List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

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(From left to right) The Louvre Virgin of the Rocks, Portrait of a Musician and La Belle Ferronnière at the Louvre's monumental 2019–2020 exhibition: Léonard de Vinci.

The Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was the founding figure of the High Renaissance, and exhibited enormous influence on subsequent artists. Only around eight major works—The Adoration of the Magi, Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, the Louvre Virgin of the Rocks, The Last Supper, the ceiling of the Sala delle Asse, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Mona Lisa—are universally attributed to him, and have aroused little or no controversy in the past. Ten additional works are now widely attributed to his oeuvre, though most have previously incited considerable controversy or doubt: the Annunciation, Madonna of the Carnation, The Baptism of Christ (with his teacher, Verrocchio), Ginevra de' Benci, the Benois Madonna, the Portrait of a Musician (with possible studio assistance), the Lady with an Ermine, La Belle Ferronnière, the London Virgin of the Rocks (with studio assistance), the Portrait of Isabella d'Este and Saint John the Baptist.

Other attributions are more complicated. La Scapigliata appears to be attributed by most scholars, but some prominent specialists are silent on the issue. Salvator Mundi's attribution remains extremely controversial, though it can be attributed somewhat securely in part to Leonardo, as the dispute primarily centers around whether Leonardo created the majority of the work, or merely assisted a member of his studio. The small number of surviving paintings is due in part to Leonardo's frequently disastrous experimentation with new techniques and his chronic procrastination, resulting in many incomplete works. Additionally, it is thought that Leonardo created many more works that are now lost, though records and copies have survived for some.

There are eleven surviving manuscripts of his notes and drawings, amounting to thousands of pages. There are numerous other works with disputed attributions to Leonardo, none of which have yet to achieve thorough scholarly approval.

Major extant works[edit]

Key: dagger  Collaborative work · double-dagger  Possibly collaborative work

Universally accepted Unanimously accepted works
Widely accepted Accepted by large majority of modern scholars; controversial in the past
Generally accepted Accepted by most modern scholars; still controversial
Title and image Date Medium Dimensions[1] Location[1]

The Annunciation

1472–1476 c. 1472–1476[d 1] Oil and tempera on poplar panel 98 cm × 217 cm
39 in × 85 in
Uffizi, Florence
Leonardo da Vinci - Annunciazione - Google Art Project.jpg
Widely accepted
Generally thought to be the earliest extant work by Leonardo. Traditionally attributed to Verrocchio until 1869. It is now almost universally attributed to Leonardo. Attribution proposed by Liphart; accepted by Bode, Lubke, Muller-Walde, Berenson, Clark, Goldscheider and others.[2]
Madonna of the Carnation 1472–1478 c. 1472–1478[d 2] Oil on poplar panel 62 cm × 47.5 cm
24.4 in × 18.7 in
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Leonardo da Vinci Madonna of the Carnation.jpg
Widely accepted
Generally accepted as a Leonardo, but has some overpainting possibly by a Flemish artist.[2]

The Baptism of Christ (collaborative work)

1474–1478 c. 1474–1478[d 3] Oil and tempera on poplar panel 177 cm × 151 cm
70 in × 59 in
Uffizi, Florence
Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci - Battesimo di Cristo.jpg
Widely accepted as by Verrocchio and Leonardo
Painted mainly by Andrea del Verrocchio; Leonardo's contributions include angel on the left-hand side, some of the background landscape and the torso of Christ.[3]
Ginevra de' Benci 1474–1480 c. 1474–1480[d 4] Oil and tempera on poplar panel 38.8 cm × 36.7 cm
15.3 in × 14.4 in
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Leonardo da Vinci - Ginevra de' Benci - Google Art Project.jpg
Widely accepted
While controversial in the past, modern scholarship widely attributes the work to Leonardo. The attribution of Lady with an Ermine supports the attribution of this painting.[4]
Benois Madonna 1478–1481 c. 1478–1481[d 5] Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas 49.5 cm × 33 cm
19.5 in × 13.0 in
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Leonardo, Madonna Benois.JPG
Widely accepted

