List of works based on Peter Pan

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Peter Pan, his fellow characters, and the setting of Neverland have appeared in many works since the original books and play by J. M. Barrie. The earliest were the stage productions of the play, and an adaptation to silent film, done with Barrie's involvement and personal approval. Later works were authorised by Great Ormond Street Hospital, to which Barrie gave the rights to the Peter Pan works; these include adaptations of the main story in both animated and live-action films, musical stage productions, and a sequel novel. In addition, there have been numerous uses of Barrie's characters, settings, and storylines which challenged or took advantage of the changing copyright status of these elements, including reinterpretations, sequels, prequels, and spin-offs in a variety of media, including film, television series, and books.

Adaptations of Peter Pan for public performance have a unique status in UK copyright law: Great Ormond Street Hospital has the right to receive royalties in perpetuity under specific provisions in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

When dramatized, the character of Peter has usually—but not always—been played by an adult woman. For boys' roles to be played by women is a convention of the pantomime tradition that was popular when the play was first produced, and was necessitated by laws restricting the use of child actors for evening performances. Later adaptations have often followed this example, for reasons that include tradition, the performance demands of the role, and the marketing advantages of "star" actresses. The roles of Captain Hook and George Darling happened to be played by the same actor in the original production, a tradition which has sometimes been continued in later dramatic adaptations.

Books and publications[edit]

Original works[edit]

  • 1904 – Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (play): Peter brings Wendy and her brothers to Neverland, where he has a showdown with his nemesis, Captain Hook. This play was adapted as a novel by Barrie. Variations and adaptations have been produced in various media.
  • 1906 – Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens: an origin story where the infant Peter flies away from his home, takes up residence in Kensington Gardens and makes friends with the fairies. It is a "book-within-a-book" that was first published in Barrie's The Little White Bird in 1902.
  • 1908 – When Wendy Grew Up – An Afterthought, a short sequel play first staged in 1908, but only published in book form in 1957.
  • 1911 – Peter and Wendy (novel), later published as Peter Pan and Wendy, adapted as a novel from the play, it also incorporates events from When Wendy Grew Up – An Afterthought.

Literary – Fiction[edit]

