen consort of Naples from 1435–42, and the titular queen consort from 1442 until her death.
Isadora Duncan 1877 America, Soviet Union, Western Europe Georgia O’Keeffe A pioneer of the interpretative movement in modern dance and an important figure in the arts and dance history. Known as the “Mother of Modern Dance”
Isak Dinesen 1885 Kenya, Denmark Virginia Woolf A Danish author, best known for Out of Africa and Babette's Feast.
Isis Mythical Egypt Ishtar Mother of Heaven/Queen of all Gods. One of the most important goddesses of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire
Isotta Nogarola 1418 Italy Christine de Pisan An Italian intellectual and writer. A humanist who wrote Latin poems, orations, dialogues, letters. Renowned for her scholarship and eloquence.
Jacobe Felicie Flourished 1322 Italy, France Petronilla de Meath An Italian physician active in Paris, France.
Jadwiga 1373/1374 Poland Elizabeth R. The first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 1384 to her death in 1399.
Jane Addams 1860 America Margaret Sanger The first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, she is recognized as the founder of the social work profession in the United States.
Jane Anger Unknown England Christine de Pisan The first woman to publish a full-length defense of women in English, which was called Jane Anger Her Protection For Women, and published in 1589.
Jane Austen 1775 England Emily Dickinson One of the most widely read writers in English literature.
Jane Harrison 1850 Britain Elizabeth Blackwell One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology.
Jane of Sutherland 1546 Scotland Elizabeth R. A wealthy Scottish noblewoman who became the Countess of Sutherland due to her second marriage.
Jane Weir Unknown Britain Petronilla de Meath A woman who was charged with incest and witchcraft in 1670 and was executed.
Jeanne Campan 1752 France Mary Wollstonecraft An educator, writer, and lady-in-waiting.
Jeanne d'Albret 1528 Navarre Elizabeth R. The queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She was also the political and spiritual leader of the French Huguenot movement, and was important in the French Wars of Religion.
Jeanne de Montfort c. 1295 Brittany Isabella d’Este Consort Duchess of Brittany, who successfully defended the rights of her husband and son to the dukedom.
Jeanne de Pompadour 1721 France Mary Wollstonecraft A member of the French court who was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death in 1764.
Jeanne Dumée 1660 France Caroline Herschel Astronomer and author.
Jeanne Louise Farrenc 1804 France Ethel Smyth A composer, teacher, and virtuosa pianist.
Jeanne Mance 1606 France, New France Caroline Herschel Nurse and settler of New France. She was one of the founders of Montreal and in 1645 founded Montreal's first hospital, the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.
Jeanne Manon Roland 1754 France Mary Wollstonecraft Supporter of the French Revolution and important member of the Girondist faction.
Jeanne Marie Guyon 1648 France Anna van Schurman A French mystic.
Jeanne Recamier 1777 France Natalie Barney A society leader who hosted a salon.
Jeannette Rankin 1880 America Margaret Sanger The first woman elected to the U.S. Congress.
Jenny Lind 1820 Sweden Ethel Smyth An opera singer.
Jezebel Fl. 9th century BC Ancient Israel Judith According to the Bible, she convinced her husband King Ahab to encourage the worship of gods other than Yahweh, and herself persecuted Yahweh's prophets, as well as making up false evidence against a person who refused to sell property to her husband. She was killed by her own court retinue.
Jeanne of Navarre 1273 France and Navarre Eleanor of Aquitaine She reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and also served as queen consort to Philip IV of France.
Joan of Arc c. 1412 France Petronilla de Meath A saint who helped lead France to victory in the Hundred Years' War.
Joanna Baillie 1762 Scotland Emily Dickinson A poet and dramatist.
Joanna Koerton 1650 The Netherlands Artemisia Gentileschi An artist famous as a silhouette cutter.
Joanna Unknown Germany Hrosvitha The prioress of the monastery of Lothen in Germany, best remembered for her tapestry work.
Josefa Amar 1749 Spain Mary Wollstonecraft A writer who belonged to a group that were worried about the decadence of conditions of Spain and wanted to correct it by education.
Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez 1773 New Spain, Mexico Sacajawea An insurgent and supporter of the Mexican War of Independence.
Josephine Baker 1906 United States, France Sojourner Truth American/French actress and performer. First African-American woman to star in a major motion picture. Contributed to the Civil Rights movement in the US and refused to perform before segregated audiences. Also helped the French resistance in WW2, receiving the medal Croix de Guerre and was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur for her service.
Josephine Kablick 1787 Czechoslovakia Caroline Herschel A pioneering botanist and paleontologist.
Jovita Idar 1885 America Sacajawea An American journalist and activist for Mexican-American rights.
Judith Leyster 1609 Haarlem, Northern Netherlands Artemisia Gentileschi Dutch Golden Age painter. She was a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke.
Judith Murray 1751 America Anne Hutchinson An early American advocate for women's rights, as well as an essayist, letter writer, playwright, and poet.
Julia Domma AD 170 Ancient Rome Marcella A Roman Empress famous for her great learning and political influence.
Julia Maesa c. AD 165 Ancient Rome Marcella Grandmother of the Roman emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus, she was important in the ascension of each to the title of Emperor at the age of fourteen.
Julia Mamaea Unknown Emesene Kingdom Marcella A princess from the Syrian Roman Client Emesene Kingdom.
Julia Margaret Cameron 1815 India, Britain Georgia O’Keeffe A photographer who became famous for her portraits of celebrities, as well as photographs with legendary or heroic themes.
Julia Morgan 1872 America Georgia O’Keeffe An architect, best known for her work on Hearst Castle in San Simeon, California.
Juliana Bernes 1388 England Christine de Pisan A writer on hawking, heraldry, and hunting, who is said to have been prioress of the Priory of St. Mary of Sopwell.
Juliana of Norwich c. 1342 England Hildegarde of Bingen An anchoress who is considered an important Christian mystic.
Julie de Lespinasse 1732 France Natalie Barney She owned a prominent salon in France.
Juno Mythical Rome Fertile Goddess Moon goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Justina Dietrich 1636 Germany Caroline Herschel A renowned German midwife.
Jutta 1091 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen An anchoress.
Kaahumanu 1768 Hawaii Sacajawea Queen Regent of Hawaii, champion of Hawaiian women's rights, powerful political figure.
Kallirhoe Parren 1861 Greece Susan B. Anthony A journalist and writer who launched the feminist movement in Greece.
Karen Horney 1885 Germany Virginia Woolf Psychoanalyst who questioned Freudian theories, credited with founding feminist psychology in response to Freud's theory of penis envy.
Karoline Pichler 1793 Austria Mary Wollstonecraft Novelist most famous for historical romance.
Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead 1867 Canada, America Elizabeth Blackwell An obstetrician who encouraged women in medicine.
Katharine Hepburn 1907 America Georgia O’Keeffe An actress.
Käthe Kollwitz 1867 Germany Georgia O’Keeffe A painter, printmaker, and sculptor.
Kathe Schirmacher 1865 Germany Susan B. Anthony A German activist for the rights of women.
Katherine Bethlen 1700 Hungary Caroline Herschel One of the earliest writers of memoirs in Hungary.
Katherine Sheppard 1847 England, New Zealand Susan B. Anthony New Zealand's most famous suffragette.
Katti Moeler 1868 Norway Margaret Sanger A children's rights advocate and feminist, best known today as the "advocate of mothers."
Kenau Hasselaer 1526 The Netherlands Elizabeth R. A folk hero due to her fearless defense of Haarlem against the Spanish invaders during its siege in 1573.
Khuwyt c. 1950 BC Egypt Hatshepsut One of the first female musicians recorded in history.
Kora Fl. c. 650 BC Sicyon, ancient Greece Sappho Credited, along with her father, with the invention of modeling in relief in the seventh century BC.
Kubaba c. 2573 BC Sumer Ishtar Former innkeeper and beer seller, came to throne, founded 3rd dynasty, queen.
Eleanor Butler (Ladies of Llangollen) 1739 Ireland, Wales Natalie Barney One of two upper-class women whose relationship fascinated and scandalized many.
Sarah Ponsonby (Ladies of Llangollen) 1831 Ireland, Wales Natalie Barney One of two upper-class women whose relationship fascinated and scandalized many.
Lady Beatrix Unknown England Eleanor of Aquitaine A noble lady of house de Vesci.
Lady Godiva Flourished 1040 England Eleanor of Aquitaine A noblewoman who according to legend rode naked (covered only by her own long hair) in order to convince her husband to end a tax on his tenants.
Margaret Beaufort (Lady) 1443 England Christine de Pisan An important person in the Wars of the Roses, who also founded Christ's College and began the development of St John's College.
Lady Uallach Unknown; died 934 Ireland Hrosvitha An Irish poet and Chief Ollam of Ireland.
Lalla Unknown Ancient Rome Sappho A painter and sculptor who excelled in painting portraits of women.
La Malinche c. 1496 or c. 1501 Mexico Sacajawea She acted as an advisor, intermediary, interpreter, and lover for Hernán Cortés.
Lamia Flourished 300 BC Ancient Greece Aspasia A famous courtesan, and mistress of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Lampedo Legendary, 13th century BC Greece Amazon Amazon queen mentioned in Roman historiography, co-ruled with sister Marpesia. The two were said to be the daughters of Mars.
Las Huelgas Various Spain Hildegarde of Bingen Cistercian nuns who live in a monastery near the city of Burgos in Spain.
Laura Bassi 1711 Italy Anna van Schurman The first woman to earn a university chair in a scientific field of studies; specifically, she was appointed to the chair in experimental physics by the Bologna Institute of Sciences.