The Adoration of the Magi

1478–1482 c. 1478–1482[d 6] Oil (underpainting) on wood panel 240 cm × 250 cm
94 in × 98 in
Uffizi, Florence
Leonardo da Vinci - Adorazione dei Magi - Google Art Project.jpg
Universally accepted[5]
Forensic and scientific analysis by Maurizio Seracini now proves that at least two layers of varnish, mainly in the lower half of the painting, were applied in the 18th–19th centuries.[6]
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
1480–1490 c. 1480–1490[d 7] Tempera and oil on walnut panel 103 cm × 75 cm
41 in × 30 in
Vatican Museums
Leonardo da Vinci - Saint Jerome.jpg
Universally accepted[7]
Madonna Litta (collaborative work) 1481–1495 c. 1481–1495[d 8] Tempera (and oil) on poplar panel 42 cm × 33 cm
17 in × 13 in
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Leonardo da Vinci attributed - Madonna Litta.jpg
Traditionally accepted
Martin Kemp claims that the National Gallery, London, exhibited the Madonna Litta on loan from the Hermitage as an autograph work, even though the gallery's own curators believed it to be by a pupil, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio.[8]
Virgin of the Rocks
(Louvre version)
1483–1493 c. 1483–1493[d 9] Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas 199 cm × 122 cm
78 in × 48 in
Louvre, Paris
Leonardo Da Vinci - Vergine delle Rocce (Louvre).jpg
Universally accepted[9]
Portrait of a Musician
(unfinished) (possibly collaborative work)
1483–1487 c. 1483–1487[d 10] Oil (and tempera?) on walnut panel 45 cm × 32 cm
18 in × 13 in
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Leonardo da Vinci - Portrait of a Musician - Pinacoteca Ambrosiana.jpg
Widely accepted
Widely accepted that Leonardo painted the figure's face. Some scholars suggest the body to be the work of his pupils, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio and Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis[10]
Lady with an Ermine 1489–1491 c. 1489–1491[d 11] Oil on walnut panel 54 cm × 39 cm
21 in × 15 in
Czartoryski Museum, Kraków
Lady with an Ermine - Leonardo da Vinci - Google Art Project.jpg
Widely accepted
While controversial in the past, modern scholarship widely attributes the work to Leonardo. The attribution of Ginevra de' Benci supports the attribution of this painting.[11]
La Belle Ferronnière 1490–1498 c. 1490–1498[d 12] Oil on walnut panel 62 cm × 44 cm
24 in × 17 in
Louvre, Paris
Leonardo da Vinci (attrib)- la Belle Ferroniere.jpg
Widely accepted
Modern scholars still debate the attribution and it is not as widely accepted as other portraits like Ginevra de' Benci, Portrait of a Musician, and Lady with an Ermine.[12][13]
Virgin of the Rocks
(London version) (collaborative work)
1491–1508 c. 1491–1508[d 13] Oil on parqueted poplar panel 189.5 cm × 120 cm
74.6 in × 47.2 in
National Gallery, London
Leonardo da Vinci - Virgin of the Rocks (National Gallery London).png
Generally accepted
Generally accepted as postdating the version in the Louvre, and produced in collaboration with Ambrogio de Predis and perhaps others.[2] Some consider it the work of Leonardo's workshop under his direction. The date is not universally agreed.

The Last Supper

1492–1498 c. 1492–1498[d 14] Tempera on gesso, pitch and mastic 460 cm × 880 cm
180 in × 350 in
Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Leonardo da Vinci - The Last Supper high res.jpg
Universally accepted[14]
Sala delle Asse 1497–1499 c. 1497–1499[d 15] Tempera on plaster Castello Sforzesco, Milan
6.2 1980-1990 Saporetti angolo sud.jpg
Universally accepted[15]

The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist

1499–1508 c. 1499–1508[d 16] Charcoal, black and white chalk on tinted paper, mounted on canvas 142 cm × 105 cm
56 in × 41 in
National Gallery, London
Leonardo - St. Anne cartoon.jpg
Universally accepted[16]
Portrait of Isabella d'Este 1499–1500 c. 1499–1500[d 17] Black and red chalk, yellow pastel chalk on paper 61 cm × 46.5 cm
24.0 in × 18.3 in
Louvre, Paris
Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Isabella d'Este.jpg
Widely accepted
Letters document at least two portrait drawings of Isabella d'Este and, in 1501–1506, her requests to execute the promised portrait in colour.[17]
Madonna of the Yarnwinder
(The Buccleuch Madonna) (collaborative work)
1499–1508 c. 1499–1508[d 18] Oil on walnut panel 48.9 cm × 36.8 cm
19.3 in × 14.5 in
Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh[b]
Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Yarnwinder, Buccleuch version.jpg
Generally accepted as by Leonardo and another artist[c]
Leonardo was documented as working on a painting of this subject in Florence in 1501; it appears to have been delivered to its patron in 1507. This and the Lansdowne Madonna are the most likely candidates for being that work, but neither is considered to be wholly autograph. Scientific examination has revealed "strikingly complex and similar" underdrawings in both versions, suggesting that Leonardo was involved in the making of both.[19] The use of walnut wood suggests the earlier terminus post quem of 1499, as Leonardo's Milanese paintings are on this support.[20]
Salvator Mundi (possibly collaborative work) 1499–1510 c. 1499–1510[d 19] Oil on wood panel 65.6 cm × 45.4 cm
25.8 in × 17.9 in
Leonardo da Vinci, Salvator Mundi, c.1500, oil on walnut, 45.4 × 65.6 cm.jpg
Generally accepted[21]
Previously presumed to be a later copy of the lost original painting. Purchased in 2005 and restored, it has gained only few acceptance as Leonardo's original. Pentimenti (changes to the composition) were found in the thumb of Christ's right hand and elsewhere which are indicators of the painting's status as an "original".[22] The painting set a new record for sale price (US$450 million) when auctioned by Christie's in 2017.[23][24] Matthew Landrus considers it to be primarily the work of Bernardino Luini.[25]
Madonna of the Yarnwinder
(The Lansdowne Madonna) (collaborative work)
1501–1508 c. 1501–1508[d 20] Oil on wood panel (transferred to canvas and later re-laid on panel) 50.2 cm × 36.4 cm
19.8 in × 14.3 in
Private collection, New York City
Madonna of the Yarnwinder (cropped).jpg
Generally accepted as having an underdrawing by Leonardo[d]

The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne

1501–1519 c. 1501–1519[d 21] Oil on wood panel 168 cm × 112 cm
66 in × 44 in
Louvre, Paris
Leonardo da Vinci - Virgin and Child with St Anne C2RMF retouched.jpg
Universally accepted[26]
Mona Lisa
1502–1516 c. 1502–1516[d 22] Oil on cottonwood (poplar) panel 76.8 cm × 53 cm
30.2 in × 20.9 in
Louvre, Paris
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg
Universally accepted[27]
A drawing by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino depicting an elderly Leonardo with his right arm assuaged by cloth[28][e] and a record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d'Aragon,[f] confirm an account of Leonardo's right hand being paralytic at the age of 65,[31] which may indicate why he left works such as the Mona Lisa unfinished.[32][33][34]
La Scapigliata
1506–1508 c. 1506–1508[d 23] Earth, amber and white lead on wood panel 24.7 cm × 21 cm
9.7 in × 8.3 in
Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Leonardo da Vinci - Female head (La Scapigliata) - WGA12716.jpg
Generally accepted[g]
Saint John the Baptist 1507–1516 c. 1507–1516[d 24] Oil on walnut panel 69 cm × 57 cm
27 in × 22 in
Louvre, Paris
Leonardo da Vinci - Saint John the Baptist C2RMF retouched.jpg
Widely accepted
While controversial in the past, modern scholarship widely attributes the work to Leonardo. Scientific evidence in the second half of the 20th century has furthered this attribution.[35]