  • The Peter Pan Picture Book (sometimes entitled The Story of Peter Pan), retold by Daniel O'Connor, illustrated by Alice B. Woodward (1907),[1] based on the original stage production of 1904. The text was also published as Peter Pan Keepsake but illustrated with photographs from the first productions.[2] This story differs from Barrie's own 1911 novelisation because he had made several changes to his play and story since it was first staged in 1904.
  • Peter Pan and the Only Children by Gilbert Adair (1987), an unauthorised sequel/prequel novel. This book is written and presented in a format similar to Peter and Wendy, with bound-in colour illustrations by Jenny Thorne. It has Peter living with a different gang of Lost Boys under the ocean, recruiting "only children" who jump from passing ships as new members, including the newest: 10-year-old Marissa Porter. They have adventures under the sea, including a duel with Captain Hook which ends indecisively. The narrator suggests at the end that perhaps this is a prequel to the adventure with Wendy Darling, or they take place without sequence. Adair's previous novel was Alice through the Needle's Eye, a sequel to the Alice in Wonderland stories.
  • Neverland by Toby Forward (1989), where Peter Pan, Captain Hook etc. are brought back to life through a computer game. Published by Simon & Schuster when Peter Pan first entered the public domain in the UK, before the copyright was revived in 1995.
  • Hook by Terry Brooks (1991), a novelization of the Spielberg film.
  • After the Rain: A New Adventure for Peter Pan by J. E. Somma (1999), an unauthorised sequel novel. Set in modern times, telling of Peter's reaction to a world that has grown to neglect him, and his rescue by three children who teach him that it's OK to grow up. It was published without incident in Canada, where the copyright to Peter Pan was generally agreed to have expired, but Somma and GOSH were in legal dispute when it was published in the U.S. in 2002, where GOSH claimed their copyrights were still valid. They eventually settled out of court.[3]
  • Wendy by Karen Wallace (2003), an unauthorised prequel novel for young adults. An attempt to explain the Darling children's willingness to fly away with Peter on the grounds that their home life, up until shortly before Peter appeared, had been filled with abuse and tragedy: a cruel nanny, a criminally irresponsible father, and a suggestion of insanity in the family.
  • Jardines de Kensington (translated as "Kensington Gardens") by Rodrigo Fresán (2003), interweaves the story of Peter Pan, his creator JM Barrie, and various aspects of 1960s London pop culture. The narrator is called "Peter Hook"[4]
  • The Lost Girls: A Novel by Laurie Fox (2004), an unauthorised sequel novel. Follows the interaction of Peter Pan with each generation of Wendy Darling's female descendants, up to a distinctly 21st-century great-great-granddaughter. Published by Simon & Schuster.
  • The "Starcatchers" books by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson, an unauthorized series reboot[5], published by Hyperion Books (a subsidiary of Disney) in the US and by Walker Books in the UK.[6][7][8]
  • The "Never Land Books" by Dave Barry, Ridley Pearson, Greg Call (ill.), a series of unauthorised spin-off chapter books. Based on the continuity established by the "Starcatchers" novels, for a younger audience.
    • Escape from the Carnivale (2006).[16][17]
    • Cave of the Dark Wind (2007).[18]
    • Blood Tide (2008)[19]
  • Capt. Hook: The Adventures of a Notorious Youth by James V. Hart (co-writer of the movie Hook), Brett Helquist (ill.) (2005), an authorised (non-canon) prequel illustrated novel, published by HarperCollins in the US. Details the history of 15-year-old James Matthew, young Oppidan Scholar and future Captain Hook. The book portrays the villainous youth in a sympathetic light.
  • The Disney Fairies books by Gail Carson Levine, David Christiana (ill.), a series of spin-off illustrated novels for children. Part of the Disney Fairies franchise, published by Disney Press in the US and HarperCollins in the UK. Introduces a new cast of "Never Fairies", in addition to Tinker Bell. Peter Pan and Captain Hook are mentioned but play very minor roles. Additional chapter books in the series are intended for younger readers, and were written by various authors, focusing on the different characters invented by Levine.[20]
    • Fairy Dust and the Quest for the Egg (2005).
    • Fairy Haven and the Quest for the Wand (2007).
  • Peter Pan in Scarlet by Geraldine McCaughrean (2006), the official sequel novel, commissioned by Great Ormond Street Hospital following a competition launched in 2004. It has been sold in 40 different editions in 37 languages. The book is published by Oxford University Press in the UK and Margaret K McElderry (Simon & Schuster) in the US.[21]
  • Tigerheart by Peter David (2008), a novel retelling the Peter Pan stories from another character's perspective, referring to him as "the boy" throughout the novel, and referencing both Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy, with changes to many of the original characters.
  • The Child Thief by artist Gerald Brom (2009), an illustrated novel reinterpreting Peter Pan based on the darker themes in the story as a ruthless figure recruiting children to serve toward his own ends.
  • Another Pan by Daniel Nayeri and Dina Nayeri (2010), a darker version featuring an 18-year-old Peter Pan searching for the magic bone dust so he will never grow old. Characters also include Wendy, John and their father George Darling.[22]
  • Always Neverland by Zoe Barton (2011). Ashley is to be another in a long series of "Wendy girls" Peter brings to Neverland, but she is more interested in adventuring.[23]
  • Alias Hook by Lisa Jensen (2014). Captain Hook is stuck in an endless loop of warring with Peter Pan until a grown woman named Stella Parrish dreams her way into Neverland and begins to change things.
  • Hook's Revenge Series by Heidi Schulz, a humorous adventure series about the 12-year-old daughter of Captain Hook on a quest to avenge her father's death.[24]
    • Hook's Revenge (2014)[25]
    • The Pirate Code (2015)[26]
  • Never Never by Brianna R. Shrum (2015), the origin of James Hook and his rivalry with Peter.[27]
  • Unhooked by Lisa Maxwell (2016), Gwendolyn's mother's fears are proven right when shadowy creatures kidnap her and her best friend Olivia to a terrifying place called Neverland. She must choose who to trust: the charming fairy-tale hero or the roguish young pirate.[28]
  • Never Ever Series by Sara Saedi loosely based on Peter Pan. Wylie meets Phinn in a club and he whisks her and her brother off to a magical island where no one ages past seventeen.[29]
    • Never Ever (2016)
    • The Lost Kids (2018)
  • Peter Darling by Austin Chant (2017), a romance between an adult Peter Pan (who is a transgender man born as "Wendy") and Captain Hook.[30] Winner of the 2017 Rainbow Award for best cover and best transgender science fiction/fantasy.[31]

Literary – Non-fiction[edit]