Laura Battiferri Ammanati 1523 Italy Isabella d’Este A poet.
Laura Cereta 1469 Italy Isabella d’Este One of the great female humanist and feminist writers of her time and place, and the first to put women’s issues and her friendships with women at the center of her writing.
Laura Torres Unknown Mexico Sacajawea A journalist and founder of an early feminist organization, Admiradoras de Juárez.
Lavinia Fontana 1552 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi Italian painter. Considered first female artist outside a court or convent.
Leah Unknown Ancient Israel Judith According to the Bible, one of two wives of Jacob and mother of six sons whose descendants became some of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
Leonor d'Almeida 1750 Portugal Mary Wollstonecraft A noblewoman, painter, and poet.
Leela of Granada Unknown Spain Hrosvitha A woman who, as described in the historical novel Leila: or The Siege of Granada, is inadvertently driven by her father into the hands of the Christian monarchs, and forcibly converted. Then when Leila is about to take her vows as a nun, and her father killed her. The domestic plot parallels the Christianization of Spain.
Leonora Baroni 1611 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi A composer, lutenist, singer, theorbist, and viol player.
Leontium Fl.. 300 BC Ancient Greece Aspasia An Epicurean philosopher.
Leoparda Late 4th–early 5th century Rome Theodora Physician
Levina Teerling 1510–1520 Belgium and England Artemisia Gentileschi A Flemish Renaissance miniaturist who served as a painter to the English court.
Liadain Flourished in the 7th century AD Ireland Hrosvitha A poet.
Libana Unknown Unknown Hrosvitha Unknown
Lili Boulanger 1893 France Ethel Smyth A composer.
Lilith Mythical Garden of Eden Judith Adam's first wife before Eve, in Jewish folklore. As written by Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob ha-Cohen, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and then would not return to the Garden of Eden after she slept with the archangel Samael.
Lilliard Legendary England and Scotland Elizabeth R. Lilliard is said to have fought at the Battle of Ancrum Moor following the death of her lover.
Lioba c. 710 England, Germany Hrosvitha A saint who was part of Boniface's mission to the Germans.
Livia Drusilla 58 BC Ancient Rome Marcella The adviser and wife of the Roman emperor Augustus. She was deified by Claudius.
Loretta c. 1185 England Hildegarde of Bingen Countess of Leicester
Lorraine Hansberry 1930 America Virginia Woolf Playwright and writer.
Lou Andreas-Salomé 1861 Germany, Italy and Russia Natalie Barney Author and psychoanalyst.
Louise Labé c. 1520 or 1522 France Natalie Barney A poet.
Louise Le Gras 1591 France Caroline Herschel A saint and the co-founder of the Daughters of Charity.
Louise Michel 1830 France Margaret Sanger An anarchist, medical worker, and school teacher.
Louise Nevelson 1899 Russia and the United States Georgia O’Keeffe A sculptor.
Louyse Bourgeois 1563 France Caroline Herschel Midwife to King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de Médicis.
Lucretia Marinelli 1571 Italy Anna van Schurman A writer best known for The Nobility and Excellence of Women and the Defects and Vices of Men.
Lucretia Mott 1793 America Susan B. Anthony A women's rights activist and social reformer.
Lucretia c. 600 BC Etruria Hatshepsut Killed herself after being raped due to fear of being accused as an adulteress.
Lucrezia Borgia 1480 Italy Isabella d’Este The daughter of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei; her family arranged several marriages for her to enhance their political standing.
Lucrezia Tornabuoni 1427 Italy Isabella d’Este A writer and important political adviser.
Lucy Stone 1818 America Susan B. Anthony An important abolitionist, orator, and women's rights activist.
Luisa de Carvajal 1566 Spain Anna van Schurman A noblewoman and religious poet and writer.
Luisa Moreno 1907 Guatemala and the United States Sacajawea A leader in the United States labor movement; in 1939 she convened the first American national Latino civil rights assembly, Congreso de Pueblos de Habla Española.
Luisa Roldan 1652 Spain Artemisia Gentileschi The first woman sculptor documented in Spain.
Luise Gottsched 1713 Germany Anna van Schurman One of the founders of modern German theatrical comedy, as well as an essayist, playwright, poet, and translator.
Luise Otto-Peter 1819 Germany Susan B. Anthony The founder of the organized German women's movement.
Luiza Todi 1753 Portugal and Russia Artemisia Gentileschi A mezzo-soprano opera singer.
Lydia Unknown Ancient Rome Marcella A woman mentioned in the New Testament who is considered the first documented convert to Christianity in Europe.
Lysistrata Legendary Greece Sophia Heroine of the play Lysistrata.
Maacah Ancient times Ancient Israel Judith According to the Bible, the daughter of King David’s son Absalom, Maacah was a queen and the mother or grandmother of King Asa. Asa removed Maacah from her royal position because she built an obscene memorial to the goddess Asherah.
Mabel Unknown England Hrosvitha An embroiderer.
Macha of the Red Tresses Unknown Ireland Boadaceia According to medieval legend and historical tradition, the only queen in the List of High Kings of Ireland.
Macha Mythical Celtic Ireland Fertile Goddess Fertility goddess
Macrina c. 330 Ancient Rome Marcella A nun in the Early Christian Church and a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Church.
Maddalena Buonsignori Unknown Italy Christine de Pisan A law professor at the University of Bologna.
Madderakka Mythical Lapland Fertile Goddess Goddess of childbirth
Madeleine de Demandolx Unknown France Petronilla de Meath A nun who was one of the alleged cases of demonic possession occurring among the Ursuline nuns of Aix-en-Provence (South of France) in 1611.
Madeleine de Sable 1599 France Natalie Barney A writer.
Madeleine de Scudéry 1607 France Natalie Barney A writer.
Magda Portal 1900 Peru Sacajawea A Peruvian author, feminist, poet, and political activist and leader. She was one of the founders of the APRA (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance) political party.[184]
Mahaut of Artois 1268 France Isabella d’Este She inherited the County of Artois at her father's death in 1302; she was an able administrator and managed to defeat the many rebellions perpetrated by members of the nobility.[185]
Makeda b. 1020 BC North Africa Hatshepsut The Ethiopian name for Queen of Sheba. She heard that King Solomon was very wise so she traveled to meet him with many gifts with the intention of questioning him. Her story is found in the Bible and the Qur'an.[186]
Mama Oclo c. 12th century Peru Hatshepsut Co-founder of Inca Dynasty. Considered to be an intermediary between the creator god and humans, she was given the task of civilizing the earth and organizing its people.[187]
Manto Mythical Greek myth Sappho The daughter of the blind prophet Tiresias. It was said that Manto's abilities in prophecy were much greater than her father's. She is one of the fortune-tellers and diviners whom Dante sees in the fourth pit of the eighth circle of the Inferno.[188]
Margaret Brent England, colony of Maryland c. 1601 Anne Hutchinson An important founding settler of Maryland who was appointed as the executrix of the governor, Lord Calvert's, estate and as such helped ensure soldiers were paid and given food.[189]
Margaret Cavendish 1623 England Caroline Herschel An aristocrat, a prolific writer, and a scientist.
Margaret of Lincoln c. 1206 England Eleanor of Aquitaine A wealthy noblewoman and heiress.
Margaret Fell Fox 1614 England Anne Hutchinson A founder of the Religious Society of Friends.
Margaret Fuller 1810 America Emily Dickinson A critic, journalist, and women's rights advocate whose book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
Margaret Jones Unknown Massachusetts Bay Colony Petronilla de Meath The first person to be executed for witchcraft in Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Margaret Mead 1901 America Margaret Sanger A cultural anthropologist.
Margaret Murray Washington 1865 America Sojourner Truth The principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, which later became Tuskegee University.
Margaret Murray 1863 United Kingdom Elizabeth Blackwell Important English Egyptologist, archaeologist, anthropologist, and folklorist. First female to be appointed as a lecturer in archaeology in the United Kingdom.
Margaret O'Connor Unknown; died 1451 Ireland Christine de Pisan A noblewoman remembered for her piety and hospitality.
Margaret of Austria 1480 Austria Elizabeth R. Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530.
Marguerite of Bourgogne 1250 Unknown Hildegarde of Bingen Queen of Sicily
Margaret of Desmond 1473 Ireland Elizabeth R. Irish noblewoman.
Margaret of Porète Unknown; died 1310 France Petronilla de Meath A mystic and author, burned at the stake for heresy.
Margaret of Scandinavia 1353 Denmark Elizabeth R. Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden and founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over 100 years.
Margaret Paston Unknown England Christine de Pisan Writer of some of the Paston Letters.
Margaret Philipse c. 1637 Province of New York Anne Hutchinson A merchant in the colonial Province of New York.
Margaret Roper 1505 England Christine de Pisan A writer and translator.
Margareta Karthauserin Unknown Germany Christine de Pisan A nun at the Dominican convent of Saint Catherine in Nuremberg and a very skilled scribe.
Margarete Forchhammer 1863 Denmark Susan B. Anthony An educator and women's rights activist.
Margarethe Dessoff 1874 Germany Ethel Smyth A choral conductor, singer, and voice teacher.
Margery Jourdemain Unknown; before 1415 England Petronilla de Meath A woman accused of treasonable witchcraft and burned at the stake.
Margery Kempe c. 1373 England Christine de Pisan A Christian mystic, best known for dictating The Book of Margery Kempe, which is considered by some to be the first autobiography in the English language.
Marguerita-Louise Couperin 1675/76 or 1678/79 France Ethel Smyth A soprano singer and harpsichordist.
