List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

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The Last Supper is Leonardo da Vinci's most famous work of religious art.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was one of the leading artists of the High Renaissance. Fifteen artworks are generally attributed either in whole or in large part to him. However, it is believed that he made many more, only for them to be lost over the years or remain unidentified. The authorship of several paintings traditionally attributed to Leonardo is disputed. Two major works are known only as copies. Works are regularly attributed to Leonardo with varying degrees of credibility. None of Leonardo's paintings are signed. The attributions here draw on the opinions of various scholars.[1]

The small number of surviving paintings is due in part to Leonardo's frequently disastrous experimentation with new techniques and his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, comprise a contribution to later generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo.

Major extant works[edit]

(sort by size of the original)
(sort by title)
Attribution status and notes Dating
(sort by earliest)
The Annunciation
Oil and tempera on poplar panel
98 × 217 cm
Uffizi, Florence
Generally accepted
Generally thought to be the earliest extant work by Leonardo. The work was traditionally attributed to Verrocchio until 1869. It is now almost universally attributed to Leonardo. Attribution proposed by Liphart, accepted by Bode, Lubke, Muller-Walde, Berenson, Clark, Goldscheider and others.[1]
c. 1473–74 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1472–1476 (Syson 2011)
c. 1473–1475 (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1472–1475, probably 1473–74 (Marani 2000)
The Baptism of Christ
Oil and tempera on poplar panel
177 × 151 cm
Uffizi, Florence
Verrocchio and Leonardo
Painted by Andrea del Verrocchio, with the angel on the left-hand side by Leonardo.[2] It is generally considered that Leonardo also painted much of the background landscape and the torso of Christ. One of Leonardo's earliest extant works. Vasari's statement that the angel on the left is by Leonardo is confirmed by studies by Bode, Seidlitz and Guthman, and accepted by McCurdy, Wasserman and others.[1]
c. 1476 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1470–1472 and c. 1475
(Zöllner 2011)
c. 1469–1472 by Verrocchio, then resumed by Leonardo perhaps mid-1470s (Covi 2005, p. 186)
probably 1475–1478 (Marani 2000)
Madonna of the Carnation
Tempera (?) and oil on poplar panel
62 × 47.5 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Generally accepted
It is generally accepted as a Leonardo, but has some overpainting possibly by a Flemish artist.[1]
c. 1475–76 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1477–78 (Syson 2011)
c. 1472–1478 (?) (Zöllner 2011)
between 1473 and 1478
(Marani 2000)
Ginevra de' Benci
Oil and tempera on poplar panel
38.8 × 36.7 cm, 15.3 × 14.4 in
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Generally accepted
The work was proposed as a Leonardo by Waagen in 1866, and supported by Bode. Early 20th-century scholars were vociferous in their disagreement, but most current critics accept both the authorship and the identity of the sitter.[1]
c. 1476–1478 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1474 / 1478 (Syson 2011)
c. 1478–1480 (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1474 / 1475–76 (Marani 2000)
Benois Madonna
Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas
49.5 × 33 cm
Hermitage, St Petersburg
Generally accepted
Most critics believe that it coincides with a Madonna mentioned by Leonardo in 1478.[1]
c. 1479–80 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1481 onwards (Syson 2011)
c. 1478–1480 (Zöllner 2011)
probably after March 1481 (Marani 2000)
The Adoration of the Magi (unfinished)
Oil (underpainting) on wood panel
240 × 250 cm, 96 × 97 in
Uffizi, Florence
Universally accepted
Forensic and scientific analysis by M. Seracini now proves that the paint was not applied by da Vinci, but considerably later, so that only the sketch can be "universally accepted".[3] Carlo Pedretti, whom Kenneth Clark referred to as "unquestionably the greatest Leonardo scholar of our time", states that the results are unambiguous: "From what he showed me ... it's clear that Leonardo's original sketch was gone over by an anonymous painter."
c. 1479–1481 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1480–1482 (Syson 2011)
1481/2 (Zöllner 2011)
1481 (Marani 2000)
Saint Jerome in the Wilderness (unfinished)
Tempera and oil on walnut panel
103 × 75 cm, 41 × 30 in
Vatican Museums
Universally accepted
c. 1480–1482 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1488–1490 (Syson 2011)
c. 1480–1482 (Zöllner 2011)
probably c. 1480 (Marani 2000)
Madonna Litta
Tempera (and oil?) on poplar panel
42 × 33 cm
Hermitage, St Petersburg
Generally accepted
Martin Kemp claims that the Gallery exhibited the Madonna Litta, on loan from the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as an autograph work, even though the National Gallery’s own curators believed it to be by a pupil, Boltraffio.[4]
c. 1481–1497 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1491–1495 (Syson 2011)
c. 1490 (Zöllner 2011)
not in checklist of Marani 2000
Virgin of the Rocks
(Louvre version)
Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas
199 × 122 cm, 78.3 × 48.0 in
Louvre, Paris
Universally accepted
Considered by most historians to be the earlier of the two versions.
