List of blacklisted keywords in China
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China's government has set up a system of internet censorship, with the intention of blocking internet users within Mainland China from accessing material deemed undesirable, including foreign news sites, sites with dissident political views, many Hong Kong and Taiwanese web sites, and internet pornography. However, some individuals in China are purchasing software in the form of a VPN to access Google, Facebook, and other web sites.
One part of the block is to remove some websites from search results on search engines. These search engines include both the local version of international search engines (e.g. Google.cn, Bing) as well as domestic ones (e.g. Baidu, 360 Search). Many world-renowned websites are removed from the search result, such as all porn sites, some western news websites like The New York Times and Bloomberg, and a few sites in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In addition, access to a handful of US-based universities are blocked, as these websites often contain discussions regarding issues deemed politically sensitive by the Communist Party of China.
Some words are sensitive. Attempting to search for such a term may result in the turning on of the "safe search" feature, and limiting the result pages in China. However, the general internet traffic filter may interrupt a HTTP connection between the browser and the server if it detects intensive sensitive words in plaintext, as it does with other protocols, such as the Post Office Protocol, and any sequence connection to the server is also denied. This filter affects self-censored search engines, since their censorship is filtering websites, not keywords. This system is described in greater detail at Internet censorship in mainland China.
The system is highly flexible. Certain words may be blocked during politically-sensitive periods of the year, while others may be blacklisted for just a short time due to some contemporary relevant issue.
Any sequence containing the term is also blocked. For example, since 法輪 / 法轮 (falun, or "dharma chakra") is blocked, so are 法轮功 (Falun Gong) and 轉法輪 / 转法轮 ("Turning dharma chakra"). Also, only the Chinese terms are blocked, while the English terms are freely searchable (unless specified otherwise).
This list is not intended to be exhaustive. Most were verified for Simplified Chinese searches for the Baidu search engine. It is known that trying from different locations inside and outside China, on different search engines, and at different times can yield different results.
Chinese phrases are given as traditional / simplified where they differ.
- 民主 (democracy)
- 人權 / 人权 (human rights)
- 獨裁 / 独裁 (dictatorship)
- 專政 / 专政 (dictatorship)
- 專制 / 专制 (despotism)
- 反共 (anti-communist)
- 共匪 (communist bandits) — this was the term used by the Kuomintang to refer to the communists during Chinese Civil War
- 共惨党 (tragic communist party), similar pronunciation of 共产党(communist party)
- 群體滅絕 / 群体灭绝 (genocide)
- not blocked by Baidu 群体灭绝&rsv_spt=1&oq=%25E4%25B8%2593%25E5%2588%25B6&rsv_pq=a7404b920002eb84&rsv_t=1de2RcjvjPaQ64Z56R06HV5pSOQzu6L9CaPQ0IqMEpcvdy9aAHdqUy%2F%2F%2BsZYHLOTLR%2Fl&rqlang=cn&rsv_enter=1&rsv_sug3=26&rsv_sug1=28&rsv_sug7=101&rsv_sug2=0&inputT=10438&rsv_sug4=10438)
- (not blocked by Sogou )
- 鎮壓 / 镇压 (oppression)
- not blocked: 推翻 (overthrow), 政變 / 政变 (coup), 打倒 ("down with") and 維權 / 维权 (Protect rights),封鎖 / 封锁 (Blocking)
- 勞教 / 劳教 (Reeducation through labor)
- 紅色恐佈 / 红色恐怖 (Red Terror)
- 邪惡 / 邪恶 (evil)
- 流亡 (exile)
- 红色的法拉利 (red Ferrari) - due to Ling Gu, son of Ling Jihua, a close associate of party leader Hu Jintao, and Bo Guagua, son of politburo member Bo Xilai, driving black or red Ferraris, respectively
- 中俄邊界 / 中俄边界 (Sino-Russian border) - refers to the Sino-Russian Border Treaty, which has been attacked by nationalists and dissident groups as a betrayal of Chinese sovereignty and dignity
- 六四 (June 4), 天安門事件 / 天安门事件 (Tiananmen Square massacre), 民運 / 民運 (Chinese democracy movement) - "June 4" is the usual Chinese name for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. In contrast, "Tiananmen" refers to a geographical place and does not usually have the same connotations.