Margaret of Navarre 1492 France Elizabeth R. Princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry.
Marguerite Gerard 1761 France Artemisia Gentileschi A painter and etcher.
Marguerite-Antoinette Couperin 1705 France Ethel Smyth A harpsichordist, and the first female court musician to the King of France.
Maria Agnesi 1718 Italy Anna van Schurman A mathematician and philosopher.
Maria Alphaizuli Unknown Spain Hrosvitha A poet.
Maria Antonia Walpurgis 1724 Germany Anna van Schurman A composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron.
Maria Bartola Unknown Mexico Sacajawea The first historian of Mexico.
Maria Christine de Lalaing Unknown Tournai, Belgium Elizabeth R. Known for defending the city of Tournai against the duke of Parma.
Maria Cunitz 1610 Germany Caroline Herschel An astronomer.
Maria de Abarca Unknown Spain Artemisia Gentileschi A painter.
Maria de Agreda Unknown Spain Anna van Schurman A Franciscan abbess and spiritual writer.
Maria de Coste Blanche c. 1520 France Elizabeth R. A translator and noblewoman.
María del Refugio García c. 1898 Mexico Sacajawea A women's rights activist.
Maria de Ventadorn Unknown France Eleanor of Aquitaine A patron of troubadour poetry.
Maria de Zozoya Unknown Spain Petronilla de Meath A woman prosecuted for being a witch who died in prison.
Maria Edgeworth 1768 England and Ireland Emily Dickinson A writer.
Maria Kirch 1670 Germany Caroline Herschel Astronomer.
Maria Luisa Sanchez 1910 Chile Sacajawea More commonly known as María Luisa Bombal, she was an internationally acclaimed Chilean author.[190]
Maria Mitchell 1818 America Caroline Herschel An astronomer who discovered "Miss Mitchell's Comet".
Maria Montessori 1870 Italy Margaret Sanger The founder of the Montessori method.
Maria Montoya Martinez 1887 America Sacajawea A Native American potter.
Maria Salvatori Unknown Italy Petronilla de Meath A woman accused of witchcraft.
Maria Sibylla Merian 1647 Holy Roman Empire, Dutch Republic Artemisia Gentileschi A naturalist and scientific illustrator.
Maria Stewart 1803 America Sojourner Truth A journalist, lecturer, abolitionist, and women's rights activist.
Maria Theresa 1717 Europe Elizabeth R. The only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Maria Theresia von Paradis 1759 Austria Ethel Smyth A blind musician and composer.
Marian Anderson 1897 America Sojourner Truth A singer.
Marianna Alcoforado 1640 Portugal Anna van Schurman A nun, possibly the author of the Letters of a Portuguese Nun.
Marianne Beth 1889 Austria, America Elizabeth Blackwell A lawyer and women's rights activist.
Marie Bashkirtsev 1858 Ukraine Georgia O’Keeffe A diarist, painter, and sculptor.
Marie Bovin 1773 France Elizabeth Blackwell A midwife, inventor, and obstetrics writer.
Marie Champmeslé 1642 France Artemisia Gentileschi An actress.
Marie Colinet c. 1560 Switzerland, Germany Caroline Herschel A midwife and surgeon.
Marie Curie 1867 Poland, France Elizabeth Blackwell The first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, and the only person to win twice in multiple sciences.
Marie de France Unknown France, possibly England Eleanor of Aquitaine A poet.
Marie de l'Incarnation 1599 France, Canada Anne Hutchinson The leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France; she founded the oldest women's educational institution in North America.
Marie de Lafayette Unknown; baptized 18 March 1634 France Mary Wollstonecraft The author of France's first historical novel, La Princesse de Clèves.
Marie de Miramion 1629 France Anna van Schurman A woman known for her piety and the organizations she founded.
Marie de Sévigné 1626 France Natalie Barney An aristocrat known for her letter-writing.
Marie de' Medici 1575 France Isabella d’Este Queen of France
Marie du Deffand 1697 France Natalie Barney A hostess and patron of the arts.
Marie Dugès 1730 France Elizabeth Blackwell A midwife.
Marie Durocher 1809 Brazil Elizabeth Blackwell The first female doctor in Latin America.
Marie Geoffrin 1699 France Natalie Barney One of the leading women in the French Enlightenment.
Marie Heim-Vögtlin 1845 Switzerland Elizabeth Blackwell The first female Swiss physician and a co-founder of the first Swiss gynecological hospital.
Marie Iowa c. 1786 America Sacajawea The only female member of the Astor Expedition, which traveled overland from St. Louis, Missouri, to what became Astoria, Oregon, in 1811–12.
Marie LaChapelle 1769 France Elizabeth Blackwell The head of obstetrics at the Hôtel Dieu, the oldest hospital in Paris. She is generally considered the mother of modern obstetrics.
Marie Laurencin 1883 France Georgia O’Keeffe A painter and printmaker.
Marie Lavoisier 1758 France Caroline Herschel A chemist.
Maria Le Jars de Gournay 1565 France Anna van Schurman A writer.
Marie of Champagne c. 1174 Constantinople Eleanor of Aquitaine The Empress consort of Baldwin I of Constantinople.
Marie Popelin 1846 Belgium Elizabeth Blackwell A Belgian feminist, lawyer, and political campaigner.
Marie Sallé 1707 France Natalie Barney A dancer and choreographer.
Marie Stopes 1880 Britain Margaret Sanger An author, palaeobotanist, academic, eugenicist, campaigner for women's rights, and pioneer in the field of birth control.
Marie Tussaud 1761 France, England Mary Wollstonecraft An artist, known for founding Madame Tussauds wax museum in London.
Marie Vernier c. 1590 France Artemisia Gentileschi An actress, commonly thought to be the first French actress to be known by name.
Martesia Mythical, c. 13th century BC Greece Amazon Amazon queen. Co-ruled with sister Lampedo.
Martha Baretskaya Unknown Novgorod Christine de Pisan According to legend and historical tradition, she led the republic's struggle against Muscovy between her husband's death and the city's eventual annexation by Ivan III of Russia in 1478.
Martha Graham 1894 America Georgia O’Keeffe A dancer.
Martha Mears Unknown England Caroline Herschel A midwife and author.
Martha of Bethany Unknown Ancient Israel Marcella A biblical figure described in the Gospels of Luke and John.
Martia Proba Mythical Britain Saint Bridget The mythical third female ruler and a regent of the Britons, as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Mary "Mother" Jones 1837 Ireland, America Margaret Sanger A labor and community organizer who cofounded the Industrial Workers of the World.
Mary Alexander 1693 America Anne Hutchinson An influential colonial era merchant in New York City.
Mary Müller 1819 or 1820 England and New Zealand Susan B. Anthony A New Zealand suffragist.
Mary Radcliffe c. 1746 Britain Mary Wollstonecraft An important British figure in the early feminist movement.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary 1823 America, Canada Sojourner Truth The first black woman publisher in North America and the first woman publisher in Canada.
Mary Astell 1666 England Anna van Schurman A feminist writer and rhetorician, known as "the first English feminist."
Mary Baker Eddy 1821 America Anne Hutchinson The founder of Christian Science.
Mary Bonaventure After 1610 Ireland Anne Hutchinson A Poor Clare and Irish historian.
Mary Cassatt 1844 America, France Georgia O’Keeffe A painter and printmaker.
Mary Church Terrell 1863 America Susan B. Anthony One of the first African-American women to earn a college degree, and a national activist for civil rights and suffrage.
Mary Dyer c. 1611 England Anne Hutchinson A Quaker who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.
Mary Walker 1832 America Elizabeth Blackwell An American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon.
Mary Esther Harding 1888 England, America Virginia Woolf The first significant Jungian psychoanalyst in the United States.
Mary Goddard 1738 America Anne Hutchinson An early American publisher and the first American postmaster. She was the first to print the Declaration of Independence with the names of the signatories.
Mary Hays 1759 England Mary Wollstonecraft A novelist.
Mary Lamb 1764 England Caroline Herschel A writer.
Mary Lee 1821 Ireland, Australia Susan B. Anthony A suffragist and social reformer in South Australia.
Mary Livermore 1820 America Sojourner Truth A journalist and advocate of women's rights.
Mary Lou Williams 1910 America Ethel Smyth A jazz pianist, composer, and arranger.
Mary Louise McLaughlin 1847 America Georgia O’Keeffe A ceramic painter and studio potter, and one of the originators of the art pottery movement that swept the United States.
Mary Lyon 1797 America Emily Dickinson She established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1837 and served as its first president (or "principal") for 12 years.
Mary Magdalene 1st century Galilee Marcella A female disciple of Jesus who stood by him during his crucifixion after most of his male disciples had abandoned him; revered as a saint by the Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches. It is popularly believed that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute, and she is often depicted as the "penitent Magdalene."[191]
Mary Manley 1663 or c. 1670 England Mary Wollstonecraft An author, playwright, and political pamphleteer. Her first name is actually Delarivier (sometimes spelt Delariviere, Delarivière or de la Rivière) or Delia.
Mary McLeod Bethune 1875 America Sojourner Truth An educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida.
Mary Monckton 1746 Britain Mary Wollstonecraft A literary hostess.
Mary Musgrove c. 1700 America Sacajawea She facilitated in the development of Colonial Georgia and became an important intermediary between Muscogee Creek Indians and the English colonists.
Mary of Bethany Unknown Ancient Israel Marcella A biblical figure described in the Gospels of John and Luke in the Christian New Testament.
Mary of Hungary 1505 Europe Elizabeth R. Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Mary Read c. 1690 England Natalie Barney A pirate and one of the only two women to be convicted of piracy during the 18th century.
