List of works by Thomas Harrison

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Propyleum (gateway) of Chester Castle in Harrison's Greek Revival style

Thomas Harrison was an English architect who flourished in the last two decades of the 18th century and the first three decades of the 19th century. Little is known of his early life, and his precise date of birth is not known. He was born in Richmond, Yorkshire, and was baptised on 7 August 1744. In 1769 he was sent to study architecture in Rome. He started his professional life as an architect in 1782.[1] This followed his success in a competition to design Skerton Bridge in Lancaster, Lancashire,[2] as a result of which he moved to Lancaster.[3] While there he carried out a number of projects, including a new tower and spire for St John's Church, a clock tower for the town hall,[4] and new buildings within the complex of Lancaster Castle.[5] While he was working on Lancaster Castle, he was also involved in the design of new buildings within Chester Castle, Cheshire.[6] In 1795, Harrison moved with his family to Chester, where he spent the rest of his career.[1][3] Following his success with Skerton Bridge, Harrison designed more bridges, including Harrington Bridge in Derbyshire, St Mary's Bridge in Derby, Stramongate Bridge in Kendal, Cumbria, and smaller bridges in Lancashire,[7] and Cheshire.[8]

Harrison is considered to have been a leader of Greek Revival architecture in the northwest of England.[3] His major surviving works in this style include the Lyceum in Liverpool,[9] the Portico Library in Manchester,[10] and the Commercial Newsroom in Chester.[11] Most of Harrison's works are in Lancashire and Cheshire, but he also designed buildings in North Wales, and in Shropshire. His only work away from this part of the country was his design for the New Buildings at Magdalen College, Oxford.[12] In Chester, Harrison designed a house for himself, St Martin's Lodge.[13] In addition to domestic and civic buildings, he worked on memorial structures, including the Jubilee Tower on Moel Famau in North Wales,[14] Lord Hill's Column in Shrewsbury, Shropshire,[15] and a memorial gateway in Holyhead, Anglesey.[16] His final major designs were for two bridges in Chester. In 1825–26 he widened the Old Dee Bridge.[17] He then designed a new bridge, the Grosvenor Bridge. This was not completed until after his death in 1829, but it was at the time the largest structure of its type in the world.[3][18][19][20][21][22]

Key[edit]

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Grade Criteria[23]
I Buildings of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important
II* Particularly important buildings of more than special interest
II Buildings of national importance and special interest

Works[edit]

Name Location Photograph Date Notes Grade
Old Town Hall Lancaster, Lancashire
54°02′56″N 2°48′06″W / 54.0489°N 2.8018°W / 54.0489; -2.8018 (Old Town Hall, Lancaster)
Lancaster Museum.jpg 1782 Added the clock tower. Now Lancaster City Museum.[3][24][25][26] II*
St John's Church Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′16″N 2°47′48″W / 54.0545°N 2.7966°W / 54.0545; -2.7966 (St John's Church, Lancaster)
St John's Church, Lancaster.jpg 1783–84 Added the west tower and spire.[27][28][29] II*
Skerton Bridge Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′16″N 2°47′48″W / 54.0545°N 2.7966°W / 54.0545; -2.7966 (Skerton Bridge, Lancaster)
Skerton Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 957967.jpg 1783–87 A new bridge crossing the River Lune costing £14,000 (equivalent to £1,630,000 in 2016).[30] It was the first large public bridge in England to have a flat road deck.[3][31][32][33][34] II*
Bridge Houses Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′14″N 2°47′41″W / 54.0540°N 2.7948°W / 54.0540; -2.7948 (Toll House and Inn, Lancaster)
1786–87 Built as a toll house and as houses for renting opposite Skerton Bridge.[35][36][37] II*
County Gaol Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′00″N 2°48′20″W / 54.0499°N 2.8056°W / 54.0499; -2.8056 (Lancaster Castle)
1788–96 Built within Lancaster Castle. Included the Keeper's House, the Female Felons' Prison,and the Male Felons' Prison.[5] I
Harrington Bridge Sawley, Derbyshire
52°52′31″N 1°18′04″W / 52.8754°N 1.3012°W / 52.8754; -1.3012 (Harrington Bridge)
Sawley Bridge.jpg 1789–90 A new bridge over the River Trent to replace a ferry. It was severely damaged by a flood in 1904 and only small portions of it remain.[38][39][40][41] II
St Mary's Bridge Derby, Derbyshire
52°55′38″N 1°28′31″W / 52.9272°N 1.4752°W / 52.9272; -1.4752 (St Mary's Bridge, Derby)
St Mary's Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 709310.jpg 1789–94 Replacing a medieval bridge. It has a flat road deck carried on three arches.[3][42][43][44] II*
Chester Castle Chester, Cheshire
53°11′09″N 2°53′30″W / 53.1858°N 2.8918°W / 53.1858; -2.8918 (Chester Castle)
Castle Square - geograph.org.uk - 1334606.jpg 1789–1802 The earliest building was the county gaol on a site sloping down to the River Dee. It has been largely demolished and was replaced by Cheshire County Hall. At about the some time the Shire Hall was built and still functions as a criminal court.[45][46][47][48] I
Entrance screen Chester Road, Wrexham, Wales
53°03′34″N 2°59′24″W / 53.0595°N 2.9901°W / 53.0595; -2.9901 (Entrance screen, Acton Park)
c.1790 Attributed to Harrison; an entrance screen to the now-demolished Acton Park.[49][50] II
Springfield Hall Lancaster, Lancashire
54°02′32″N 2°47′57″W / 54.0421°N 2.7992°W / 54.0421; -2.7992 (Springfield Hall, Lancaster (site))
1790–92 A large suburban villa, almost certainly by Harrison. Demolished in 1862. The Centenary Building of the Royal Lancaster Infirmary now stands on the site. If by Harrison, it was his earliest house.[51]
Stramongate Bridge Kendal, Cumbria
54°19′48″N 2°44′30″W / 54.3300°N 2.7418°W / 54.3300; -2.7418 (Stramongate Bridge, Kendal)
Stramongate Bridge, Kendal - geograph.org.uk - 1088701.jpg 1791–97 Rebuilding of a medieval bridge. It is a scheduled ancient monument.