1483–c. 1490 (Kemp 2011)
1483–c. 1485 (Syson 2011)
1483–1484/5 (Zöllner 2011)
between 1483 and 1486
(Marani 2000)
Portrait of a Musician (unfinished)
Tempera and oil on walnut (?) panel
45 × 32 cm
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Generally accepted[a]
c. 1485 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1486–87 (Syson 2011)
c. 1485 (Zöllner 2011)
probably c. 1485 (Marani 2000)
Lady with an Ermine
Oil on walnut panel
54 × 39 cm
National Museum, Kraków
Generally accepted
First published as a Leonardo in 1889 and subject to wide disagreement, but now generally accepted. The attribution of the Ginevra de' Benci has supported the attribution of this painting.[1] The subject has been identified as Cecilia Gallerani.[5]
c. 1490 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1489–90 (Syson 2011)
1489/1490 (Zöllner 2011)
1489–90 (Marani 2000)
Virgin of the Rocks
(London version)
Oil on parqueted poplar panel
189.5 × 120 cm, 74.6 × 47.25 in
National Gallery, London
Generally accepted
Generally accepted as postdating the version in the Louvre, with collaboration of Ambrogio de Predis' and perhaps others.[1] Some consider the work of Leonardo's workshop under his direction. The date is not universally agreed.
c. 1495–1508 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1491/2–9 and 1506–1508
(Syson 2011)
c. 1495–99 and 1506–1508
(Zöllner 2011)
1491 / 1494, finished by 1508 (Marani 2000)
The Last Supper
Tempera on gesso, pitch and mastic
460 × 880 cm, 181 × 346 in
Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Universally accepted
On 9 February 1498 Luca Pacioli described the mural as being complete.[6]
c. 1495–1498 (Kemp 2011)
1492–7/8 (Syson 2011)
c. 1495–1498 (Zöllner 2011)
between 1494 and 1498
(Marani 2000)
La belle ferronnière
Oil on walnut panel
62 × 44 cm
Louvre, Paris
Generally accepted
c. 1496–97 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1493–94 (Syson 2011)
c. 1496–97 (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1490–1495 or 1495–6
(Marani 2000)
Sala delle Asse
Tempera on plaster
Castello Sforzesco, Milan
Universally accepted
Two fragments of Leonardo’s decorative scheme for this room were rediscovered in the late 19th century; they were covered over as they were thought not to be by his hand and were rediscovered again in 1954.[6]
c. 1498–99 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1498 (Syson 2011)
c. 1498–99 (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1497–98 (Marani 2000)
The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist
Charcoal, black and white chalk on tinted paper, mounted on canvas
142 × 105 cm, 55.7 × 41.2 in
National Gallery, London
Universally accepted
c. 1499–1500 (Syson 2011)
1499–1500 or c. 1508 (?) (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1506–1508 (Chapman & Faietti 2010)
c. 1508 (Kemp 2006)
Italian scholars: c. 1501–1505; Pedretti and Anglo-Saxon scholars: 1506–1508, but Wassermann: 1499
(Marani 2000)
Portrait of Isabella d'Este
Black and red chalk, yellow pastel chalk on paper
61 × 46.5 cm
Louvre, Paris
Universally accepted
c. 1499–1500 (Syson 2011)
December 1499 – March 1500 (?) (Zöllner 2011)
end of 1499 / early 1500
(Marani 2000)
The Madonna of the Yarnwinder
(The Buccleuch Madonna)
Oil on walnut panel
48.9 × 36.8 cm
Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh (on long-term loan from the Buccleuch collection)
Leonardo and another artist?[b]
Leonardo was documented as working on a painting of this subject in Florence in 1501; it appears to have been delivered to its patron in 1507. This and the Lansdowne Madonna are the most likely candidates for being that work, but neither is considered to be wholly autograph. Scientific examination has revealed "strikingly complex and similar" underdrawings in both versions, suggesting that Leonardo was involved in the making of both.[7]
The use of walnut wood suggests the earlier terminus post quem of 1499, as Leonardo's Milanese paintings are on this support.[8]