Title and sample image Dates Abbreviation(s)[36] Pages Location
Codex Atlanticus 1478–1519 C.A. 1,119 Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan

Codice Atlantico - 053v detail.jpg
Giant crossbow (C.A.149b-r/53v-b)

12 volumes, collated by the sculptor Pompeo Leoni.
Codex Windsor 1478–1518 W. 153 Royal Collection, Windsor

Leonardo da Vinci - Studies of the foetus in the womb.jpg
Fetus in the womb (W.19102r)

These drawings were pasted into an album by Pompeo Leoni, probably entered the English royal collection in the reign of Charles II, and were removed from their binding in the 19th century.[37]
Codex Arundel 1480–1518 B.L., Arundel MS. or Br.M. 283 British Library, London

Codex arundel.jpg
Diving apparatus (B.L.24v)

Codex Trivulzianus c. 1487–1490 Triv. 55
(originally 62)
Biblioteca Trivulziana, Castello Sforzesco, Milan

Codex trivulzianus.jpg
List with a profile portrait (Triv.30r)

Codex Forster 1487–1505 Forster I, II and III (including I1, I2 and II2); formerly known as S.K.M.I, II and III 354 Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Codex Forster Book I Fol 7.jpg
Determining the volume of regular and irregular solids (Forster I.7r)

Five pocket notebooks bound into three volumes, here listed in chronological order:
I2 (Milan, c. 1487–1490): Discusses hydraulic engineering, the moving and raising of water and perpetual motion.
III (Milan, c. 1490–1493): Notes on geometry, weights and hydraulics interspersed with sketches of horses’ legs, what might be designs for ball costumes and a description of the anatomy of the human head.
II1 (Milan, c. 1495): Notes on the theory of proportions and other miscellaneous material.
II2 (Milan, 1495–1497): Notes on the theory of weights, traction, stresses and balances.
I1 (Florence, 1505): Notes on the measurement of solid bodies and on topology.[38]
Paris Manuscripts 1488–1505 A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H (including H1, H2 and H3), I (including I1 and I2), K (including K1, K2 and K3), L and M more than 2,500 Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Paris

Leonardo da Vinci helicopter.jpg
Aerial screw (detail of B.83v)

Leonardo da Vinci - 19-554100.jpg
Vertically standing bird's-winged flying machine (B.80r)

12 volumes, here listed in chronological order:
B (1488–1490; 84 folios): Notebook including designs for flying machines (including the "helicopter"), a submarine, centrally-planned churches and war machines.[39]
C (1490–91; 28 folios. One section missing.) Treatise on light and shade; also discusses the flow of water and percussion.[40]
A (c. 1492): Fragment of a larger MS which included the Codex Ashburnham II. Subjects covered include painting, perspective, water and mechanics.[41]
H (1493–94; 142 folios): Three pocket notebooks bound together. Discusses Euclidean geometry and the design of drawing materials.[42]
M (late 1490s–1500; 48 folios): A pocket notebook on geometry, ballistics and botany.[43]
L (1497–1502; 94 folios): A notebook on military engineering, used by Leonardo when he was in the employ of Cesare Borgia.[44]
K (1503–1508; 128 folios): Three pocket notebooks, mainly on geometry.[45]
I (1497–1505; 139 folios): Two pocket notebooks with notes on geometry, architecture, Latin, perspective and proportions for painters.[46]
D (1508–09; 10 folios with 20 drawings): Discusses theories of vision.[47]
F (1508–1513; 96 folios): Discusses water, optics, geology and astronomy.[48]
E (1513–14; originally 96 folios): Discusses weights and the effects of gravity, an invention for draining the Pontine Marshes, geometry, painting and the flight of birds.[49]
G (1510–1515; 93 folios): Primarily discusses botany.[50]
Codex Madrid 1490s–1504 Madrid I and Madrid II Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid

Leonardo da vinci, Double manuscript page on the Sforza monument.jpg
Drawing of the ironwork casting mould for the head of the Sforza Horse (Madrid II.156v–157r)

Two volumes, rediscovered in 1966:
I (1490s): Mainly concerned with the science of mechanisms.[51]
II (1503–04): Miscellaneous drawings, including maps of the Arno relating to the project to divert its course and notes and drawings relating to the casting of the Sforza monument.[52]
Codex Ashburnham c. 1492 Ash.I. or B.N.2037 (formerly part of MS.B.); Ash.II or B.N.2038 (formerly part of MS.A.) Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Paris

Leonardo da Vinci - 19-540151.jpg
Studies for a building on a centralized plan (Ash.I.5v)

Two volumes, taken out of Paris Manuscripts A and B and sold to the Earl of Ashburnham, who returned them to Paris in 1890.
Codex on the Flight of Birds dated 1505 Turin 18 Biblioteca Reale, Turin

Codice Volo 08R mod.jpg
Notes on the position of a bird in flight in relationship to the wind (Turin.8r)

Originally part of Paris Manuscript B; probably stolen by Count Guglielmo Libri in around 1840–1847.[53]
Codex Leicester 1506–1510 Leic. 72 Private collection, United States

Codex de leicester.jpg
Studies of the illumination of the moon (Leic.1A (1r))