[3][52][53][54]

Greycourt Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′01″N 2°48′16″W / 54.0504°N 2.8044°W / 54.0504; -2.8044 (Greycourt, Lancaster)
c.1792 Attributed to Harrison, a house built for Richard Postlethwaite.[55][56] II
Cocker Bridge Cockerham, Lancashire
53°57′09″N 2°50′20″W / 53.9524°N 2.8388°W / 53.9524; -2.8388 (Cocker Bridge, Cockerham)
1793 Since replaced by a pair of sluice gates.[57]
Mill House Bridge Pilling, Lancashire
53°56′38″N 2°51′54″W / 53.9440°N 2.8651°W / 53.9440; -2.8651 (Mill House Bridge, Pilling)
1793 Little more than a culvert, it carries the A588 road.[57]
Denny Beck Bridge Halton, Lancashire
54°04′18″N 2°45′37″W / 54.0718°N 2.7604°W / 54.0718; -2.7604 (Mill House Bridge, Halton)
1793 Carries the A683 road over the Denny Beck.[57]
Mausoleum Gosford House, East Lothian, Scotland
56°00′00″N 2°52′27″W / 56.0001°N 2.8743°W / 56.0001; -2.8743 (Gosford Mausoleum)
1793 Almost certainly by Harrison, for Francis Charteris, 7th Earl of Wemyss.[58][59] A
Kennet House Kennet, Clackmannanshire, Scotland
56°05′52″N 3°44′27″W / 56.0977°N 3.7408°W / 56.0977; -3.7408 (Kennet House)
1793–94 Built for Robert Bruce. It was Harrison's first major house design. Demolished March 1967.[3][60][61]
Quernmore Park Hall Quernmore, Lancashire
54°03′31″N 2°44′24″W / 54.0585°N 2.7400°W / 54.0585; -2.7400 (Quernmore Park Hall)
1795–98 Almost certainly by Harrison; a new country house for Charles Gibson.[62][63][64] II*
Chain Lodge Quernmore, Lancashire
54°04′27″N 2°44′45″W / 54.0743°N 2.7458°W / 54.0743; -2.7458 (Chain Lodge)
1795–98 A lodge to Quernmore Park Hall; almost certainly by Harrison.[65][66][67] II
Broomhall Limekilns, Fife, Scotland
56°02′14″N 3°29′00″W / 56.0372°N 3.4833°W / 56.0372; -3.4833 (Broomhall, Fife)
1795–99 Extended and re-modelled an 18th-century house for Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin.[3][68][69] A
Lancaster Castle Lancaster, Lancashire
54°03′00″N 2°48′20″W / 54.0499°N 2.8056°W / 54.0499; -2.8056 (Lancaster Castle)
1796–98 Reconstruction, including the Shire Hall and Crown Court.[70][71][72][73] I
Lyceum Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′16″N 2°58′50″W / 53.4044°N 2.9806°W / 53.4044; -2.9806 (Lyceum, Liverpool)
Lyceum Corner Liverpool.JPG 1800–02 Built as a gentlemen's club, with a library and a newsroom, at a cost of £11,000 (equivalent to £900,000 in 2016).[30] Later a post office.[9][74][75] II*
Lymford Bridge Bosley, Cheshire
53°10′58″N 2°07′58″W / 53.1829°N 2.1329°W / 53.1829; -2.1329 (Lymford Bridge)
c. 1800 Bridge over the River Dane.[76][77] II
Oversley Ford Bridge Wilmslow, Cheshire
53°20′33″N 2°16′40″W / 53.3426°N 2.2777°W / 53.3426; -2.2777 (Oversley Ford Bridge)
c. 1800 Bridge carrying the A538 road over the River Bollin.[76]
Radnor Bridge Congleton, Cheshire
53°10′57″N 2°15′20″W / 53.1826°N 2.2555°W / 53.1826; -2.2555 (Radnor Bridge)
c. 1800 Bridge carrying Chelford Road over the River Dane.[76]
House of Correction Middlewich, Cheshire 1801 Repairs to the building on Queen Street, which has since been demolished.[78]