  • Fifty Years of Peter Pan by Roger Lancelyn Green is an account of the first 50 years in Peter Pan's stage history.[32]
  • J.M. Barrie and The Lost Boys by Andrew Birkin is an account of the meeting and relationship between Barrie and the Llewelyn Davies family, and how Peter Pan came to be created, based on his docudrama The Lost Boys broadcast in 1978.[33]
  • Dr. Dan Kiley popularised the Peter Pan syndrome in his 1983 book, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up,[34] about individuals (usually male) with underdeveloped maturity; his next book, The Wendy Dilemma (1984), advises women romantically involved with "Peter Pans" how to improve their relationships.[35]
  • Peter Pan on Stage and Screen, 1904–2010 by Bruce Hanson covers the genesis of Peter Pan and its productions in the UK and US; updated edition of Hanson's work The Peter Pan Chronicles, published in 1993.[36]


  • Disney produced picture book and comic book adaptations of the story, based on their 1953 animated version, published by Dell Comics and Gold Key.
  • Peter Pank by Spanish cartoonist "Max" (Francesc Capdevila) (1985–1990), an unauthorised comic reinterpretation for "adults only". Peter is a violent, spiked-hair anarchist living in Punkland with a gang of punk Lost Boys. The pirates are a gang of rockers, the Indians are hippies, and the female characters are often depicted bare-breasted, with numerous sexual scenes. It was published in three albums: Peter Pank, El Licantropunk, and Pankdinista.
  • Peter Pan by French cartoonist Régis Loisel (1990–2004), an unauthorised prequel bandes dessinées. A bawdy, violent series of six albums (two of which won the Angoulême Audience Award), giving Peter Pan's back story a distinctly Dickensian flavour. [37][38]
  • Peter Pan: Return to Never-Never Land by Ron Fortier and Gary Kato (1991), an unauthorised sequel. Peter brings two modern African-American boys to Never-Never Land, published by Malibu Comics under the Adventure Comics imprint, two issues later reprinted in a single volume.[39][40]
  • The Lost by Marc Andreyko, Galen Showman, and Jay Geldhof (1997), an unauthorised sequel comic book. This urban horror-themed mini-series published by Caliber Comics and Chaos! Comics continues the story in present-day New York City, with Peter revealed as a vampire boy hustler who leads a small group of vampire boys including Michael, and lures another girl named Wendy to join them.[41]
  • Lost Boys (ロストボーイズ) by Kaname Itsuki (2004), an unauthorised manga reinterpretation, in which a character based on Peter Pan brings a young man to Neverland to be his father, with romantic themes.[42]
  • Japanese manga artist, Mayu Sakai, appropriated the English version of the term, puer aeternus, for her series, Peter Pan Syndrome.[43]
  • Lost Girls by Alan Moore and Melinda Gebbie (July 2006), an unauthorised reinterpretation graphic novel. A controversial use of Wendy Darling alongside Dorothy Gale from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Alice from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in 1913, telling each other stories about their sexual experiences. In it, Peter is a boy that Wendy and her brothers meet in Kensington Gardens, who gives them their first sexual experiences.
  • Marvel Fairy Tales by C. B. Cebulski features various Marvel Comics characters as characters from fairy tales and fables. In issue #1 of the third miniseries of the line, Peter Pan is played by Captain America, with Scarlet Witch as Wendy, The Wasp as Tinker Bell, and Klaw as Captain Hook.
  • Peter Pan – The Graphic Novel by Stephen White (2015), a retelling of the original work in graphic novel form.[44]
  • Pan Peter by Jang Maro, a Tapas-exclusive manwha that retells the character as a mysterious, magic boy who avenges the weak by torturing and killing the aggressors.[45]