Codex Urbinas and libro A c. 1530 Urb. and L°A. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
An anthology of writings by Leonardo compiled after his death by his pupil Francesco Melzi. An abridged version was published in 1651 as a treatise on painting (Trattato della Pittura).[54]

Lost works[edit]

Title, and image
of derivative work
Date[55] Type[55] Last known location[55]
Adam and Eve
c. mid 1460s – early 1470s Watercolor cartoon for a tapestry In the collection of Ottaviano de' Medici during Vasari's lifetime (1511–1574)

Adam and Eve by Francesco di Giorgio Martini.png
Drawing by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, possibly based on Leonardo's cartoon

Described in great detail by Giorgio Vasari and the Anonimo Gaddiano. Painted for the King of Portugal, it was in the collection of Ottaviano de' Medici in Vasari's lifetime. The composition might have inspired a drawing by Francesco di Giorgio Martini in the Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford.[56]
Dragon shield c. 1472 Painted shield Unknown
A juvenile work known only from accounts by Giorgio Vasari and the Anonimo Gaddiano. Vasari stated that it was sold by Leonardo's father Ser Piero da Vinci to merchants, who then sold it on to the Duke of Milan.[56]
The Head of Medusa Youthful work Oil on panel In the collection of Cosimo I de' Medici during Vasari's lifetime (1511–1574)
A juvenile work only known from an account by Giorgio Vasari. A Flemish painting of this subject of c. 1600 in the Uffizi, Florence, was once mistakenly thought to be this work.
San Bernardo Altarpiece
Commissioned 10 January 1478 Oil on panel Unknown
A commission for the chapel in the Palazzo della Signoria, Florence, allocated to Leonardo on 10 January 1478 but never completed.[56] The commission had originally been given to Piero del Pollaiuolo on 24 December 1477; its reallocation might have been arranged by Leonardo's father, who was a notary to the Signoria. After Leonardo's failure to fulfill the commission it was given to Domenico Ghirlandaio on 20 May 1483, but he did not complete the work either. It is sometimes mistakenly said that a Virgin and Child with Saints in the Uffizi by Filippino Lippi was the work finally delivered to the chapel, but this was painted for the Sala dei Dugento (council hall) of the palace.[57]
The Battle of Anghiari Commissioned 4 May 1504 Mural painting Still visible in 1549

Peter Paul Ruben's copy of the lost Battle of Anghiari.jpg
Copy by Peter Paul Rubens

Covered up by frescoes by Vasari, beginning in 1563. The remains of Leonardo's fresco may have been discovered in the Salone dei Cinquecento.[58]
Leda and the Swan c. 1504–1508 Oil painting Recorded by Cassiano dal Pozzo as being at the Palace of Fontainebleau in 1625.

Leda and the Swan 1505-1510.jpg
Copy by Cesare da Sesto

There are nine known copies of the painting, including:
Angel of the Annunciation c. 1510–1513 Oil painting In Duke Cosimo I de' Medici's palace during Vasari's lifetime (1511–1574)

Leonardo da Vinci - Angelo Incarnato.jpg
The Incarnate Angel,
satirical copy

The painting is described by Vasari. A drawing survives among studies for the Battle of Anghiari (see below). The drawing at left, known as The Incarnate Angel, is a satirical copy, by Leonardo.[59][60] There are some extant copies of the subject by Leonardeschi, including:
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? Angel of the Annunciation, c. 1505 – 1513? Oil on canvas (transferred from panel), 66 cm × 47.3 cm (26.0 in × 18.6 in), Hermitage, Saint Petersburg.[61]
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? Saint John the Baptist, c. 1508 – 1513? Panel, 71 cm × 52 cm (28 in × 20 in), Kunstmuseum Basel.[62]
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? Saint John the Baptist, c. 1508 – 1513? Oil on panel, 75 cm × 53.4 cm (29.5 in × 21.0 in), Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.[63]
  • Baccio Bandinelli. Annunciate Angel. Sketch after Leonardo da Vinci.

Disputed works[edit]