Mary Shelley 1797 London Mary Wollstonecraft Author of Frankenstein and daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft.[192]
Mary Sidney 1561 England Elizabeth R. Mary Herbert, the Countess of Pembroke. One of the first English women to achieve a major reputation for her poetry and literary patronage.
Mary Somerville 1780 Scotland Caroline Herschel Science writer and polymath, at a time when women's participation in science was discouraged. She studied mathematics and astronomy, and was nominated to be jointly the first female member of the Royal Astronomical Society at the same time as Caroline Herschel.
Mary Wortley Montagu 1689 England, Turkey Mary Wollstonecraft An aristocrat and writer.
Mata Hari 1876 Netherlands Natalie Barney Born Margaretha Geertruida "Margreet" MacLeod, a Frisian exotic dancer and courtesan who was convicted of being a spy and executed by firing squad in France under charges of espionage for Germany during World War I
Mathilda of Germany 1418 Germany Isabella d’Este A princess and major patroness of the literary arts.
Mathilde of Tuscany 1046 Italy Eleanor of Aquitaine A powerful feudal ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy.[193]
Matilda 1080 England Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I. She was known as “Margaret the Good Queen” for her charitable works. She also known as a patron of music and literature.[194]
Matilda of Flanders c. 1031 England, Flanders Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of England. Her husband was William the Conqueror. She often ruled Normandy as regent during his absences in England.[195]
Mathilda c. 895 Germany Hrosvitha The wife of King Henry I of Germany, the first ruler of the Saxon Ottonian (or Liudolfing) dynasty, and thereby Duchess (consort) of Saxony from 912 and Queen (consort) of Germany (East Francia) from 919 until her husband's death in 936.
Maude 877–968 Germany Theodora Saint Matilda, Duchess Consort of Saxony and German Queen, founded several convents and a canonry.
Maximilla 1012nd century Phrygia Saint Bridget One of the founders and prophets of Montanism, an early Christian movement.
Maya Deren 1917 Ukraine, America Georgia O’Keeffe One of the most important American experimental filmmakers and entrepreneurial promoters of the avant-garde in the 1940s and 1950s.
Meave Mythical Ireland Boadaceia Queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.
Mechthild of Hackeborn 1250 or 1241 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen A Saxon Christian saint (from what is now Germany) and a Benedictine nun.
Mechthild of Magdeburg c. 1207 Germany Hildegarde of Bingen A medieval mystic, whose book Das fließende Licht der Gottheit (The Flowing Light of Divinity) described her visions of God.
Medb Mythical Ireland Boadaceia A goddess of sovereignty associated with Tara.
Medusa Mythical Greece Amazon Leader of Gorgons, Amazon
Megalostrata Unknown Ancient Greece Sappho A Spartan poet.
Melisande 1105 Israel Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153, and regent for her son between 1153 and 1161 while he was on campaign.
Mentuhetop c. 2300 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Queen of 11th Dynasty at Thebes. Practiced medicine.
Mercy Otis Warren 1728 America Anne Hutchinson A political writer and propagandist of the American Revolution.
Metrodora c. AD 200 Greece Hypatia A physician and author of the oldest medical text known to have been written by a woman, On the Diseases and Cures of Women.
Milla Granson 1816 America Sojourner Truth A pioneering educator.
Millicent Garrett Fawcett 1847 England Susan B. Anthony A feminist, intellectual, political and union leader, and writer, best known as a suffragist.
Minna Canth 1844 Finland Susan B. Anthony A writer and social activist.
Minna Cauer 1841 Germany Susan B. Anthony An educator, journalist and radical activist within the middle-class women's movement.
Miranda Stuart c. 1789-1799 Britain Elizabeth Blackwell A military surgeon in the British Army.
Miriam Unknown Ancient Israel Judith In the Bible, the elder sister of Moses and Aaron, and the only daughter of Amram and Yocheved. She appears first in the Book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible.
Modesta Pozzo 1555 Italy Christine de Pisan A writer and poet.
Moero Unknown City of Byzantium Sappho A poet of the 3rd century BC from the city of Byzantium.
Molly Pitcher 1754 (if Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley) America Anne Hutchinson A nickname given to a woman said to have fought in the American Battle of Monmouth, who is generally believed to have been Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley.
Morrigan Mythical Celtic Ireland Kali Great queen
Mother Hutton Unknown England Caroline Herschel A pharmacist and herbalist responsible for the discovery of digitalis and its essential use in the curing of heart problems.
Muirgel Unknown Ireland Boadaceia An Irish woman who helped Ireland get rid of a powerful enemy. She killed one of their chieftains in 882.
Myrine Mythical Libya Amazon Led 30,000 Libyan women to battle against Gorgons, another Amazon tribe
Myrtis Unknown Ancient Greece Sappho Poet purported to be the teacher of Pindar of Thebes and Corinna of Tanagra.
Nadezhda Krupskaya 1869 Russia Margaret Sanger A Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and politician, and the wife of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 until his death in 1924.
Nadia Boulanger 1887 France Ethel Smyth A composer, conductor, musician, and teacher who taught many of the leading composers and musicians of the 20th century as well as leading living composers and musicians.
Nammu Mythical Sumer Primordial Goddess Controller of Primeval Waters
Nancy Ward c. 1738 America Sacajawea A Beloved Woman of the Cherokee, which means that she was allowed to sit in councils and to make decisions, along with the chiefs and other Beloved Women.
Nanno Unknown Ancient Greece Sappho A flute player who Mimnermus was in love with and who gave her name, Nanno, to one of his two books.
Naomi Unknown Ancient Israel Judith Ruth's mother-in-law in the Old Testament Book of Ruth.
Naqi'a Fl. c. 680–627 BC Assyria (modern-day Iraq) Hatshepsut Naqi'a-Zakutu, Assyrian queen, royal advisor.
Natalia Goncharova 1881 Russia Georgia O’Keeffe An avant-garde artist, painter, costume designer, writer, illustrator, and set designer.
Nathalie Zand 1883 or 1884 Poland Elizabeth Blackwell A neurologist.
Nefertiti c. 1300 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Egyptian Queen
Neith Mythical Egypt Primordial Goddess Wove the world on her loom, virgin goddess
Nell Gwyn 1650 England and Scotland Artemisia Gentileschi One of the first English actresses, and long-time mistress of King Charles II of England and Scotland.
Nelly Sachs 1891 Germany Virginia Woolf A poet and playwright.
Neobule Unknown Greece Sappho A woman addressed in the 7th-century BC Greek poetry of Archilochus.
Nephthys Mythical Egypt Kali Goddess of death
Nerthus Mythical Britain/Germany Fertile Goddess Earth mother
Nicaula c. 980 BC Ethiopia Hatshepsut Scholar, queen
Nicobule Unknown Ancient Greece Aspasia A woman who may have authored a work on the life of Alexander the Great.
Aruru Mythical Babylonia Primordial Goddess Helped create humans out of clay
Ninhursaga Mythical Sumer Primordial Goddess Mother of the Land
Ninon de l'Enclos 1620 France Natalie Barney An author, courtesan, freethinker, and patron of the arts.
Ninti Mythical Sumer Fertile Goddess Healing deity, cured Enkin's rib
Nitocris 6th century BC Assyria Hatshepsut Possibly mythical Queen of Babylon
Nofret c. 1900 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Queen, "ruler of all women", progressive leader of Egyptian women's rights
Nossis Unknown Italy, possibly Greece Related An ancient epigrammist and poet.
Novella d'Andrea 1312 Italy Isabella d’Este An Italian legal scholar and professor in law at the university of Bologna.
Nut (goddess) Mythical Egypt Primordial Goddess Goddess of the sky
Octavia 69 BC Ancient Rome Marcella One of the most prominent women in Roman history; she was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and fourth wife of Mark Antony.
Odilla c. 662 Europe Trotula A saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.
Ofelia Uribe de Acosta 1900 Colombia Sacajawea A Colombian suffragist.
Olga c. 890 Ukraine, Russia Theodora A saint and a ruler of Kievan Rus' as regent (945–c. 963) for her son, Svyatoslav.
Oliva Sabuco 1562 Spain Elizabeth R. A writer in holistic medical philosophy.
Olive Schreiner 1855 Lesotho, South Africa, Europe Virginia Woolf An author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual.
Olympe de Gouges 1741 France Mary Wollstonecraft A playwright and political activist.
Olympia Morata 1526 Italy Isabella d’Este A classical scholar.
Olympia Sometime between 361 and 368 Rome Theodora A Christian Roman noblewoman of Greek descent.
Olympias c. 375 BC Macedon Boadaceia A daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the fourth wife of the king of Macedonia, Philip II, and mother of Alexander the Great.
Omeciuatl Mythical Mesoamerica Primordial Goddess Co-creator of spirit of human life
Orithyia Legendary, c. 13th century BC Scythia Amazon Amazon queen. Co-ruled with sisters Antiope and Hippolyte.
Phamphile Flourished 1st century AD Greece, possibly Egypt Hypatia A historian who lived in the reign of Nero.
Pandora Legendary Greece Sophia Pandora's box
Pasiphae Mythical Crete Snake Goddess Moon goddess
Paula Modersohn-Becker 1876 Germany Georgia O’Keeffe A painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism.
Penelope Barker 1728 America Anne Hutchinson An activist in the American Revolution who in 1774 organised a boycott of British goods known as the Edenton Tea Party.
Penthelia Exact date uncertain Memphis, ancient Egypt Sappho Egyptian priestess-musician who served the creator god Ptah, the god of fire, in the temple of Memphis Ancient Egypt. Some sources ascribe to her the true authorship of the Iliad and the Odyssey.[196]
Penthesilea d. 1187 BC North Africa Amazon Last Amazon queen.