c. 1501–1507 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1499 onwards (Syson 2011)
1501–1507 (Zöllner 2011)
no date in Marani 2000
The Madonna of the Yarnwinder (The Lansdowne Madonna)
Oil on wood panel (transferred to canvas and later re-laid on panel)
50.2 × 36.4 cm
Private collection, United States
Underdrawing by Leonardo?[c]
c. 1501–1507 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1501–1507 (?) (Zöllner 2011)
no date in Marani 2000
The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne
Oil on wood panel
168 × 112 cm, 66.1 × 44.1 in
Louvre, Paris
Universally accepted
c. 1508–1517 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1501 onwards (Syson 2011)
c. 1510–1513 (Marani 2000)
Mona Lisa
Oil on cottonwood (poplar) panel
76.8 × 53.0 cm, 30.2 × 20.9 in
Louvre, Paris
Universally accepted
c. 1503–1516 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1502 onwards (Syson 2011)
1503–1506 and later (1510?) (Zöllner 2011)
probably begun c. 1503–04, finished by 1513–14
(Marani 2000)
Salvator Mundi
Oil on wood panel
65.6 x 45.4 cm
(25.8 × 17.9 in)
Generally accepted, but disputed by several specialists[9]
Previously presumed to be a later copy of the lost original painting. Purchased in 2005 and restored, it has gained acceptance as Leonardo's original. Pentimenti (changes to the composition) were found in the thumb of Christ's right hand and elsewhere which are indicators of the painting's status as an "original".[10] The painting set a new record for sale price (US$450 million) when auctioned by Christie's in 2017.[11][12]
Matthew Landrus thinks the record-breaking work was painted primarily by Leonardo’s assistant, Bernardino Luini.[13]
c. 1504–1507 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1499 onwards (Syson 2011)
c. 1495–1497? (Marani 2000, when thought lost
Head of a Woman
(La Scapigliata)
Earth, amber and white lead on wood panel
24.7 × 21 cm
Galleria Nazionale, Parma
Generally accepted[d]
c. 1508 (Marani 2000)
not in checklist of Kemp 2011 or Zöllner 2011
Saint John the Baptist
Oil on walnut panel
69 × 57 cm, 27.2 × 22.4 in
Louvre, Paris
Generally accepted
The "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote that Leonardo painted a St. John. This is generally considered Leonardo's last masterpiece.[1]
c. 1508–1516 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1508–1516 (Zöllner 2011)
c. 1508 (Marani 2000)


Sample image Details Pages Notes Dates
Codex Atlanticus
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
12 volumes, collated by the sculptor Pompeo Leoni.
Codex Windsor
Royal Collection, Windsor
153 1478–1518
Codex Arundel
B.L., Arundel MS. or Br.M.
British Library, London
283 1480–1518
Codex Trivulzianus
Biblioteca Trivulziana, Castello Sforzesco, Milan
55 (originally 62) c. 1487–1490
Codex Forster
Forster I, II and III (including I1, I2 and II2); formerly known as S.K.M.I, II and III
Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Five pocket notebooks bound into three volumes, here listed in chronological order.
  • I.2 (Milan, c. 1487–1490): Discusses hydraulic engineering, the moving and raising of water and perpetual motion.
  • III (Milan, c. 1490–1493: Notes on geometry, weights and hydraulics interspersed with sketches of horses’ legs, what might be designs for ball costumes and a description of the anatomy of the human head.
  • II.1 (Milan, c. 1495): Notes on the theory of proportions and other miscellaneous material.
  • II.2 (Milan, 1495–1497): Notes on the theory of weights, traction, stresses and balances.
  • I.1 (Florence, 1505): Notes on the measurement of solid bodies and on topology.[14]
Paris Manuscripts
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H (including H1, H2 and H3), I (including I1 and I2), K (including K1, K2 and K3), L and M
Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France, Paris
more than 2500
12 volumes, here listed in chronological order.