Zena Dare as Peter, 1907
Mary Martin as Peter
  • Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). Although Barrie did not intend the play as a pantomime, it has many features in common with this traditional genre of British children's theatre: a boy – played by a woman – as the lead role (known as the "principal boy"), actors in animal costumes, a flamboyant villain, and fantasy themes.
  • Peter Pan (1950), music and lyrics by Leonard Bernstein, an authorised Broadway adaptation. Intended as a musical, it was eventually staged as a "straight" dramatic version with only five songs. This version starred Jean Arthur as Peter Pan, and Boris Karloff in the dual roles of Mr. Darling and Captain Hook. The full score has recently been staged.
  • Peter Pan (1954), directed by Jerome Robbins, an authorised musical stage adaptation with music by Mark "Moose" Charlap and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh. Taking the opposite path of the 1950 adaptation, it was originally to have only a few incidental songs, but evolved into a full Broadway musical with some new songs from composer Jule Styne and lyricists Betty Comden and Adolph Green. This version became widely known as a vehicle for Mary Martin, who appeared in three television productions of this version and won a Best Musical Actress Tony Award for her performance as well as an Emmy when it was aired on television. Cyril Ritchard won a Tony as Captain Hook in the Broadway production opposite Martin and reprised the role in the first television production opposite her, and it is the role for which he has remained best known. Revivals featured television actress Sandy Duncan and gymnast Cathy Rigby as Peter. A 2014 TV version was broadcast by NBC as Peter Pan Live![46]
  • Neverland (1975), book, music, and lyrics by Jim Steinman, a futuristic musical stage adaptation. Although it only existed as a brief workshop at the Kennedy Center in 1977, three of the songs would be reworked for the album Bat Out of Hell, one of the best-selling recordings in history.[47]
  • Peter Pan (1982), an adaptation by John Caird and Trevor Nunn, first staged on 10 December 1982 at the Barbican Theatre, London.
  • Peter Pan: The British Musical (1985), book, music and lyrics by Piers Chater Robinson, an authorised musical stage adaptation.[48]
  • Peter Pan (1996), book, music, and lyrics by Philip Glassborow, an authorised musical stage adaptation based on Glassborow's radio musical. The Watermill Theatre in Newbury, Berkshire commissioned a new musical adaptation, following Glassborow's successful BBC radio dramatization.
  • Peter Pan: A Musical Adventure (1996), lyrics by Anthony Drewe and music by George Stiles, an authorised musical stage adaptation, first staged in Copenhagen. Performed and recorded at the Royal Albert Hall, and broadcast on New Year's Eve 2001 by the BBC.[49]
  • Peter and Wendy (1997) adaptation and lyrics by Liza Lorwin and music by Scottish fiddler, Johnny Cunningham (of Silly Wizard fame). This is a stage production using Bunraku-style puppets performed by avant-garde theatre troupe, Mabou Mines, and actress Karen Kandel, who won an OBIE for her performance. [50] Mabou Mimes recently revived the original production at the Edinburgh Festival (2009)[51] and in New York at the New Victory Theater (2011).[52]
  • The Terrible Tragedy of Peter Pan (2002) by Phillip C. Klapperich, an ensemble member of The House Theatre of Chicago. This production brings to the fore the darker subtexts of the story, such as the dysfunction of Peter's relationships with Wendy, Tinker Bell, and Tiger Lily, his fear of growing up, and his self-absorption, as he fails to notice those around him being hurt or killed.[53]
  • 'Peter Pan' (2004) by the Chickenshed Theatre Company was a musical stage version of Peter Pan, and was performed to mark the 100th Anniversary of the play. This is also the only performance to date with sign language fully integrated.
  • Peter Pan (2009), originally titled "Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens" a large scale production for which a specially built theatre pavilion with 360 degree surround video was created; script by Tanya Ronder, music by Benjamin Wallfisch, first staged at Kensington Gardens in Summer 2009. The production opened in the US in May 2010 and has since toured in San Francisco, Orange County, Atlanta, Chicago and Boston.
  • Peter Pan (A Play) (2009), adapted by Amanda Dehnert, first staged at Northwestern University, later mounted professionally at Chicago's Lookingglass Theatre Company in 2010.
  • Peter Pan (2009), music by Dan Chambers and lyrics by Dan Chambers and Polly Gibson, book by Polly Gibson, an authorised musical stage adaptation, first staged by the Sinodun Players at the Corn Exchange, Wallingford in July 2009.
  • Peter Pan (2010), stage adaptation by David Greig, first staged by the National Theatre of Scotland at the King's Theatre, Glasgow in April 2010.[54] The action is transposed from Edwardian London to Victorian Edinburgh, and set against a background of construction of the Forth Rail Bridge.
  • Peter Pan, the Boy who Hated Mothers (2010), adapted by Andrew Birkin from J.M. Barrie's original various drafts of the play, novel and screenplay, first staged at the Theatre du Gymnase in Marseille in February 2010 (translated into French by Céline-Albin Faivre), broadcast on Arte TV Channel Christmas 2010.[55]
  • Peter Pan (2012), stage adaptation directed by Sally Cookson and devised by the companies, originally produced by Bristol Old Vic for Christmas 2012 before being produced by the National Theatre, London (in a co-production with Bristol Old Vic) for Christmas 2016 and the Troubadour White City Theatre for summer 2019.
  • Disney's Peter Pan Jr is a one-hour children's musical based on the Disney Peter Pan movie with some updated material. It became available for school and children's theatre productions in 2013 after several pilot productions.[56]
  • Wendy and Peter Pan (2013), a new adaptation by Ella Hickson at the Royal Shakespeare Company in England, placing Wendy as the protagonist.[57]
  • Peter Pan Goes Wrong (2013), is a comedy by Henry Lewis, Jonathan Sayer, and Henry Shields of the Mischief Theatre Company in which the characters and members of the fictitious Cornley Polytechnic Drama Society attempt to present their production of Peter Pan.
  • Fly (2013), a darker take on Peter Pan with a focus on leaving childhood behind and the importance of growing up, by Jeffrey Seller debuted through the Dallas Theater Center.[58] The book is by Rajiv Joseph, who worked on the lyrics with Kirsten Childs, and the music is by Bill Sherman.[59]
  • Peter Pan Opera (2014), by composer Richard Ayres and librettist Lavinia Greenlaw, first staged in Stuttgart in 2014 and performed in the UK in 2015 by the Welsh National Opera.[60]
  • Peter Pan (2015), an adaptation presented at Regent's Park Open Air Theatre. Co-directed by Timothy Sheader and Liam Steel, the production was set in World War I. The production earned an Olivier Award nomination and returned to the Open Air Theatre for its 2018 Season.[61]
  • For Peter Pan On Her 70th Birthday (2017)], an adaptation by Sarah Ruhl, in which the title character and her siblings, all elderly retirees, become the characters of the original play. Beginning 18 August 2017 in New York City, it ran at Playrights Horizons.
  • Peter Pan: reimagined (2019), An adaptation conceived and directed by Liam Steel, adapted by Georgia Christou and Liam Steel for the Birmingham Repertory Theatre which changes Edwardian London to present-day Birmingham.