Perictyone Fl. 5th century BC Ancient Greece Aspasia The mother of the Greek philosopher Plato.
Pernette Du Guillet c. 1520 France Elizabeth R. A poet.
Kore (Persephone) Mythical Greece Snake Goddess Persephone, raped by Zeus, many stories.
Phantasia 12th century BC Egypt Hatshepsut Storyteller, musician, poet.
Phile Unknown Ancient Greece Aspasia The first recorded benefactress and the first female magistrate in the ancient Greek city of Priene.
Philippa of Hainault 1314 England Elizabeth R. Queen of England
Phillipe Auguste Unknown Unknown Hildegarde of Bingen Unknown
Phillis Wheatley c. 1753 West Africa, America, England Anne Hutchinson The first published African-American female poet.
Philotis Legendary Ancient Rome Hypatia In Roman legend, slave (ancilla) whose plan resulted in an important victory of the Romans over the Latins in the late 4th century BC.
Phoebe Unknown Greece Marcella A first-century Christian woman mentioned by the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, verses 16:1-2. A notable woman in the church of Cenchreae, she was trusted by Paul to deliver his letter to the Romans.
Pierrone Unknown; died 1430 France Petronilla de Meath A woman who said she saw visions of "God dressed in a long white robe with a red tunic underneath". She also tried to defend Joan of Arc, and was burned at the stake for that.
Plotina 1st century Hispania, Rome Marcella Roman Empress who used her influence to improve the quality of life for Roman society by creating fairer taxes, improving education, etc.
Pocahontas c. 1595 America, England Sacajawea A Virginia Indian notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.
Pope Joan Legendary Europe Trotula According to popular legend, a woman who reigned as pope for a few years during the Middle Ages.
Porcia Unknown Ancient Rome Marcella A Roman woman who lived in the 1st century BC, best known for being the second wife of Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins, and for her suicide, reputedly by swallowing hot coals.
Praxagora Legendary Greece Sophia Leader of group of cross dressing women in play by Aristophanes (The Assemblywomen.)
Praxilla Unknown Ancient Greece Sappho A lyric poet of the 5th century BC.
Wanda (Princess) Unknown Poland Theodora The daughter of Krakus, legendary founder of Kraków. Upon her father's death, she became queen of the Poles, but committed suicide to avoid an unwanted marriage.
Priscilla Unknown Unknown Marcella A woman who lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, who described her and her husband as his "fellow workers in Christ Jesus".[Rom. 16:3 NASB]
Properzia de' Rossi c. 1490 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi A sculptor.
Prudence Crandall 1803 America Sojourner Truth She admitted a 17-year-old African-American female student to her private school in the autumn of 1833, resulting in what is widely regarded as the first integrated classroom in the United States.
Puduhepa c. 1280–1250 BC Hittite Empire Hatshepsut Queen, priestess
Pulcheria AD 398 or 399 Eastern Roman Empire Theodora Saint and Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Pythia Legendary Greece Sophia Consulted by psychics in temple named after her.
Python (mythology) Mythical Greece Snake Goddess Female serpent that lived near temple of Delphi.
Rachel Carson 1907 United States Margaret Sanger American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Rachel Katznelson 1885 Israel Margaret Sanger Prominent figure in Zionist movement. First Lady of Israel from 1963-1973, who was active in politics.
Rachel Ruysch 1664 The Hague, Northern Netherlands Artemisia Gentileschi 17th-century and 18th-century flower painter. She is recorded as earning well from her paintings and living to a great age.
Rachel Varnhagen 1771 Germany Mary Wollstonecraft German writer who hosted one of the most prominent salons of the late 18th and early 19th century.
Rachel Unknown Ancient Israel Judith In the Bible, the favorite of Biblical patriarch Jacob's two wives as well as the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, two of the twelve progenitors of the tribes of Israel.
Radclyffe Hall 1880 United Kingdom Natalie Barney English poet and author. Famous for the lesbian classic, "The Well of Loneliness", which caused a public uproar and subsequently subjected to an obscenity trial, after which it was banned for a while in the UK and the States.
Radegund c .520 Germany Theodora Thuringian princess and Frankish queen, who founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Poitiers.
Rahonem Old Kingdom Egypt Hatshepsut Queen, priestess, music leader
Rachel Unknown France Trotula Yocheved, Miriam, and Rachel, daughters of the medieval Talmudic scholar Rashi, feature in several legends suggesting that they possessed unusual piety and scholarship.
Rebecca Lee 1831 United States Elizabeth Blackwell First African-American woman to become a physician in the United States.
Rebecca West 1892 England Virginia Woolf Feminist author, literary critic, journalist, and travel writer. Involved in women's suffrage movement.
Rebekah Unknown Ancient Israel Judith She appears in the Hebrew Bible as the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau.
Renée Vivien 1877 England, France Natalie Barney Symbolist poet known both for her work and her open lifestyle within the lesbian coterie of Paris, which included a long relationship with Natalie Barney.
Rhea (mythology) Mythical Crete Snake Goddess Earth mother
Rhea Silva Legendary Rome Sophia Priestess, mother of Romulus and Remus
Rhiannon Mythical Wales Kali Great queen, magician, deity.
Romaine Brooks 1874 United States, France Natalie Barney American painter who lived in Europe, mostly in Paris. Famous mostly for her portraits of cross-dressing and gender-defying women, and for influencing Aubrey Beardsley's illustrations. A popular and prominent figure in the sapphic "sewing circles" of Paris. Partner of the infamous salon hostess Natalie Barney, and briefly the partner of the Russian dancer and Belle Epoque muse Ida Rubenstein.
Rosa Bonheur 1822 France Georgia O’Keeffe An animalière, realist artist, and sculptor; she is widely considered to have been the most famous female painter of the nineteenth century.
Rosa Luxemburg 1871 Germany and the Russian Empire Margaret Sanger A Marxist theorist, economist, philosopher, and revolutionary socialist.
Rosalba Carriera 1673 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi Venetian Rococo portrait artist who was famous and sought-after throughout much of Europe, especially in France.
Rosalia of Palermo 1130 Italy Hildegarde of Bingen The patron saint of Palermo in Italy, and three towns in Venezuela: El Hatillo, Zuata, and Anzoátegui.
Rosana Chouteau Unknown Osage Nation Sacajawea The first woman to be elected chief of the Osage Beaver Band, a clan of the Native American Osage Nation in Oklahoma.
Rose de Burford 14th century London, England Christine de Pisan 14th century merchant and business woman. The embroidered garments she sold adorned royalty and even the pope.
Rose Mooney 1740 Ireland Ethel Smyth Blind itinerant harpist.
Ruth Unknown Ancient Israel Judith The protagonist of the Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible.
Ruth Benedict 1887 United States Margaret Sanger American anthropologist and folklorist. President of American Anthropological Association, first woman to be recognized as prominent leader of learned profession.
Saaredra Villanueva 1897 Bolivia Sacajawea Full name Etelvina Villanueva y Saavedra. Bolivian poet and educator who founded an important feminist group, Legión Femenina de Educación Popular de America.
Sabina von Steinbach Early 13th century Alsace/Eastern France Artemisia Gentileschi Legendary stonemason and daughter of Erwin von Steinbach, master builder at Notre Dame de Strasbourg. While it was not unthinkable for a woman to be a stonemason in the 13th century, scholars debate whether or not she actually existed.