  • B (1488–1490; 84 folios): Notebook including designs for flying machines (including the "helicopter"), a submarine, centrally-planned churches and war machines.[15]
  • C (1490–91; 28 folios. One section missing.) Treatise on light and shade; also discusses flow of water and percussion.[16]
  • A (c. 1492): Fragment of a larger MS which included the Codex Ashburnham II. Subjects covered include painting, perspective, water and mechanics.[17]
  • H (1493–94; 142 folios): Three pocket notebooks bound together. Discusses Euclidean geometry and the design of drawing materials.[18]
  • M (late 1490s–1500; 48 folios): A pocket notebook on geometry, ballistics and botany.[19]
  • L (1497–1502; 94 folios): A notebook on military engineering, used by Leonardo when he was in the employ of Cesare Borgia.[20]
  • K (1503–1508; 128 folios): Three pocket notebooks, mainly on geometry.[21]
  • I (1497–1505; 139 folios): Two pocket notebooks with notes on geometry, architecture, Latin, perspective and proportions for painters.[22]
  • D (1508–09; 10 folios with 20 drawings): Discusses theories of vision.[23]
  • F (1508–1513; 96 folios): Discusses water, optics, geology and astronomy.[24]
  • E (1513–14; originally 96 folios): Discusses weights and the effects of gravity, an invention for draining the Pontine Marshes, geometry, painting and the flight of birds.[25]
  • G (1510–1515; 93 folios): Primarily discusses botany.[26]
Codex Madrid
Madrid I and Madrid II
Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid
Two volumes, rediscovered in 1966.
  • I (1490s): Mainly concerned with the science of mechanisms.[27]
  • II (1503–04): Miscellaneous drawings, including maps of the Arno relating to the project to divert its course and notes and drawings relating to the casting of the Sforza monument.[28]
Codex Ashburnham
Ash.I. or B.N.2037 (formerly part of MS.B.)
Ash.II or B.N.2038 (formerly part of MS.A.)
Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France, Paris
Two volumes, taken out of Paris Manuscripts A and B and sold to the Earl of Ashburnham, who returned them to Paris in 1890.
c. 1492
Codex on the Flight of Birds
Biblioteca Reale, Turin
Originally part of Paris Manuscript B; probably stolen by Count Guglielmo Libri in around 1840–1847.[29]
dated 1505
Codex Leicester
Private collection, United States
72 1506–1510
Codex Urbinas and libro A
Urb. and L°A.
Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City
An anthology of writings by Leonardo compiled after his death by his pupil Francesco Melzi. An abridged version was published in 1651 as a treatise on painting (Trattato della Pittura).[30]
c. 1530

Lost works[edit]

Image Details Notes Dating
Dragon shield
A juvenile work described by Giorgio Vasari, who said it was sold by Ser Piero da Vinci to merchants, who then sold it on to the Duke of Milan.[31]
Adam and Eve
Watercolour cartoon for a tapestry
Described in great detail by Vasari and the "Anonimo Gaddiano". Painted for the King of Portugal, it was in the collection of Ottaviano de' Medici in Vasari's lifetime. The composition might have inspired a drawing by Francesco di Giorgio Martini in the Christ Church Picture Gallery, Oxford.[31]
Oil on panel
A juvenile work described by Vasari.
San Bernardo Altarpiece
Oil on panel
A commission for the chapel in Palazzo della Signoria, Florence, allocated to Leonardo on 10 January 1478 but never completed.[31] The commission had originally been given to Piero del Pollaiolo on 24 December 1477; its reallocation might have been arranged by Leonardo's father, who was a notary to the Signoria. After Leonardo's failure to fulfill the commission it was given to Domenico Ghirlandaio on 20 May 1483, but he did not complete the work either. It is sometimes mistakenly said that a Virgin and Child with Saints in the Uffizi by Filippino Lippi was the work finally delivered to the chapel, but this was painted for the Sala dei Dugento (council hall) of the palace.[32]
The Battle of Anghiari
The remains of Leonardo's fresco may have been discovered in the Hall of the Five Hundred (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.[33]
Commissioned 4 May 1504
Leda and the Swan
Recorded by Cassiano dal Pozzo as being at Château de Fontainebleau in 1625.
There are nine known copies of the painting, including:
c. 1504–1508[31]
Angel of the Annunciation
The painting is described by Vasari. A drawing survives among studies for the Battle of Anghiari (see below). The drawing at left, known as The Incarnate Angel is a satirical copy, perhaps by Salaì, in the Kunstmuseum Basel.[34] There are some extant copies of the subject by Leonardeschi, including:
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? Angel of the Annunciation, c. 1505 – 13? Oil on canvas (transferred from panel), 66 × 47.3 cm, Hermitage, St Petersburg.[35]
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? St John the Baptist, c. 1508 – 13? Panel, 71 × 52 cm, Kunstmuseum Basel.[36]
  • Workshop of Leonardo da Vinci? St John the Baptist, c. 1508 – 13? Oil on panel, 75 × 53.4 cm, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.[37]
  • Baccio Bandinelli. Annunciate Angel. Sketch after Leonardo da Vinci.