Colinton House Edinburgh, Scotland
55°54′43″N 3°15′20″W / 55.9119°N 3.2556°W / 55.9119; -3.2556 (Colinton House, Edinburgh)
1801–06 Adapted from plans drawn up by Harrison for Sir William Forbes. More recently part of Merchiston Castle School.[79][80] A
Portico Library Manchester
53°28′47″N 2°14′25″W / 53.4797°N 2.2404°W / 53.4797; -2.2404 (Portico Library, Manchester)
Portico Library, Manchester.jpg
1803–06 Built at a cost of about £6,800 (equivalent to £510,000 in 2016).[30][10][81][82] II*
St Peter's Church Chester, Cheshire
53°11′25″N 2°53′30″W / 53.1904°N 2.8918°W / 53.1904; -2.8918 (St Peter's Church, Chester)
St Peter's Church, Chester-2.jpg 1804 Refacing the stonework of the south face after timber lean-to buildings had been demolished.[83][84][85] I
Chester Castle Chester, Cheshire
53°11′09″N 2°53′30″W / 53.1858°N 2.8918°W / 53.1858; -2.8918 (Chester Castle)
Propyleum, Chester.jpg 1804–15 Further buildings including an armoury on the west side of the parade ground, barracks (later a museum) on the east side, and a propylaea or gateway (pictured).[46][47][86][87][88][89] I
St John the Baptist's Church Whittington, Shropshire
52°52′29″N 3°00′09″W / 52.8747°N 3.0026°W / 52.8747; -3.0026 (St John the Baptist's Church, Whittington)
Whittington Church - geograph.org.uk - 1525677.jpg 1805–06 Replacement of nave and porches after storm damage. The nave is wider than the previous nave, the work costing about £1,500 (equivalent to £110,000 in 2016).[30] It has since been altered.[84][90][91] II
Theatre Royal Manchester 1806–07 Built at a cost of about £12,000 (equivalent to £880,000 in 2016),[30] it could seat 1,020 people. It was destroyed by fire in 1844.[92][93]
City Gaol and House of Correction Chester, Cheshire
53°11′28″N 2°53′51″W / 53.1910°N 2.8974°W / 53.1910; -2.8974 (City Gaol and House of Correction, Chester)
1806–08 Built to replace the old gaol at Northgate, costing about £3,500 (equivalent to £250,000 in 2016).[30] It has been demolished, and the site is now occupied by the Queen's School.[78]
Exchange Manchester
53°28′58″N 2°14′42″W / 53.4828°N 2.2449°W / 53.4828; -2.2449 (Manchester Exchange)
1806–09 Replacing an earlier exchange, it provided a meeting place for merchants, including a newsroom, a library, a dining room, and a post office. It was enlarged in 1849, and replaced in 1874.[94][95]
Commercial Newsroom Chester, Cheshire
53°11′26″N 2°53′30″W / 53.1906°N 2.8916°W / 53.1906; -2.8916 (Commercial Newsroom, Chester)
Chester City Club.jpg
1807–08 Gentlemen's club costing about £2,700 (equivalent to £190,000 in 2016).[30][11][96][97][98] II
Gredington Hanmer, Wrexham, Wales
52°56′32″N 2°49′33″W / 52.9422°N 2.8259°W / 52.9422; -2.8259 (Gredington, Wrexham)
1807–11 Harrison enlarged and remodelled the rear of this country house for the 2nd Lord Kenyon at a cost of £6,675 (equivalent to £440,000 in 2016).[30] The house was demolished between in 1978, and a new house has been built on the site.[99][100]