Barbara 3rd century Turkey or Phoenicia Hypatia The patron saint of those in peril. She was a Christian martyr, betrayed and then beheaded by her own father.[197]
Fabiola Flourished 4th century Rome Marcella Was a Roman matron among the company of noble Roman women who, under the influence of the Church father St. Jerome, gave up all earthly pleasures and devoted themselves to the practice of Christian asceticism and to charitable work.[198]
Lucy 283 Sicily Saint Bridget A young Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution.[199]
Marcellina circa 330/335 Rome Marcella She was the only sister of Saint Ambrose of Milan who received the veil of consecrated virginity to live a life of perpetual virginity and to devote herself to the practice of prayer and asceticism.[200]
Margaret 1242 Hungary Hildegarde of Bingen A royal princess who took solemn vows at the age of eighteen and thereafter lived in a convent a life of extreme austerity and penance that included ceaseless body mortification.[201]
Margaret 1045circa 1045 England / Scotland Eleanor of Aquitaine Born in exile in Hungary, she was an Anglo-Saxon princess who fled to the Kingdom of Scotland following the Norman conquest of England of 1066. Around 1070 she married Malcolm III of Scotland and became Queen. She was considered an exemplar of the just ruler and had an important influence on Scottish culture introducing continental customs and fashion to the Scottish court and embarking on a reform program in the Scottish church.[202]
Paula 347 Rome Marcella Early Christian who was a noble Roman convert who followed St Jerome.[203]
WalpurgisWalpurgis 710circa 710 England Trotula Became a missionary and worked with her brothers, Wynnebald and Willibald, in Germany until she settled in a convent at Heidenheim. Walpurgis Night, a spring celebration held in parts of Germany, Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, and the Czech Republic, celebtates her.[204]
Salomée Halpir 1718 Poland Elizabeth Blackwell A successful medical doctor who specialized as an oculist. The first female doctor from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Her memoirs, written in 1760, are a unique example of a travel memoir and women's literature.[205]
Salpe Flourished before the 3rd century BC Ancient Greece Aspasia A midwife, physician and medical writer who favored the use of bodily fluids as curatives. Described in texts by Pliny the Elder.[206]
Sarah Bernhardt 1844/45 France Georgia O'Keeffe Widely considered the most significant French actress of the nineteenth century. She developed a reputation as a serious dramatic actress, earning the nickname "The Divine Sarah."[207]
Sarah Grimké 1792 United States Sojourner Truth American abolitionist, writer, and suffragist. Authored the first women's rights tract in the U.S., Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women (1838).[208][209]
Sarah Jennings 1660 England Elizabeth R. She rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship and counsel with Queen Anne of Great Britain.[210]
Sarah of St. Gilles Flourished circa 1326 France Trotula A medieval medical practitioner. Her practice and medical knowledge is known through a contract with her student. This document is the earliest and best known example of this type of teacher-student contract.[211]
Sarah Peale 1800 America Anne Hutchinson A successful portrait painter mainly of American politicians and military figures, and the occasional still life. Lafayettesat for her four times.[212]
Sarah Siddons 1755 Wales Artemisia Gentileschi An actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own.[213]
Sara Winnemucca 1844 Shoshonean tribe Sacajawea An advocate for Native Americans who founded the Peabody School for Native American children near Lovelock, Nevada, where children were taught in their own language but also learned English. The curriculum included the study of Native American history and culture.[214]
Sarah -1800Reputedly flourished circa 1800 BC Middle east Judith The wife of Abrahamand the mother of Isaacas described in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran.[215]
Scholastica 480c. 480 Italy Saint Bridget She was the twin sister of the founder of the Benedictine Order, Saint Benedict. She was a nun and the leader of an early monastery for women, perhaps the first.[216]
Selina Hastings 1707 England Anne Hutchinson The aristocratic Countess of Huntingdon, she was a pivotal figure in England's evangelical revival of the eighteenth century. She converted to Methodism and then founded her own sect of Calvinistic Methodists financed by her wealth.[217]
Selma Lagerlöf 1858 Sweden Virginia Woolf In 1909 she became the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. She is most widely known for her children's book Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige (The Wonderful Adventures of Nils).[218]
Semiramis -8999th century BC Assyria Hatshepsut Legendary Queen of King Ninus. One of only two women to lead Babylon, she is credited with vast building works across the region.[219]
Shibtu -1700c. 1700 BC Syria Ishtar Queen of Mari. Many tablets of correspondence between Shibtu and her husband, King Zimri-Lim survive and show that she often managed the affairs of the kingdom.[220]
Shub-Ad of Ur -2500c. 2500 BC Sumer Ishtar Queen or priestess of 1st Dynasty of Ur. Her un-looted tomb was excavated between 1922 and 1934 and found to contain a rich collection of grave goods.[221]
Sigrid Undset 1882 Norway Virginia Woolf A novelist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928. Her texts often explore women's identity as a struggle between a true self and prescribed sexual and social roles.[222]
Simone de Beauvoir 1908 France Virginia Woolf A writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. She wrote The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism.[223]
Simone Weil 1909 France Virginia Woolf A philosopher, educator, revolutionary, advocate for human rights, and mystic.[224]
Sobeya 950Flourished late 10th century Spain Eleanor of Aquitaine A sultana who ruled the Caliph of Córdoba in Islamic Spain as a regent for her son Hisham II al-Hakam.[225]
Sofia Kovalevskaya 1850 Russia Elizabeth Blackwell The first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe.[226]
Sonia Delaunay 1885 France / Ukraine Georgia O'Keeffe A painter, print-maker, and textile designer. Co-founded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes.[227]
Sonja Henie 1912 Norway Elizabeth Blackwell Winner of ten consecutive world figure skating championships and three Olympic gold medals in 1928, 1932, and 1936. She had a further career as a Hollywood star.[228]
Sophia Haydn 1868 United States / Chile Georgia O'Keeffe The first woman accepted to the architecture program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a pioneer for women in the profession of architect.[229]
Sophia Heath 1896 Ireland Elizabeth Blackwell A pioneer Irish aviator and proponent of women's events in the Olympic Games.[230]
Sophia Perovskaya 1853 Russia Margaret Sanger A Russian revolutionary and a member of Narodnaya Volya. She helped to orchestrate the successful assassination of Alexander II of Russia for which she was executed.[231]
Baroness of Adlersparre 1823 Sweden Susan B. Anthony Women's rights activist, publisher, editor, writer, debater, and co-founder of Sweden's first wave of feminism.[232]
Sophie Blanchard 1778 France Elizabeth Blackwell The first female aeronaut and baloonist. Between 1805 and 1819 she conducted 59 balloon flights over Paris.[233]
Sophie de Condorcet 1764 France Natalie Barney Was a prominent salon hostess from 1789 until the Reign of Terror, and again from 1799 until her death in 1822. Her salons were frequented by British and French intelligentsia.[234]
Sophie Drinker 1888 United States Ethel Smyth An amateur musician and musicologist. She is considered a founder of women's musicological and gender studies.[235]
Sophie Germain 1776 France Caroline Herschel Mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians.[236]
Sophia of Mecklenburg 1557 Germany Elizabeth R. A German noble and Queen of Denmark and Norway. Her interest in science manifested in her patronage of the astronomer Tycho Brahe.[237]
Sophie Taeuber-Arp 1889 Switzerland Georgia O'Keeffe Artist, painter, sculptor, and dancer, considered one of the most important artists of geometric abstraction of the 20th century.[238]
Sophonisba Angussola 1532c. 1532 Italy Artemisia Gentileschi An Italian Renaissance painter whose skill was recognized by Michelangelo and who made a career as a court painter.[239]
Sor Juana de la Cruz 1648 Mexico Sacajawea A talented Mexican nun, self-taught scholar-writer, and poet of the Baroqueschool who amassed a major library. When she was criticsed by the Church she published a defense of women's right to knowledge, the Respuesta a sor Filotea de la Cruz.[240]
Stephanie de Genlis 1746 France Natalie Barney A writer, harpist and educator whose work included the well-received novel Adèle et Théodore; ou, Lettres sur l'éducation of 1782.[241]
Stephanie de Montaneis 1210Flourished mid-13th century France Trotula A physician in Lyons at a time when it difficult for any women to enter the medical field. It is believed she was trained by her father Étienne de Montaneis.[242]
Sulpicia 50Flourished circa 90 Italy Hypatia There are two Roman poets named Sulpicia. The one on the heritage floor refers to Sulpicia II,[243] a poet whose best known works are a group of poems describing in explicit detail her relationship with her husband, and a second poem, in the form of a dialogue between Sulpicia and Calliope, the muse of epic poetry, which protests the banishing of philosophers from Rome in 94.[244]
Susan la Flesche Piccotte 1865 United States Elizabeth Blackwell The first American Indian woman to become a physician in the United States. She was of mixed Omaha, Ponca, Iowa, French and Anglo-American descent, she grew up with her parents on the Omaha Reservation.[245]
Susanna Lorantffy 1602 Hungary Anna van Schurman Assisted her husband, a Prince of Transylvania, in his successful struggle to introduce Protestant reforms in the Transylvanian church. Under her influence, John Amos Comenius, a prominent Calvinist teacher, took up residence in Sárospatak.[246]
Susanna Rowson 1762 British-American Emily Dickinson Author of the 1791 novel Charlotte Temple, the most popular best-seller in American literature up to 1852.[247]
Susanna Wesley 1669 England Anne Hutchinson Known as the Mother of Methodism because of her inlfuence on her two sons, John Wesley and Charles Wesley who founded it.[248]
Susanne Langer 1895 United States Virginia Woolf American philosopher of mind and of art. She was one of the first women to achieve an academic career in philosophy and the first to be popularly and professionally recognized as an American philosopher.[249]
Suzanne Necker 1737 Switzerland Mary Wollstonecraft A salonist and writer. She hosted one of the most celebrated salons of the Ancien Régime.[250]
Suzanne Valadon 1865 France Georgia O'Keeffe A French artist who became the first woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.[251]
Sylvia Ashton-Warner 1908 New Zealand Margaret Sanger Writer, novelist, educator, theorist, painter, and memoirist.[252]
Sylvia 350Mid fourth century Aquitaine, France Saint Bridget Saint Sylvia of Aquitaine, an abbess, is known for her journal describing her travels to holy sites in the Near East between 385 and 388AD. It is considered to be one of the earliest travel books ever written.[253]
Sylvia Pankhurst 1882 England Susan B. Anthony A campaigner for the suffragist and working class movements in the United Kingdom.[254]
Tanaquil -570c. 570 BC Etruria Hatshepsut Roman queen, prophet, artist and politician.[255]
Tanith -10000Mythical Carthage Ishtar Goddess of heaven and the moon.