c. 1510–1513[31]

Works without consensus on attribution[edit]

Image Details Attribution Status and Notes Dating
Dreyfus Madonna
Oil on panel
15.7 × 12.8 cm, 6.13 × 5 in
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Previously attributed to Verrocchio or Lorenzo di Credi. The anatomy of the Christ Child is so poor as to discourage firm attribution by most critics while some believe that it is a work of Leonardo's youth. This attribution was made by Suida in 1929. Other art historians such as Shearman and Morelli attribute the work to Verrocchio.[1] Daniel Arasse discusses this painting as a youthful work in Leonardo da Vinci, (1997).[38]
probably c. 1469
(Marani 2000)
Tobias and the Angel
Egg tempera on poplar
83.6 × 66 cm
National Gallery, London
A painting by Verrocchio while Leonardo was in his workshop. Martin Kemp suggests that Leonardo may have painted some part of this work, most likely the fish. David Alan Brown, of the National Gallery in Washington, attributes the painting of the dog to him as well.
c. 1473 (Kemp 2011)
no date in Marani 2000, but accepted by him
The Holy Infants Embracing
Several versions in private collections.
c. 1486–1490
Portrait of a Lady in Profile
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Generally attributed to Ambrogio de Predis. The face is thought to show the hand of Leonardo.[39]
c. 1493–1495
La Bella Principessa
Bodycolour (pastel) on vellum
33 × 22 cm
Private collection, Switzerland
Identified as a Leonardo by Martin Kemp on stylistic grounds, and confirmed using the evidence of a fingerprint.[40] Other experts have not agreed with this attribution. As of 2010 the methods used to analyse the fingerprint have come into question.[41] The presence of holes in the page shows it was once part of the Sforziada a manuscript kept in Warsaw, this fact points to its originality.
Shaun Greenhalgh claims he faked the "masterpiece" La Bella Principessa, basing it on a woman called Sally on the tills at the Co-op in Bolton.[42]
Virgin of the Rocks Chéramy
Oil on wood panel, transferred to canvas.
154.5 × 122 cm;
Private collection, Switzerland
Attributed to Leonardo and his workshop by Carlo Pedretti;[43] believed by others to be a copy of the Virgin of the Rocks by Leonardo's student Giampietrino. Mentioned by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres in 1845 and by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes; both were convinced that it was an original work by Leonardo.[citation needed]
c. 1495–1497 (Pedretti)
Madonna and Child with St Joseph or Adoration of the Christ Child
Tempera on panel
Diameter 87 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome
Previously attributed to Fra Bartolomeo. After recent cleaning, the Galleria Borghese sought attribution as a youthful work by Leonardo, based on the presence of a fingerprint similar to one that appears in the Lady with an Ermine. Result of investigation not available.[44]
Mary Magdalene
Private collection, Switzerland
Described as a potential Leonardo by Carlo Pedretti. Previously attributed to Giampietrino, who painted a number of similar Magdalenes.[45] Pedretti's attribution is not accepted by other scholars, e.g. Carlo Bertelli (former director of the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan), who said this painting is not by Leonardo and that the subject could be a Lucretia with the knife removed.[46]
Portrait of Luca Pacioli
Capodimonte Museum, Naples
The painting has been generally attributed to Jacopo de' Barbari due to the presence of a cartouche with a cryptic inscription resembling his name, but some attribute the painting (at least partially) to Leonardo,[47] who began collaborating with Pacioli when the latter moved to Milan in 1496.[48][49] Leonardo illustrated Archimedean solids, including the rhombicuboctahedron (pictured in the portrait), in Pacioli's Divina proportione (1509).[50] According to one scholar, in the rhombicuboctahedron "we surely see the ineffable left hand of Leonardo da Vinci, who drew the superb pictures for De divina proportione, which, moreover, hang from a string ..."[47]
c. 1495–1500
Christ Carrying the Cross
Oil on poplar
Private collection, San Francisco.