With the lapsing copyrights on Peter Pan in various jurisdictions, a number of short unauthorised, low-budget, animated adaptations of the film have been produced.


Video games[edit]

Like Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan is particularly well suited to adaptation into video games. In their article "Playing in Neverland: Peter Pan Video Game Revisions," literary critics Cathlena Martin and Laurie Taylor note that the fluid and playful nature of the story's original oral format is very similar to the structure of narratives in video games, leading to an ease of translation across media. They also argue that "having [Wendy’s tales] as the driving desire for Peter makes the story easily translated to video games, which often reward players for successful game-play with additional narrative segments."[77]

Biographical dramas[edit]

References in other works[edit]

  • In 1980, Petula Clark starred in Never, Never Land as a woman whose niece, captivated by Barrie's tale, runs away and takes refuge with a group of "lost boys" squatting in a deserted London townhouse.
  • In the 1986 Spanish film El río de oro (The Golden River) by Jaime Chávarri, the central character is a man named Peter whose wife Dubarry played the role of Tinker Bell in a theater play some years ago. They had a son, but Peter killed the baby when he was only 3 months old because he thought the boy was growing up too fast.
  • The plot of the 1990 novel An Awfully Big Adventure by Beryl Bainbridge (made into a film in 1995) revolves around a production of the play.
  • The 2002 novel The League of Heroes by Xavier Mauméjean is set in an alternate universe in which Neverland has materialized in Kensington Gardens. The fairy folk are commonplace in London, as are pirates and Indians. Peter Pan is considered one of several enemies of the repressive government and is pursued by the League whose members include Lord Admiral Hook (Captain Hook), Sherlock Holmes, and Lord Greystoke (Tarzan).
  • In a Season 2 episode of the Disney Channel sitcom Wizards of Waverly Place called "Fairy Tale", Justin Russo directs a school play of Peter Pan, with Zeke Beakerman cast as Peter Pan and Harper Finkle cast as Tinker Bell (she's later replaced by Alex Russo after falling off the stage).
  • Singer/songwriter S. J. Tucker has released three songs called The Wendy Trilogy, chronicling how Wendy joined Captain Hook's crew, dueled him for command, gained great fame in Neverland and beyond, and eventually returned home, passing her legacy on.
  • The song "Fly" by Blind Guardian is about Peter Pan.
  • In the seventh episode on season 10 of Grey's Anatomy, Jo Wilson (Camilla Luddington) dresses as Tinker Bell for Halloween and shows up at her boyfriend Alex Karev's (Justin Chambers) house, after a fight they had resulting from his estranged father appearance, showing her loyalty to the boy who didn't grow up.
  • The song Lost Boy by Ruth B is about Neverland.
  • Characters and locations from the Peter Pan story are featured in Once Upon a Time (2011–present). It is revealed that Pan (Robbie Kay) is the father of Rumpelstiltskin (Robert Carlyle) who became young again after giving up a then-young Rumpelstiltskin.
  • The cartoon series World of Winx features Peter Pan and Neverland characters Smee, Jim (Captain Hook), Crocodile Man (Crocodile), Queen (Tinker Bell), Wendy Darling. Peter Pan has a son named Matt Barrie.


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