Key:    Supposedly collaborative work

Title and image Date Medium Dimensions Location
Madonna and Child with a Pomegranate
(The Dreyfus Madonna)
probably c. 1469[64] Oil on wood 15.7 cm × 12.8 cm
6.2 in × 5.0 in
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Lorenzo di Credi - Madonna Dreyfus.jpg
Previously attributed to Verrocchio or Lorenzo di Credi. Most critics have considered the anatomy of the Christ Child to be so poor as to discourage firm attribution to Leonardo, but some believe that it is a work of his youth. This attribution was made by Suida in 1929. Other art historians such as Shearman and Morelli attribute the work to Verrocchio.[2] Daniel Arasse discusses this painting as a youthful work by Leonardo in his monograph of 1997.[65]
Tobias and the Angel (collaborative work) c. 1473[66] Egg tempera on poplar 83.6 cm × 66 cm
32.9 in × 26.0 in
National Gallery, London
Workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio. Tobias and the Angel. 33x26cm. 1470-75. NG London.jpg
Workshop of Verrocchio, with a possible contribution by Leonardo[h]
Martin Kemp suggests that Leonardo may have painted some part of this work, most likely the fish. David Alan Brown, of the National Gallery in Washington, attributes the painting of the dog to him as well.
The Holy Infants Embracing c. 1486–1490
Leonardo da Vinci (attrib) - The Holy Infants.jpg
Several versions in private collections.
Portrait of a Lady in Profile c. 1493–1495[67] Tempera and oil on panel 51 cm × 34 cm
20 in × 13 in
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan[68]
Ambrogio de Predis - Ritratto di una dama.jpg
Generally attributed to Ambrogio de Predis. According to Martin Kemp, Leonardo may have been responsible for "laying down the basis of the image", based on "[t]he quality of drawing in the head".[i]
La Bella Principessa 1495–1496 (Kemp) Bodycolour (pastel) on vellum 33 cm × 22 cm
13.0 in × 8.7 in
Private collection, Switzerland
Profile of a Young Fiancee - da Vinci.jpg
Identified as a Leonardo by Martin Kemp on stylistic grounds, and confirmed using the evidence of a fingerprint.[69] Other experts have not agreed with this attribution. As of 2010 the methods used to analyse the fingerprint have come into question.[70] The presence of holes in the page shows that it was once part of the Sforziada, a manuscript kept in Warsaw; this fact points to its originality.
Virgin of the Rocks Chéramy (collaborative work) c. 1495–1497 (Pedretti) Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas 154.5 cm × 122 cm
60.8 in × 48.0 in
Private collection, Switzerland
Vergine delle Rocce cheramy.jpg
Attributed to Leonardo and his workshop by Carlo Pedretti;[71] believed by others to be a copy of the Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo's student Giampietrino. Mentioned by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres in 1845 and by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes; both were convinced that it was an original work by Leonardo.[citation needed]
Madonna and Child with St Joseph or Adoration of the Christ Child between 1495 and 1500 Tempera on panel Diam. 87 cm (34 in) Galleria Borghese, Rome[72]
Young Christ c. 1496 Terracotta Private collection
The bust is said by Kemp to be the most likely candidate for a surviving sculpture by Leonardo.[j]
Portrait of Luca Pacioli (collaborative work) c. 1495–1500 Tempera on panel 99 cm × 120 cm
39 in × 47 in
Museo di Capodimonte, Naples
The painting has been generally attributed to Jacopo de' Barbari due to the presence of a cartouche with a cryptic inscription resembling his name, but some attribute the painting (at least partially) to Leonardo,[73] who began collaborating with Pacioli when the latter moved to Milan in 1496.[74][75] Leonardo illustrated Archimedean solids, including the rhombicuboctahedron (pictured in the portrait), in Pacioli's Divina proportione (1509).[76] According to one scholar, in the rhombicuboctahedron "we surely see the ineffable left hand of Leonardo da Vinci, who drew the superb pictures for De divina proportione, which, moreover, hang from a string ..."[73]
Christ Carrying the Cross (collaborative work) c. 1500 Oil on poplar Private collection, San Francisco
Leonardo da Vinci (attrib) - Christ carrying the Cross.jpg
Previously attributed by Sotheby's to Gian Francesco Maineri.[77][78] Attributed to Leonardo by its former owner.[77] Attribution based on the similarity of the tormentors of Christ to drawings made by Rubens of the Battle of Anghiari. According to Forbes magazine, Carlo Pedretti said that he knew of three similar paintings and "[a]ll four paintings, he believed, were likely the work of Leonardo's studio assistants and perhaps even the master himself."[77]
Isleworth Mona Lisa (collaborative work) Oil on canvas 84.5 cm × 64.5 cm
33.3 in × 25.4 in
Private collection, Switzerland
The Isleworth Mona Lisa.jpg
Its proponents claim that this is the earlier of two versions of the Mona Lisa, painted for Francesco del Giocondo (husband of Lisa) in 1503, and that the Louvre version was painted for Giuliano de' Medici in 1517.[79]
Horse and Rider
c. 1506–1508 (Pedretti 1985)[80]
c. 1508–1511 (Solari 2016)[81]
Beeswax Private collection, London
Leonardo Da Vinci Horse and Rider.jpg
Fragmentary wax statuette in a private collection in London, formerly in the Sangiorgi Collection in Rome; said to have come from the Melzi estate at Vaprio d’Adda.[82][83] Carlo Pedretti in 1985 considered it to be an autograph work by Leonardo,[84][85] but Martin Kemp has disagreed, commenting that "it has none of the characteristics of understanding horse anatomy and renaissance armor that you would expect from Leonardo".[86] The attribution has also been criticized by various other art historians[87][88][89] and publications, citing a lack of hard evidence or documentation.[90][91][92]
Lucan portrait of Leonardo da Vinci c. 1505–1510 Tempera grassa on poplar 40 cm × 60 cm
16 in × 24 in
Museo delle Antiche Genti di Lucania, Vaglio Basilicata
A painting discovered in 2008 near Naples, which closely resembles the Uffizi's 17th-century copy of the "Self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci", is currently undergoing restoration and investigation. A date in the late 15th or 16th centuries has been confirmed by scientific testing. Fingerprints match those found on the Lady with an Ermine. Alternatively attributed to Cristofano dell'Altissimo.[93]
Portrait of a Man in Red Chalk c. 1512 Red chalk on paper 33.3 cm × 21.6 cm
13.1 in × 8.5 in
Biblioteca Reale, Turin
Leonardo da Vinci - presumed self-portrait - WGA12798.jpg
Accepted by some scholars, but not universally accepted.[94][95]
c. 1513–1516[96]
c. 1510–1515, later repainted and altered[64]
Oil on walnut panel transferred to canvas 177 cm × 115 cm
70 in × 45 in
Louvre, Paris
Bacchus (painting).jpg
Generally considered to be a workshop copy of a drawing.[2] According to Kemp, it may have been begun by Leonardo as a figure of John the Baptist.[97]
Mary Magdalene 1515 58 cm × 45 cm
23 in × 18 in
Private collection, Switzerland
Described as a potential Leonardo by Carlo Pedretti. Previously attributed to Giampietrino, who painted a number of similar Magdalenes.[98] Pedretti's attribution is not accepted by other scholars, e.g. Carlo Bertelli (former director of the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan), who said that the subject could be a Lucretia with the knife removed.[99]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Far to the right, partially visible, is Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist by Bernardino Luini (a follower of Leonardo) and Bacchus, a disputed painting that is sometimes attributed to Leonardo.
  2. ^ On long-term loan from the Duke of Buccleuch collection[18]
  3. ^ Leonardo da Vinci and an anonymous 16th-century painter Syson (2011, p. 294); Workshop of Leonardo after a design by Leonardo Zöllner (2019, p. 239)
  4. ^ Salaì after a design by Leonardo Zöllner (2019, p. 238)
  5. ^ Identified via its similarity to Leonardo's presumed self-portrait[29]
  6. ^ "... Messer Lunardo Vinci [sic] ... an old graybeard of more than 70 years ... showed His Excellency three pictures ... fand a drawingand, one could not expect any more good work." [30]
  7. ^ Follower of Leonardo Syson (2011, p. 198, n. 9); "ascribed today to Leonardo" Marani (2003, p. 140)
  8. ^ Kemp (2004, p. 247)
  9. ^ Kemp 2004, p. 251; attributed there to "[Leonardo,] probably with his studio", but this work does not appear in a later edition (Kemp 2011).
  10. ^ Kemp 2004, p. 252; described there as "probably by Leonardo"