Previously attributed by Sotheby's to Gian Francesco Maineri.[51][52] Attributed to Leonardo by its former owner.[51] Attribution based on the similarity of the tormentors of Christ to drawings made by Rubens of the Battle of Anghiari. According to Forbes magazine, Carlo Pedretti said that he knew of three similar paintings and that "All four paintings, he believed, were likely the work of Leonardo's studio assistants and perhaps even the master himself."[51]
c. 1500
Isleworth Mona Lisa
Private collection, Switzerland
Its proponents claim that this is the earlier of two versions of the Mona Lisa, painted for Francesco del Giocondo (husband of Lisa) in 1503, and that the Louvre version was painted for Giuliano de' Medici in 1517.[53]
Horse and Rider
c. 1508
Private collection, London
Fragmentary wax statuette in a private collection in London, formerly in the Sangiorgi Collection in Rome, said to have come from the Melzi estate at Vaprio d’Adda.[54][55] While described as “by Leonardo himself” by Carlo Pedretti in 1985,[56][57] Martin Kemp does not accept it as a Leonardo sculpture, commenting that "it has none of the characteristics of understanding horse anatomy and renaissance armor that you would expect from Leonardo".[58] The attribution has also been criticized by various other art historians[59][60][61] and publications, citing a lack of hard evidence or documentation.[62][63][64]
c. 1506–1508 (Pedretti 1985)[65]
c. 1508–1511 (Solari 2016)[66]
Lucan portrait of Leonardo da Vinci
tempera grassa on poplar
40 cm × 60 cm
Museo delle Antiche Genti di Lucania, Vaglio Basilicata
A painting discovered in 2008 near Naples, that closely resembles the Uffizi 17th century copy of the "Self portrait of Leonardo da Vinci", is currently undergoing restoration and investigation. A date in the late 15th or 16th century has been confirmed by scientific testing. Fingerprints match those found on the Lady with an Ermine. Alternatively attributed to Cristofano dell'Altissimo.[67]
c. 1505–1510
Portrait of a Man in Red Chalk
Red chalk on paper
33.3 cm × 21.6 cm (13.1 in × 8.5 in)
Biblioteca Reale, Turin
Accepted by some scholars, but not universally accepted.[68][69]
c. 1512
Oil on walnut panel transferred to canvas
177 × 115 cm
Louvre, Paris
Generally considered to be a workshop copy of a drawing.[1]
c. 1513–1516 (Kemp 2011)
c. 1510–1515, later repainted and altered (Marani 2000)

See also[edit]


Sources for attribution status

  1. ^ Portrait of a Musician: Leonardo da Vinci (Kemp 2011, p. 254); Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (?) and Leonardo (?) (Zöllner 2011, p. 225)
  2. ^ Buccleuch Madonna: Leonardo da Vinci and an anonymous 16th-century painter (Syson 2011, p. 294); Workshop of Leonardo after a design by Leonardo (Zöllner 2011, p. 239)
  3. ^ Lansdowne Madonna: Salaì after a design by Leonardo (Zöllner 2011, p. 238)
  4. ^ La Scapigliata: Follower of Leonardo (Syson 2011, p. 198, n. 9); “ascribed today to Leonardo” (Marani 2000, p. 140)


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k della Chiesa, Angela Ottino (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-008649-2.
  2. ^ Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, 1568; this edition Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965, ISBN 0-14-044164-6
  3. ^ M. Henneberger, Archives | 2002, The New York Times Magazine, 21 April 2002, "The Leonardo Cover-Up"
  4. ^ "National Gallery in London accused of altering attribution of Hermitage's 'Leonardo' for 2011 blockbuster show". Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  5. ^ M. Kemp, entry for The Lady with an Ermine in the exhibition Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration (Washington-New Haven-London) pp 271f, states "the identification of the sitter in this painting as Cecilia Gallerani is reasonably secure;" Janice Shell and Grazioso Sironi, "Cecilia Gallerani: Leonardo's Lady with an Ermine" Artibus et Historiae 13 No. 25 (1992:47–66) discuss the career of this identification since it was first suggested in 1900.
  6. ^ a b Marani 2000, p. 339
  7. ^ Kemp 2011, 253
  8. ^ Syson 2011, 294
  9. ^ For a partial list of scholars who accept the attribution, see Bailey, Martin (31 October 2011). "Leonardo's Saviour of the World rediscovered in New York". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  10. ^ Syson 2011, 302
  11. ^ Andrews, Travis M. (15 November 2017). "Long-lost da Vinci painting fetches $450 million, a world record". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  12. ^ Holland, Oscar (2017-11-16). "Rare Da Vinci painting smashes world records with $450 million sale". CNN. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  13. ^ "Who Really Painted 'Salvator Mundi'? An Oxford Art Historian Says It Was Leonardo's Assistant | artnet News". artnet News. 2018-08-07. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  14. ^ "The Forster Codices: Leonardo da Vinci's Notebooks at the V&A". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Paris Manuscript B". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  16. ^ "Paris Manuscript C". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  17. ^ "Paris Manuscript A". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  18. ^ "Paris Manuscript H". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  19. ^ "Paris Manuscript M". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  20. ^ "Paris Manuscript L". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  21. ^ "Paris Manuscript K". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  22. ^ "Paris Manuscript I". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  23. ^ "Paris Manuscript D". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  24. ^ "Paris Manuscript F". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  25. ^ "Paris Manuscript E". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  26. ^ "Paris Manuscript G". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  27. ^ "Codex Madrid I". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  28. ^ "Codex Madrid II". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  29. ^ Bambach 2003, p. 723.