- 汕尾 (Shanwei) - refers to the Dongzhou protests of 2005.
- not blocked: 太石村 (Taishi Village), 蘇家屯 / 苏家屯 (Sujiatun)
- 蟻力神 / 蚁力神 (yilishen)
- 京温 / 京溫 (Beijing Wenzhou Market) Blocked by Baidu and Weibo
Xinjiang and Tibet
- Since 民主 (democracy) is blocked, any political group with that name is also blocked. This includes both dissident groups like 中國民主正義黨 / 中国民主正义党 (Chinese Democracy Justice Party) , 民主中國 / 民主中国 (China Democracy)  and government-sanctioned groups like 中國民主同盟 / 中国民主同盟 (China Democratic League)
- 天安門母親 / 天安门母亲 (Tiananmen Mothers)
- 魏京生 (Wei Jingsheng)
- 王丹 (Wang Dan)
- 吾爾開希 / 吾尔开希 (Wu'er Kaixi)
- 柴玲 (Chai Ling)
- 封從德 / 封从德 (Feng Congde)
- 丁子霖 (Ding Zilin)
- 王若望 (Wang Ruowang)
- 劉賓雁 / 刘宾雁 (Liu Binyan)
- 吳弘達 / 吴弘达 (Harry Wu)
- 司徒華 / 司徒华 (Szeto Wah)
- 張戎 / 张戎 (Jung Chang, author of Mao: The Unknown Story)
Tank Man" [in English] leads only to a terse warning about the questionable legality of the material one may be seeking in Google.cn. However, a search for "王维林," ostensibly Tank Man's real name, in the same search engine shows the Chinese-language Wikipedia's article on Tank Man as the first result.
- not blocked: 王若水 (Wang Ruoshui) and 孫文廣 / 孙文广 (Sun Wenguang)
- 刘晓波 (Liu Xiaobo)
- 江澤民 / 江泽民 (Jiang Zemin), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
- Search engines like Baidu, Google, and Yahoo don't block this name.
- 江賊 / 江贼, 賊民 / 贼民, 江賊民, 江流氓 (all four describe Jiang Zemin as a bandit)
- 江羅 / 江罗 (Jiang Luo, refers to Jiang Zemin and Luo Gan)
- not blocked: 羅干 / 罗干 (Luo Gan)
- 趙紫陽 / 赵紫阳 (Zhao Ziyang)
- 鮑彤 / 鲍彤 (Bao Tong)
- 黃菊 / 黄菊 (Huang Ju)
- No other blocks on the names of politicians have been discovered. The following are not blocked:
- 胡耀邦 (Hu Yaobang), 華國鋒 / 华国锋 (Hua Guofeng), 鄧小平 / 邓小平 (Deng Xiaoping), 毛澤東 / 毛泽东 (Mao Zedong), 周恩來 / 周恩来 (Zhou Enlai), 劉少奇 / 刘少奇 (Liu Shaoqi), 林彪 / 林彪 (Lin Biao), 宋慶齩 / 宋庆龄 (Soong Ching-ling), 孫中山 / 孙中山 (Sun Yat-sen), 彭德懷 / 彭德怀 (Peng Dehuai), 朱德 (Zhu De), 董必武 (Dong Biwu), 萬里 / 万里 (Wan Li), 喬石 / 乔石 (Qiao Shi), 李鵬 / 李鹏 (Li Peng), 朱鎔基 / 朱镕基 (Zhu Rongji), 李瑞環 / 李瑞环 (Li Ruihuan), 曾慶紅 / 曾庆红 (Zeng Qinghong), 李先念 (Li Xiannian), 陳獨秀 / 陈独秀 (Chen Duxiu), 瞿秋白 (Qu Qiubai), 向忠發 / 向忠发 (Xiang Zhongfa), 楊尚昆 / 杨尚昆 (Yang Shangkun), 蔣介石 / 蒋介石 (Chiang Kai-shek)
- No other blocks on the names of politicians have been discovered. The following are not blocked:
- 大參考 / 大参考 (Dacankao) 
- 博訊 / 博讯 (Boxun) 
- 華夏文摘 / 华夏文摘 (China News Digest) 
- 多維 / 多维 (Chinese News Net) 
- 紀元 / 纪元 (Epoch), the second and third characters of 大纪元 (Epoch Times) 
- 自由亞洲 / 自由亚洲, first four characters of 自由亞洲電臺 / 自由亚洲电台 (Radio Free Asia) 
- 人民報 / 人民报 (Renminbao), 
- peacehall — same as Boxun
- 美國之音 / 美国之音 (Voice of America)
- 法輪 / 法轮 (falun, or "dharma chakra")
- 法倫 / 法伦 (falun)
- 輪功 / 轮功 (lun gong, the second and third characters of Falun Gong)