Tarquinia Molza 1542 Italy Isabella d'Este A celebrated Italian singer, poet, and natural philosopher.[256]
Tefnut -10000Mythical Egypt Primordial Goddess Goddess of dew and rain. Tefnut is often depicted as a cat, a symbol of war, relating to a myth in which she fought with Shu and fled Egypt.[257]
Telesilla -550fl. 510 BC Argos, Ancient Greece Aspasia A poet who led the women and slaves of Argos to defend the city against the Spartans who had killed all its men.[258]
Tellus Mater -10000Mythical Rome Fertile Goddess Roman goddess of fecundity. Her festival, held annually on April 15, was called the Fordicia and required the sacrifice of pregnant cows.[259]
Teresa de Cartagena 1425 Spain Christine de Pisan A nun who authored The Admiraçión operum Dey (Wonder at the Works of God) considered as the first feminist tract written by a Spanish woman.[260]
Teresa Villarreal 18831883 Mexico and Texas Sacajawea Revolutionary labor and feminist organizer, who supported the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) during the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1917
Tetisheri -1650c. 1650 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Mother of the New Kingdom. Phe was the designated Great Wife of Pharaoh Tao I Seqenenre and enjoyed many powers and privileges that other queens before her had not held. Born into a common family, she rose quickly to power through her marriage [261]
Thalestris -325c. 325 BC Asia Minor Amazon Amazon queen. She brought 300 Amazon women to Alexander the Great, hoping to breed a race of children as strong and intelligent as he.[262]
The Furies -10000Mythical Greece Kali The Roman goddesses of vengeance who killed Clytemnestra, among other tales. Seen as cruel, but fair in their punishments.[263]
The Norns -10000Mythical Norway Kali The Norse goddesses of fate: three sisters named Urd, Verdandi, and Skuld.[264]
Theano -550Flourished circa 550 BC Ancient Greece Aspasia The pupil, and daughter or wife of Pythagoras. She directed Pythagoras's school after his death and is credited with writing the treatise on the Golden Mean.[265]
Thecla 1012nd century Turkey Saint Bridget A saint of the early Christian Church, and a reported follower of Paul the Apostle.[266]
Theoclea -599flourished 6th century BC Delphi in Ancient Greece Aspasia A Greek priestess, she was a tutor of the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras.[267]
Theodelinda 570c. 570 Lombardy Theodora Queen of the Lombards; she played a major role in establishing Nicene Christianity in Lombardy and Tuscany.[268]
Theodora III 980 Byzantine Empire Theodora A Byzantine Empress who was the last of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years, she was co-empress with her sister Zoe and then sole empress.[269]
Theodora the Senatrix 870c. 870 Rome Trotula Theodora was a powerful Roman senatrix (female senator) during a period labeled the Pornocracy, or Rule of the Harlots (circa 904–963), by some later Roman Catholic scholars.[270]
Theodora II 815c. 815 Byzantine empire Theodora Byzantine empress during the reign of Theophilus (ruled 829–842). She was canonized after her death for reversing the policy of Iconoclasm (prohibition on the worship of icons).[271]
Theresa of Avila 1515 Ávila, Spain Hildegarde of Bingen A mystic and a major figure in the Catholic Church, she is credited as a leader of the Counter Reformation and with reviving religious spirit in Spain.[272]
Theroigne de Mericourt 1762 France Mary Wollstonecraft A French woman who was a predominant figure in the French Revolution. An eloquent speaker, she delivered fiery orations in clubs, before the National Assembly, and in the streets.[273]
Thoma 1080Unknown; died 1127 Spain Hrosvitha Legal scholar and author of books on grammar.[274][275]
Tiamat -10000Mythical Babylonia Primordial Goddess The Chaos goddess in Babylonian mythology, Tiamat is a chaos monster, a primordial goddess of the salt water ocean, who mated with Abzû, the god of fresh water, to produce the first generation of deities.[276]
Timarete -4995th century BC Ancient Greece Sappho An ancient Greek painter, the daughter of the painter Micon the Younger of Athens. According to Pliny the Elder, she "scorned the duties of women and practised her father's art." She is best known for a panel painting of the goddess of Diana that was kept at Ephesus.[277]
Tituba 1650circa 1650 Massachusetts Petronilla de Meath Tituba was a 17th-century Carib Indian slave from Barbados or Guiana, belonging to Samuel Parris of Salem, Massachusetts. Tituba was one of the first three people accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials which took place in 1692. Tituba confessed and implicated other women in the colony in order to save herself from execution. She was later sold by Parris and relocated outside of Salem.[278]
Tiy -1398c. 1398 BC Egypt Hatshepsut Queen of Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. Her mummy was identified as The Elder Lady found in the Tomb of Amenhotep II. Amenhotep III seems to have relied on Tiy's political advice, being more interested in sports and the outdoors than in his pharaonic duties.[279]
Tomyris -530circa 530 BC Central Asia Boadaceia A queen who reigned over the Massagetae, an Iranian people of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea. She defeated the Persian king Cyrus II in war.[280]
Tuchulcha -10000Mythical Etruria Kali A half human, half donkey, daemon of the Etruscan underworld. She had a vulture's beak, wings, and hair made of serpents.[281]
Tullia d'Aragona 1510 c. 1510 Renaissance Italy Isabella d'Este An upper-class courtesan, author and philosopher, she published a Neoplatonic essay on the nature of love in which she insists on women's autonomy in romantic relationships.[282]
Urraca 1151 Portugal Trotula A Portuguese infanta (princess), daughter of Afonso I, 1st King of Portugal and his wife Maud of Savoy. She married Ferdinand II of León. The marriage did not stop her father declaring war on her husband and this eventually led to the annulment of the marriage in 1175.[283]
Ursley Kempe 1525c. 1525 England Petronilla de Meath An English woman accused of causing the death of three people and hanged for witchcraft.
ValadaValada 1001 Córdoba, Spain Hrosvitha A poet during Córdoba's golden age under Islamic rule, she hosted a vibrant literary salon. Her father's death when she was at the age of thirty gave her a rich legacy which allowed her to live independently and flout many of the conventions imposed on women of her time. She composed satirical, often caustic verse, much of it dedicated to her lover, the poet Ibn Zaydún.
The Valkyries -10000Mythical Germany Kali Minor female deities, dressed as warriors, who conducted the souls of the most heroic German warriors after their deaths, to join Odin's army.[284]
Vashti -480Biblical, flourished c. 450 BC Persia Judith Vashti is mentioned in the Old Testament Book of Esther as the wife of King Ahasuerus of Persia. The king boasted to other men that his wife was the most beautiful and he ordered her to appear naked before them. Vashti refused and was consequently banished from his household and possibly beheaded. The king took Esther as his wife in her place.
Veleda 50Flourished circa 50 North Germany Boadaceia A celebrated virgin prophet of the Bructeri, a tribe from northern Germany. In 69/70, she correctly prophesied the initial successes of the Batavian Rebellion against Roman rule.
Vera Figner 1852 Russia Margaret Sanger Russian revolutionary and narodnik born in Kazan. She was leader of Narodnaya Volya (the People's Will), a revolutionary socialist organization which aimed to depose the state regime through terrorism and was involved in the planning of several terrorist acts, including the assassination of Czar Alexander II in 1881.[285]
Vera Zasulich 1849 Russia Margaret Sanger Russian Marxist writer and revolutionary. In 1883, she helped found the Liberation of Labor, the first Russian Marxist group. Later, she served on the editorial board of Iskra, a revolutionary Marxist newspaper. After the Russian Social Democratic Party split in 1903, Zasulich became a leader of the Menshevik faction.[286]
Veronica Gambara 1485 Italy Isabella d'Este Italian poet, stateswoman and political leader. Married to the lord of Correggio, after his death in 1518 she took charge of the state as well as the education of her two children.[287]
Vesta -800Mythical Rome circa 753 BC – AD 476 Sophia The virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.[288]
Victoria Woodhull 1838 United States Susan B. Anthony American leader of the woman's suffrage movement. She was a radical who advocated the eight-hour day, a progressive income tax, profit sharing, and social welfare programs. In 1872, she ran for president of the United States.[289]
Vida Goldstein 1869 Australia Susan B. Anthony A pioneering Australian feminist politician who campaigned for women's suffrage and social reform. She stood for parliament five times, was a vocal opponent of capitalism and the White Australia policy, and a staunch pacifist, campaigning for peace during World War I.[290]
Violante 1365c. 1365 France Eleanor of Aquitaine French noblewoman who married John I of Aragon and became queen of the medieval Iberian kingdom of Aragon. John's ill-health, meant she wielded considerable power on his behalf. She transformed the Aragonese court into a center of culture, especially cultivating Provençal troubadours.[291]
Virgin Mary 1Biblical, New Testament Galilee Eleanor of Aquitaine Identified in the New Testament and in the Quran as the mother of Jesus who conceived through divine intervention. Revered for centuries as the feminine aspect of the divine.
Virginia -465c. 465 BC Rome Sophia Commonly known as Verginia, her honor killing by her father inspired political revolt in Rome which overthrew the decemviri ruling council and restored the republic.
Vita Sackville-West 1892 England Virginia Woolf Author, poet and gardener whose successful 50-year bisexual open marriage scandalised society.
Vittoria Colonna 1490 Italy Isabella d'Este Italian noblewoman and poet, considered the most influential woman of the Italian Renaissance and friend and muse to Michelangelo.
Wanda Landowska 1879 Polish, later naturalized French Ethyl Smyth Musical prodigy who's harpsichordist performances, teaching, recordings and writings played a large role in reviving the popularity of the harpsichord in the early 20th century.
Wetamoo 1635c. 1635 Wampanoag people, Rhode Island Sacajawea Native American noblewoman whose life was recorded in the children's historical novel series, The Royal Diaries
Willa Cather 1873 United States Virginia Woolf American author who famous for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains.
Witch of Endor 1001c. 1000 BC Kingdom of Israel Judith A woman seer who called up the ghost of the recently deceased prophet Samuel, at the demand of King Saul.