Sources for dating[edit]

  1. ^ The Annunciation
  2. ^ Madonna of the Carnation
  3. ^ The Baptism of Christ
    • Covi (2005, p. 186): c. 1469–1472 by Verrocchio, then resumed by Leonardo perhaps mid-1470s
    • Kemp (2019, p. 3): Leonardo c. 1474–1476
    • Marani (2003, p. 338): Leonardo c. 1475–1478
    • Syson (2011, p. 184): Verrocchio and Leonardo c. 1468–1477
    • Zöllner (2019, p. 215): Verrocchio c. 1470–1472, Leonardo c. 1475
  4. ^ Ginevra de' Benci
  5. ^ Benois Madonna
  6. ^ The Adoration of the Magi
  7. ^ Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
  8. ^ Madonna Litta
  9. ^ Virgin of the Rocks (Louvre version)
  10. ^ Portrait of a Musician
  11. ^ Lady with an Ermine
  12. ^ La Belle Ferronnière
  13. ^ Virgin of the Rocks (London version)
  14. ^ The Last Supper
  15. ^ Sala delle Asse
  16. ^ Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist
  17. ^ Portrait of Isabella d'Este
  18. ^ Madonna of the Yarnwinder (Buccleuch version)
  19. ^ Salvator Mundi
  20. ^ Madonna of the Yarnwinder (Lansdowne version)
  21. ^ Virgin and Child with Saint Anne
  22. ^ Mona Lisa
  23. ^ La Scapigliata
  24. ^ Saint John the Baptist