  30. ^ "Codex Urbinas and lost Libro A". Universal Leonardo. University of the Arts, London. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  31. ^ a b c d e Marani 2000, p. 431
  32. ^ Rubin & Wright 1999, pp. 84 and 118, n. 25
  33. ^ Farmer, Brit Mccandless (26 May 2019). "From the archives: Looking for the lost Leonardo". CBS News. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  34. ^ Shearman 1992, p. 33.
  35. ^ Delieuvin 2012, cat. 80
  36. ^ Delieuvin 2012, cat. 81
  37. ^ "St John the Baptist". Art UK. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  38. ^ Arasse, Daniel (1997). Leonardo da Vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 978-1-56852-198-5.
  39. ^ Kemp, Martin (2004). Leonardo. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 251. The work does not appear in Kemp 2011.
  40. ^ Adams, James (October 13, 2005). "Montreal art expert identifies da Vinci drawing". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  41. ^ "The Mark of a Masterpiece" by David Grann, The New Yorker, vol. LXXXVI, no. 20, July 12 & 19, 2010, ISSN 0028-792X
  42. ^ Byrne, Paul (2015-11-30). "Portrait hailed as Da Vinci masterpiece is actually grumpy Bolton checkout girl". mirror. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  43. ^ Pedretti, Carlo; Taglialagamba, Sara (2017). Leonardo da Vinci: the "Virgin of the rocks" in the Cheramy version: its history & critical fortune. Poggio a Caiano: CB edizioni. ISBN 9788897644538.
  44. ^ Arie, Sophie (16 February 2005). "Fingerprint puts Leonardo in the frame". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  45. ^ "A lost Leonardo? Top art historian says maybe". Universal Leonardo. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  46. ^ Bertelli, Carlo (November 19, 2005). "Due allievi non fanno un Leonardo" (in Italian). Il Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  47. ^ a b MacKinnon, Nick (1993). "The Portrait of Fra Luca Pacioli". The Mathematical Gazette. 77 (479): 140–43, 146–49, 154, 165, 183, 184, 186–87, 197–205, 214. doi:10.2307/3619717. JSTOR 3619717.
  48. ^ "ritratto Pacioli". (in Italian).
  49. ^ Livio, Mario (2003) [2002]. The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number (First trade paperback ed.). New York City: Broadway Books. pp. 130–131, 138. ISBN 0-7679-0816-3.
  50. ^ Bo, Gianfranco. "Il sorriso di Pacioli". (in Italian).
  51. ^ a b c Stephane Fitch DaVinci's Fingerprints, 12.22.03 accessed 7 July 2009. Martin Kemp, the expert on Leonardo's fingerprints, had not examined the painting when the article was written.
  52. ^ A similar image, without the tormentors, is in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. [1][permanent dead link]
  53. ^ "'Early Mona Lisa' painting claim disputed". BBC News. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  54. ^ Pedretti, Carlo, ed. (1987). Leonardo Da Vinci: Drawings of Horses and Other Animals from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. London: Harcourt Brace. p. 185. ISBN 0384-45284-1. Fig 111 and 112 Unpublished fragmentary wax model of an equestrian portrait of Charles d'Amboise attributed to Leonardo, said to have come from the Melzi estate at Vaprio d'Adda. London, Private collection (formally Sangiorgi collection in Rome).
  55. ^ "'Horse and Rider' Discovered Leonardo Da Vinci Sculpture". Huffington Post. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  56. ^ Solari, Ernesto (2016). Leonardo da Vinci Horse and Rider Il "Monumento" a Charles d'Amboise. Milan: Colibri Edizioni. p. 28. ISBN 978-88-97206-33-0. Carlo Pedretti: In my opinion, this wax model is by Leonardo himself, and to my knowledge it has not been seen by other scholars.
  57. ^ "Leonardo da Vinci's 'Horse and Rider'". BBC News. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  58. ^ Kazakina, Katya (2 October 2019). "This DaVinci Statue Could Go for $50 Million. But Is It Real?". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 October 2019 – via Fortune.
  59. ^ Zerner, Henri (25 September 1997). "The Vision of Leonardo". The New York Review of Books. 44 (14): 67. no existing sculpture can be attributed to him with any certainty. [... the Bust of Christ as a Youth] was unfortunately placed in the exhibition next to a bizarre object, a wax statuette of a rider on a bucking horse never before seen in public. In the explanatory label, the statuette was said to have belonged to Francesco Melzi, a student and companion of Leonardo, a provenance unfortunately based on hearsay. [...] I fail to see the point of presenting to the uninformed visitor highly debatable hypotheses as if they were confirmed.