- 輪大 / 轮大 (lun da, the second and third characters of Falun Dafa)
- 大法 (dafa, or "Great Law")
- 洪志 (hongzhi, given name of Falun Gong founder Li Hongzhi)
- 弟子 (disciple)
- 真善忍 (Truthfulness, Compassion, Forbearance) — the principles of the Falun Gong practice
- 明慧 (Minghui, official website of Falun Gong) 
- not blocked: 王文怡 (Wenyi Wang)
- 民進黨 / 民进党 (Democratic Progressive Party)
- not blocked: 臺灣團結聯盟 / 台湾团结联盟 (Taiwan Solidarity Union), 泛綠 / 泛绿 (Pan-Green), 中華民國 / 中华民国 (Republic of China), and 臺獨 / 台独 (Taiwan independence)
- not blocked: 國民黨 / 国民党 (Kuomintang) and 泛藍 / 泛蓝 (Pan-Blue)
- not blocked: 陳水扁 / 陈水扁 (Chen Shui-bian), 呂秀蓮 / 吕秀莲 (Annette Lu) and 李登輝 / 李登辉 (Lee Teng-hui)
- not blocked: 宋美齡 / 宋美龄 (Soong Mei-ling), 蔣經國 / 蒋经国 (Chiang Ching-kuo), 蔣方良 / 蒋方良 (Chiang Fang-liang), and 馬英九 / 马英九 (Ma Ying-jeou)
- 花花公子 (Playboy)
- google.blogspot.com results in a 5-minute IP block from Baidu as well as Yahoo! China.
- 東方紅時空 / 东方红时空
- 九評共產黨 / 九评共产党 (The Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party)
- 不為人知的故事 / 不为人知的故事 (The Unknown Story) - refers to the book Mao: The Unknown Story
- 李志綏 / 李志绥 (Li Zhisui, author of the controversial book The Private Life of Chairman Mao)
- 支那 (Shina (word))
- the name of the 38 blacklisted animation for China starting 2015. (On Bilibili)
- 天葬 (Sky Burial)
- 茉莉花革命 (Jasmine revolution)
- Puffin (Not blacklisted in Baidu Images and Bilibili)
- 本子福利 (on Bilibili, Tieba as also blocked the bar of this title.]]
- 巴拿馬文件/巴拿马文件 (Panama Papers)
- 翻牆/翻牆 (Get rid of internet censorship)
- 伊斯蘭國/伊斯兰国 (Islamic State, ISIS)
- 諾貝爾和平獎/诺贝尔和平奖 (Nobel peace prize)
- Lantern, 藍燈|蓝灯
- Psiphon, 賽風/赛风
- Some single words like xi (习) (Can't even search 学习 (Study) etc).
- 小熊維尼/小熊维尼 (Winnie the Pooh) (Weibo only)
- John Garnaut. "''Sydney Morning Herald'', September 4, 2012, John Garnaut, "Death of Chinese playboy leaves fresh scratches in party paintwork"". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Mosettig, Michael D. (November 7, 2012). "Red Ferraris in Red China". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Baidu.com censorship - Slashdot
|Wikinews has related news: Bi-directional Censorship from the Great Firewall of China|
- Tool for keeping track of websites and searches that are blocked in mainland China
- "Keywords Used to Filter Web Content," Washington Post, February 18, 2006
- "List of blacklisted keywords discovered by ConceptDoppler," ConceptDoppler, September 19 ,2007
- "1,168 keywords Skype uses to censor, monitor its Chinese users," ZDnet, March 8, 2013
- 新浪微博搜索敏感词列表, Spreadsheet of banned terms, China Digital Times (in Chinese)
- Chinese-keywords, a set of sensitive Chinese keywords in CSV collected from various sources including TOM-Skype, Weibo, and testing on the Great Firewall of China.