  1. ^ a b Marani 2003, pp. 338–340; Zöllner 2019, pp. 214–251.
  2. ^ a b c d e Ottino della Chiesa 1967.
  3. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 215.
  4. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 218–219.
  5. ^ Marani 2003, p. 338: "Attribution to Leonardo is unchallenged."
  6. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 222.
  7. ^ Marani 2003, p. 338: "Attribution to Leonardo has never been seriously questioned."
  8. ^ "National Gallery in London accused of altering attribution of Hermitage's 'Leonardo' for 2011 blockbuster show". Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  9. ^ Marani 2003, p. 339: "Attribution to Leonardo is unchallenged."
  10. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 225.
  11. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 226.
  12. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 228.
  13. ^ Marani 2003, pp. 175–178.
  14. ^ Marani 2003, p. 339: "Attribution to Leonardo has never been contested."
  15. ^ Marani 2003, p. 339: "Unanimously recognized as the only surviving fragments by Leonardo for this room."
  16. ^ Marani 2003, p. 339: "Attribution to Leonardo is unanimous."
  17. ^ Ames-Lewis (2012, p. 227)
  18. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 239.
  19. ^ Kemp 2011, 253
  20. ^ Syson 2011, 294
  21. ^ For a partial list of scholars who accept the attribution, see Bailey, Martin (31 October 2011). "Leonardo's Saviour of the World rediscovered in New York". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  22. ^ Syson 2011, 302
  23. ^ Andrews, Travis M. (15 November 2017). "Long-lost da Vinci painting fetches $450 million, a world record". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  24. ^ Holland, Oscar (2017-11-16). "Rare Da Vinci painting smashes world records with $450 million sale". CNN. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  25. ^ "Who Really Painted 'Salvator Mundi'? An Oxford Art Historian Says It Was Leonardo's Assistant | artnet News". artnet News. 2018-08-07. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  26. ^ Marani 2003, p. 340: "Although the painting's condition is poor, it should be considered a very damaged original by Leonardo."
  27. ^ Marani 2003, p. 340: "Unanimously attributed to Leonardo, although there is little agreement on its date."
  28. ^ Strickland, Ashley (4 May 2019). "What caused Leonardo da Vinci's hand impairment?". CNN. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  29. ^ McMahon, Barbara (1 May 2005). "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  30. ^ Wallace 1972, p. 163.
  31. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella (May 10, 2016). "Did a Stroke Kill Leonardo da Vinci?". Seeker. Retrieved June 10, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ McMahon, Barbara (1 May 2005). "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  33. ^ Saplakoglu, Yasemin (4 May 2019). "A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa". Live Science. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  34. ^ Bodkin, Henry (4 May 2019). "Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  35. ^ Zöllner 2019, p. 248.
  36. ^ Kemp 2007, pp. xxviii–xxix.
  37. ^ Clayton 2006, p. 16.
  38. ^ "The Forster Codices: Leonardo da Vinci's Notebooks at the V&A". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  39. ^ "Paris Manuscript B". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  40. ^ "Paris Manuscript C". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  41. ^ "Paris Manuscript A". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  42. ^ "Paris Manuscript H". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  43. ^ "Paris Manuscript M". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  44. ^ "Paris Manuscript L". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  45. ^ "Paris Manuscript K". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  46. ^ "Paris Manuscript I". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  47. ^ "Paris Manuscript D". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  48. ^ "Paris Manuscript F". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  49. ^ "Paris Manuscript E". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  50. ^ "Paris Manuscript G". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  51. ^ "Codex Madrid I". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  52. ^ "Codex Madrid II". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  53. ^ Bambach 2003, p. 723.
  54. ^ "Codex Urbinas and lost Libro A". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  55. ^ a b c d Marani 2003, p. 431.
  56. ^ a b c Marani 2003, p. 431
  57. ^ Rubin & Wright 1999, pp. 84 and 118, n. 25
  58. ^ Farmer, Brit Mccandless (26 May 2019). "From the archives: Looking for the lost Leonardo". CBS News. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  59. ^ Nicholl, Charles. Leonardo Da Vinci : Flights of the Mind. New York, N.Y., U.S.A. :Viking Penguin, 2004., page 602
  60. ^ Shearman 1992, p. 33.
  61. ^ Delieuvin 2012, cat. 80
  62. ^ Delieuvin 2012, cat. 81
  63. ^ "St John the Baptist". Art UK. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  64. ^ a b Marani 2003.
  65. ^ Arasse, Daniel (1997). Leonardo da Vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 978-1-56852-198-5.
  66. ^ Kemp 2011; no date in Marani 2003, but accepted by him
  67. ^ Kemp 2004, p. 251.
  68. ^ Portrait of a Lady. Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  69. ^ Adams, James (October 13, 2005). "Montreal art expert identifies da Vinci drawing". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  70. ^ "The Mark of a Masterpiece" by David Grann, The New Yorker, vol. LXXXVI, no. 20, July 12 & 19, 2010, ISSN 0028-792X
  71. ^ Pedretti, Carlo; Taglialagamba, Sara (2017). Leonardo da Vinci: the "Virgin of the rocks" in the Cheramy version: its history & critical fortune. Poggio a Caiano: CB edizioni. ISBN 9788897644538.
  72. ^ Moreno, Paolo; Stefani, Chiara, The Borghese Gallery, Milan: Touring Club Italiano, p. 230
  73. ^ a b MacKinnon, Nick (1993). "The Portrait of Fra Luca Pacioli". The Mathematical Gazette. 77 (479): 140–43, 146–49, 154, 165, 183, 184, 186–87, 197–205, 214. doi:10.2307/3619717. JSTOR 3619717.
  74. ^ "ritratto Pacioli". (in Italian).
  75. ^ Livio, Mario (2003) [2002]. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number (First trade paperback ed.). New York City: Broadway Books. pp. 130–131, 138. ISBN 0-7679-0816-3.
  76. ^ Bo, Gianfranco. "Il sorriso di Pacioli". (in Italian).
  77. ^ a b c Stephane Fitch DaVinci's Fingerprints, 12.22.03 accessed 7 July 2009. Martin Kemp, the expert on Leonardo's fingerprints, had not examined the painting when the article was written.
  78. ^ A similar image, without the tormentors, is in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. [1][permanent dead link]
  79. ^ "'Early Mona Lisa' painting claim disputed". BBC News. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  80. ^ Pedretti, Carlo (10 July 1985). "Wax model of Horse and Rider". Letter to Mr. Paul J. Wagner. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014.
  81. ^ Solari, Ernesto (2016). Leonardo da Vinci : Horse and rider : il "monumento" a Charles d'Amboise. Leonardo, da Vinci, 1452–1519,, Palazzo delle Stelline (Prima edizione ed.). Paderno Dugnano (Mi). ISBN 9788897206330. OCLC 962823523.
  82. ^ Pedretti, Carlo, ed. (1987). Leonardo Da Vinci: Drawings of Horses and Other Animals from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. London: Harcourt Brace. p. 185. ISBN 0384-45284-1. Fig 111 and 112 Unpublished fragmentary wax model of an equestrian portrait of Charles d'Amboise attributed to Leonardo, said to have come from the Melzi estate at Vaprio d'Adda. London, Private collection (formally Sangiorgi collection in Rome).
  83. ^ "'Horse and Rider' Discovered Leonardo Da Vinci Sculpture". Huffington Post. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  84. ^ Solari, Ernesto (2016). Leonardo da Vinci Horse and Rider Il "Monumento" a Charles d'Amboise. Milan: Colibri Edizioni. p. 28. ISBN 978-88-97206-33-0. Carlo Pedretti: In my opinion, this wax model is by Leonardo himself, and to my knowledge it has not been seen by other scholars.
  85. ^ "Leonardo da Vinci's 'Horse and Rider'". BBC News. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  86. ^ Kazakina, Katya (2 October 2019). "This DaVinci Statue Could Go for $50 Million. But Is It Real?". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 October 2019 – via Fortune.
  87. ^ Zerner, Henri (25 September 1997). "The Vision of Leonardo". The New York Review of Books. 44 (14): 67. no existing sculpture can be attributed to him with any certainty. [... the Bust of Christ as a Youth] was unfortunately placed in the exhibition next to a bizarre object, a wax statuette of a rider on a bucking horse never before seen in public. In the explanatory label, the statuette was said to have belonged to Francesco Melzi, a student and companion of Leonardo, a provenance unfortunately based on hearsay. [...] I fail to see the point of presenting to the uninformed visitor highly debatable hypotheses as if they were confirmed.
  88. ^ Holmstrom, David (24 March 1997). "Putting Leonardo's Inventions to the test: Boston's Museum of Science looks at the breathtaking scope of Leonardo da Vinci's work, though the authenticity of some objects is in question". The Christian Science Monitor. ProQuest 405615445. CONTROVERSIAL WORK: Whether Leonardo made this small wax figure is a source of contention among experts. Although the piece is unsigned, it is attributed to him in the exhibit. (subscription required)
  89. ^ Yemma, John (23 February 1997). "Leonardo on tour: the good, the bad ... and the phony? Art historians question attribution of some works headed for Boston show". The Boston Globe. p. A.1. at least one of the two sculptures on display in the art gallery at Science Park beginning March 3 have caused grave doubts among some art historians. [...] The labels on the paintings, Ackerman warned museum officials, were simply too generous, linking dubious and contested works from private collections too closely with Leonardo and other Italian masters. [...] after weeks of struggling over wording, museum officials altered some of the labels to introduce more skepticism [... The Wax Horse] is "attributed to Leonardo." Not so fast, said Jack Wasserman, an art historian at Temple University in Philadelphia. "There is no single work of sculpture which Leonardo worked on that survived to today," Wasserman said. "Yes, it could be 'attributed to' Leonardo, but you need to have a compelling reason for doing so. Since nothing survived, there is no way to judge a piece of sculpture like this." (subscription required)
  90. ^ Panza, Pierluigi (19 October 2016). "La scultura equestre di Leonardo Esposizione tra genio e mistero". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  91. ^ Gatti, Chiara (19 October 2016). "Arriva l'uomo a cavallo di Leonardo Da Vinci che divide i critici". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 22 February 2017. Presentata come una rivelazione esclusiva, è contestata da molti esperti. [...] Vittorio Sgarbi non nasconde i suoi dubbi sull'attribuzione al maestro toscano [...] Pietro Marani: Non ci sono evidenze, né si possono fare confronti poiché non esistono dati d'appoggio, esemplari sicuri.
  92. ^ Sturman, Shelley; May, Katherine; Luchs, Alison (2017). "The Budapest Horse: Beyond the Leonardo da Vinci Question". In Helmstutler Di Dio, Kelley (ed.). Making and Moving Sculpture in Early Modern Italy. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-351-55951-5.
  93. ^ Self-portrait of Leonardo, Surrentum Online, accessed 2010-11-06
  94. ^ Scaramella, A. D. "Artwork Analysis self Portrait in Red Chalk by Leonardo Da Vinci". Helium Inc. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  95. ^ "Emergency Treatment for Leonardo da Vinci's Self-Portrait". Archival Products. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  96. ^ Kemp 2011.
  97. ^ Kemp 2004, p. 2011.
  98. ^ "A lost Leonardo? Top art historian says maybe". Universal Leonardo. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  99. ^ Bertelli, Carlo (November 19, 2005). "Due allievi non fanno un Leonardo" (in Italian). Il Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 2007-09-27.