  60. ^ Holmstrom, David (24 March 1997). "Putting Leonardo's Inventions to the test: Boston's Museum of Science looks at the breathtaking scope of Leonardo da Vinci's work, though the authenticity of some objects is in question". The Christian Science Monitor. ProQuest 405615445. CONTROVERSIAL WORK: Whether Leonardo made this small wax figure is a source of contention among experts. Although the piece is unsigned, it is attributed to him in the exhibit. (subscription required)
  61. ^ Yemma, John (23 February 1997). "Leonardo on tour: the good, the bad ... and the phony? Art historians question attribution of some works headed for Boston show". The Boston Globe. p. A.1. at least one of the two sculptures on display in the art gallery at Science Park beginning March 3 have caused grave doubts among some art historians. [...] The labels on the paintings, Ackerman warned museum officials, were simply too generous, linking dubious and contested works from private collections too closely with Leonardo and other Italian masters. [...] after weeks of struggling over wording, museum officials altered some of the labels to introduce more skepticism [... The Wax Horse] is "attributed to Leonardo." Not so fast, said Jack Wasserman, an art historian at Temple University in Philadelphia. "There is no single work of sculpture which Leonardo worked on that survived to today," Wasserman said. "Yes, it could be 'attributed to' Leonardo, but you need to have a compelling reason for doing so. Since nothing survived, there is no way to judge a piece of sculpture like this." (subscription required)
  62. ^ Panza, Pierluigi (19 October 2016). "La scultura equestre di Leonardo Esposizione tra genio e mistero". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  63. ^ Gatti, Chiara (19 October 2016). "Arriva l'uomo a cavallo di Leonardo Da Vinci che divide i critici". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 22 February 2017. Presentata come una rivelazione esclusiva, è contestata da molti esperti. [...] Vittorio Sgarbi non nasconde i suoi dubbi sull'attribuzione al maestro toscano [...] Pietro Marani: Non ci sono evidenze, né si possono fare confronti poiché non esistono dati d'appoggio, esemplari sicuri.
  64. ^ Sturman, Shelley; May, Katherine; Luchs, Alison (2017). "The Budapest Horse: Beyond the Leonardo da Vinci Question". In Helmstutler Di Dio, Kelley (ed.). Making and Moving Sculpture in Early Modern Italy. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-351-55951-5.
  65. ^ Pedretti, Carlo (10 July 1985). "Wax model of Horse and Rider". Letter to Mr. Paul J. Wagner. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014.
  66. ^ Solari, Ernesto (2016). Leonardo da Vinci : Horse and rider : il "monumento" a Charles d'Amboise. Leonardo, da Vinci, 1452-1519,, Palazzo delle Stelline (Prima edizione ed.). Paderno Dugnano (Mi). ISBN 9788897206330. OCLC 962823523.
  67. ^ Self-portrait of Leonardo, Surrentum Online, accessed 2010-11-06
  68. ^ Scaramella, A. D. "Artwork Analysis self Portrait in Red Chalk by Leonardo Da Vinci". Helium Inc. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
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  • Bambach, Carmen C., ed. (2003), Leonardo da Vinci: Master Draftsman, New Haven and London: Yale University Press
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  • Marani, Pietro C. (2000), Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
  • Pedretti, Carlo; Sara Taglialagamba (2017), Leonardo da Vinci: the "Virgin of the rocks" in the Cheramy version: its history & critical fortune
  • Pedretti, Carlo (1987), Leonardo Da Vinci: Drawings of Horses and Other Animals from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, ISBN 0384-45284-1
  • Pedretti, Carlo, ed. (1988–1997), Achademia Leonardi Vinci:Journal of Leonardo Studies & Bibliography of Vinciana Vol. I-X, Guinti
  • Rubin, Patricia Lee; Wright, Alison (1999), Renaissance Florence: The Art of the 1470s, London: National Gallery Publications
  • Shearman, John (1992), Only Connect...: Art and the Spectator in the Italian Renaissance, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Solari, Ernesto (2016), Leonardo da Vinci Horse and Rider Il "Monumento" a Charles d'Amboise, Milan: Colibri Edizioni, ISBN 978-88-97206-33-0
  • Syson, Luke; Larry Keith; Arturo Galansino; Antoni Mazzotta; Scott Nethersole; Per Rumberg (2011), Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan, London: National Gallery
  • Zöllner, Frank (2011), Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings, 1, Cologne: Taschen

External links[edit]