Xochitl 1001c. 11th century Mesoamerica Sacajawea Toltec Queen from 990 to 1040. She helped forge the Toltec state and legend says she died in battle.[292]
Yekaterina Breshkovskaya 1844 Russia Margaret Sanger Russian socialist revolutionary nicknamed The "Babushka" (Little Grandmother) of the Russian Revolution.[293]
Yekaterina Dashkova 1743 Russia Mary Wollstonecraft The closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. One of the best educated women of her time.[294]
Yolanda of Aragon 1384 France Isabella d'Este Chicago's description fits Yolande of Aragon, an important figure in French history who supported Joan of Arc's army financially.[295]
Yvette 11581158 Belgium Hildegarde of Bingen A religious figure and prophet in the town of Huy, Belgium
Zenobia 240240 Palmyrene Empire Boadaceia Queen of the breakaway Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a revolt against Rome expanding her empire, by conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by the Emperor Aurelian.[296]
Zipporah -1500c. 1500 BC Hebrew Judith Zipporah or Tzipora is described in the Book of Exodus as the wife of Moses. She came to Moses' aid by speedily circumcising their son at a critical juncture.[297]
Siva -10000Mythical Russia Primordial Goddess Slavic goddess of life, love, and fertility. She was worshipped in Russia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Germany under the names Siwa, Sieba, Razivia, Zhiva.[298]
Zoe 978c. 978 Constantinople Theodora Reigned as co-empress of the Byzantine Empire with her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11, 1042 [299]
Zora Neale Hurston 1891 United States Sojourner Truth Harlem Renaissance writer both celebrated and castigated for her flamboyant wit and iconoclastic style, She was thirty-five years old before making a start in her literary career.[300]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Charles George Herbermann (1912). The Catholic encyclopedia;: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church;. Appleton. p. 398. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  2. ^ "Abella of Salerno". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Abella of Salerno. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "Abigail". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Abigail. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Chicago, 69.
  5. ^ "Abigail Adams". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Abigail Adams. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c Margaret Schaus (2006). Women and gender in medieval Europe: an encyclopedia. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-96944-4. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Schaus2006" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Adela of Blois". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adela of Blois. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c "Adela Zambudia-Ribero". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adela Zambudia-Ribero. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Chicago, 104.
  10. ^ "Adelaide". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adelaide. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  11. ^ "Adelaide Labille-Guiard". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  12. ^ Chicago, 157.
  13. ^ "Adelaide of Susa". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Adelaide of Susa. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Chicago, 121.
  15. ^ a b Chicago, 116.
  16. ^ Chicago, 210.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Marjorie Lightman; Benjamin Lightman (December 2007). A to Z of ancient Greek and Roman women. Infobase Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8160-6710-7. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LightmanLightman2007" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "LightmanLightman2007" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  18. ^ "Eudocia". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Eudocia. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  19. ^ Chicago, 106.
  20. ^ "Aemilia". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Aemilia. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  21. ^ a b Chicago, 86.
  22. ^ a b Chicago, 105.
  23. ^ Cathy Hartley (17 December 2003). A historical dictionary of British women. Psychology Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-85743-228-2. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  24. ^ Chicago, 111.
  25. ^ a b c Sarah Gallick (13 March 2007). The big book of women saints. HarperCollins. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-06-082512-6. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Gallick2007" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  26. ^ "Agatha". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agatha. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  27. ^ "Ageltrude Benevento". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: . Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  28. ^ a b c d Chicago, 78.
  29. ^ a b "Aglaonice". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Aglaonice. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  30. ^ Chicago, 129.
  31. ^ a b "Agnes D'Harcourt". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agnes D'Harcourt. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Agnes2" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  32. ^ a b Chicago, 109.
  33. ^ a b c "Agnes". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agnes. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Agnes3" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  34. ^ a b Guida Myrl Jackson-Laufer (1999). Women rulers throughout the ages: an illustrated guide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-57607-091-8. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  35. ^ Chicago, 138.
  36. ^ "Agnes of Dunbar". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agnes of Dunbar. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  37. ^ Chicago, 135.
  38. ^ "Agnes Sampson". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agnes Sampson. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  39. ^ Chicago, 255–256.
  40. ^ "Agnes Smedley". Master spies. Spy Museum. 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  41. ^ "Agnes Sorel". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agnes Sorel. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  42. ^ a b c Betsy Prioleau; Elizabeth Stevens Prioleau (26 October 2004). Seductress: Women Who Ravished the World and Their Lost Art of Love. Penguin. pp. 210–211. ISBN 978-0-14-303422-3. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  43. ^ a b Chicago, 146.
  44. ^ Terrie Waddell (2003). Cultural expressions of evil and wickedness: wrath, sex, crime. Rodopi. p. 86. ISBN 978-90-420-1015-4. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  45. ^ a b c Elizabeth H. Oakes (2007). Encyclopedia of world scientists. Infobase Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8160-6158-7. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Oakes2007" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  46. ^ a b "Agrippina I". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Agrippina I. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  47. ^ Joyce E. Salisbury (2001). Women in the ancient world. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-57607-092-5. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  48. ^ Chicago, 36.
  49. ^ Michael Jordan (August 2004). Dictionary of gods and goddesses. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8160-5923-2. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  50. ^ "Albertine Necker de Saussure". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Albertine Necker de Saussure. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  51. ^ Chicago, 226.
  52. ^ "Aleksandra Kollantay". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Aleksandra Kollantay. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  53. ^ Chicago, 238.
  54. ^ Chicago, 145.
  55. ^ a b c Chicago, 206.
  56. ^ "Aletta Jacobs". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Aletta Jacobs. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  57. ^ Chicago, 82.
  58. ^ "Alexandra of Jerusalem". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alexandra of Jerusalem. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  59. ^ Janet K. Boles; Diane Long Hoeveler (2004). Historical dictionary of feminism. Scarecrow Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-8108-4946-4. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  60. ^ "Alfonsina Storni". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alfonsina Storni. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  61. ^ Chicago, 256.
  62. ^ a b Chicago, 134.
  63. ^ "Alice Kyteler". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alice Kyteler. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  64. ^ a b c Chicago, 218.
  65. ^ "Madame A. Milliat". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Madame A. Milliat. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  66. ^ "Alice Paul". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alice Paul. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  67. ^ "Alice Pike Barney". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alice Pike Barney. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  68. ^ Chicago, 245.
  69. ^ "Alice Samuel". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alice Samuel. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  70. ^ "Alice Stone Blackwell". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alice Stone Blackwell. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  71. ^ "Aliénor de Poitiers". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Aliénor de Poitiers. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  72. ^ "Alison Rutherford". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alison Rutherford. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  73. ^ "Almucs De Castenau". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Almucs De Castenau. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  74. ^ Gallick, 333.
  75. ^ "Alpis de Cudot". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alpis de Cudot. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  76. ^ "Althea Gibson". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Althea Gibson. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  77. ^ "Alukah". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Alukah. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  78. ^ "Amat-Mamu". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Amat-Mamu. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  79. ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Amelia Earhart". www.brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved 2016-03-08. 
  80. ^ a b "Amelia Holst". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Amelia Holst. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  81. ^ Windsor, 204.
  82. ^ "Amy Beach". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Amy Beach. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  83. ^ "Ana Betancourt". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Ana Betancourt. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  84. ^ "Anaconda". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anaconda. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  85. ^ "Anahita". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anahita. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  86. ^ "Anaïs Nin". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anaïs Nin. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  87. ^ "Anastasia". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anastasia. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  88. ^ "Anastasia". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anastasia. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  89. ^ "Anath". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anath. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  90. ^ "Anasandra". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Anasandra. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  91. ^ "Andres Villareal". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Andres Villareal. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  92. ^ "Angela Merici". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Angela Merici. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  93. ^ "Angelberga". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Angelberga. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  94. ^ "Angéle de la Barthe". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Angéle de la Barthe. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  95. ^ "Angelica Balabanoff". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  96. ^ "Angelica Kauffman". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  97. ^ "Angelina Grimké". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  98. ^ Grimké, Sarah (1837). "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes" (PDF). National Humanities Center Grimké Letters. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  99. ^ "Angelique du Coudray". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  100. ^ "Ann Lee". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  101. ^ "Anna Dalassena Comnena". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  102. ^ "Anna Karsch". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  103. ^ "Anna Comnena". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  104. ^ : Anna Maria Schwagel Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed March 2012
  105. ^ "Anna Manzolini". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  106. ^ Anna Pavlova Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed January 2014
  107. ^ Anna Shabanova Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed January 2014
  108. ^ Anna Sophia Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed January 2014
  109. ^ Annabella Drummond Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed January 2014
  110. ^ Anne Askew Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor, Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Accessed 27 January 2014.
  111. ^ Anne Bacon Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor, Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Accessed 27 January 2014.
  112. ^ "Anne Baynard". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  113. ^ "Anne Bonney". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  114. ^ "Anne Bradstreet". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  115. ^ "Anne Clough". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  116. ^ "Anne Dacier". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  117. ^ "Anne Ella Carroll". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  118. ^ "Anne Halkett". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  119. ^ "Anne of Beaujeu". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  120. ^ "Anna". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  121. ^ Anne of Brittany.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  122. ^ Anne Redfearne.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  123. ^ Annie Jump Cannon.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  124. ^ Annie Kenney.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  125. ^ Annie Smith Peck.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  126. ^ Annie Wood Besant.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  127. ^ Antigone.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  128. ^ Antiope.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  129. ^ Antonia Brico.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  130. ^ Antonia Padoani Bembo.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  131. ^ Amyte.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  132. ^ Aphra Behn.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  133. ^ Aphrodite.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  134. ^ Arachne.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  135. ^ Aretaphila of Cyrene.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor:. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  136. ^ a b Arete of Cyrene .Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  137. ^ Arianrhod.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  138. ^ Arinitti.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  139. ^ Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers
  140. ^ Elizabeth Donnelly Carney (2013). Arsinoe of Egypt and Macedon: A Royal Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-536551-1
  141. ^ Artemis.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  142. ^ Artemisia I.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  143. ^ Artemisia II.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
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  145. ^ Ashtoreth'.Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
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References[edit]