  • Ames-Lewis, Francis (2012). Isabella and Leonardo: The Artistic Relationship between Isabella d'Este and Leonardo da Vinci, 1500–1506. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12124-7.
  • Chapman, Hugo; Faietti, Marzia (2010). Fra Angelico to Leonardo: Italian Renaissance Drawings. London, England: British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-2667-8.
  • Clayton, Martin (2006). Ten Drawings by Leonardo da Vinci: An Exhibition to Celebrate the Eightieth Birthday of Her Majesty The Queen. Royal Collection Publications. ISBN 9-781902-163017.
  • Covi, Dario A. (2005). Andrea del Verrocchio: Life and Work. Arte e archeologia: Studi e documenti. Florence, Italy: Leo S. Olschki Editore. ISBN 978-8822254207.
  • Delieuvin, Vincent, ed. (2012). Saint Anne: Leonardo da Vinci's Ultimate Masterpiece. Milan, Italy: Officina Libraria. ISBN 978-8897737025.
  •  ———  (2007). Leonardo da Vinci: The Marvellous Works of Nature and Man. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920778-7.
  •  ———  (2011). Leonardo: Revised edition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199583355.
  •  ———  (2019). Leonardo da Vinci: The 100 Milestones. New York City, New York: Sterling. ISBN 978-1454930426.
  • Pedretti, Carlo (1987). Leonardo Da Vinci: Drawings of Horses and Other Animals from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. New York, New York: Johnson Reprint Corp. ISBN 978-0384452824.
  •  ——— , ed. (1988). Achademia Leonardi Vinci: Journal of Leonardo Studies & Bibliography of Vinciana Vol. I–X. Villa La Loggia, Florence: Guinti. ISBN 978-0815001034.
  •  ———  (2006). Leonardo: Art and Science. Surrey, England: Taj Books International. ISBN 978-1844060368.
  • Pedretti, Carlo; Taglialagamba, Sara (2017). Leonardo da Vinci: the "Virgin of the rocks" in the Cheramy version: its history & critical fortune. Poggio a Caiano, Italy: CB edizioni. ISBN 978-8897644538.
  • Solari, Ernesto (2016). Leonardo da Vinci Horse and Rider Il "Monumento" a Charles d'Amboise. Milan: Colibri Edizioni. ISBN 978-88-97206-33-0.
  • Syson, Luke; Keith, Larry; Galansino, Arturo; Mazzotta, Antonio; Nethersole, Scott; Rumberg, Per (2011). Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan (1st ed.). London, England: National Gallery. ISBN 978-1857094916.
  • Zöllner, Frank (2019). Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings (Anniversary ed.). Cologne, Germany: Taschen.

External links[edit]