Northgate Chester, Cheshire
53°11′38″N 2°53′36″W / 53.1938°N 2.8934°W / 53.1938; -2.8934 (Northgate, Chester)
Northgate, Chester.jpg 1808–10 Rebuilding of the northern entrance to the city.[101][102][103][104] I
Tabley House Tabley Inferior, Cheshire Tabley Hall 4.jpg 1808–10 Creation of a picture gallery on the first floor of the house for Sir John Fleming Leicester.[105][106][107] I
Oughtrington Hall Oughtrington, Cheshire
53°22′43″N 2°27′34″W / 53.3787°N 2.4595°W / 53.3787; -2.4595 (Oughtrington Hall)
c. 1810 Almost certainly designed by Harrison. It was a country house built for Trafford Trafford. The house has been incorporated into the buildings of Lymm High School.[108][109][110] II
Glan-yr-Afon Llanferres, Denbighshire, Wales
53°08′51″N 3°12′26″W / 53.1474°N 3.2073°W / 53.1474; -3.2073 (Glan-yr-Afon, Llanferres)
c. 1810–12 A country house for Henry Potts of Chester. Almost certainly designed by Harrison.[111][112][113] II
Jubilee Tower Moel Famau, Flintshire, Wales
53°09′16″N 3°15′22″W / 53.1544°N 3.2560°W / 53.1544; -3.2560 (Jubilee Tower, Moel Famau)
Moel Famau summit - DSC06073.JPG 1810–13 Built on the highest point of the Clwydian Range to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of George III. The foundation stone was laid in 1810, but construction did not start until 1813, and it was never fully completed. It was in the form of an Egyptian obelisk. In 1862 the obelisk collapsed. The remains were consolidated into a viewing platform in 1970.[14][114][115] II
Denbighshire Infirmary Denbigh, Wales
53°11′09″N 3°24′36″W / 53.1859°N 3.4099°W / 53.1859; -3.4099 (Denbighshire Infirmary)
1810–13 Built to replace a dispensary of 1807. It has been extended several times.[99][116]
Wesleyan Methodist Church St John Street, Chester, Cheshire
53°11′23″N 2°53′17″W / 53.1898°N 2.8880°W / 53.1898; -2.8880 (Wesleyan Methodist Church, Chester)
1811 Harrison designed the exterior, and William Cole the interior. The church was extended and re-orientated in 1906.[117][118][119] II
Church of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′25″N 2°59′41″W / 53.4070°N 2.9948°W / 53.4070; -2.9948 (Church of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas, Liverpool)
Liverpool St Nicholas.jpg
1811–15 A new tower and lantern after the previous steeple had collapsed in 1810. It cost over £22,000 (equivalent to £460,000 in 2016),[30] and rises to a height of 120 feet (36.6 m).[120][121][122] II
Woodbank Stockport, Greater Manchester
53°24′36″N 2°07′52″W / 53.4100°N 2.1311°W / 53.4100; -2.1311 (Woodbank, Stockport)
1812–14 Villa for Peter Marsland, a local industrialist. Later a museum, then offices. Harrison almost certainly also designed the entrance screen.[123][124][125] II*
Mersey Bridge Warrington, Cheshire
53°23′09″N 2°35′29″W / 53.3858°N 2.5913°W / 53.3858; -2.5913 (Mersey Bridge, Warrington)
1813–17 A timber bridge carrying what is now the A49 road over the River Mersey. It replaced a medieval structure at a cost of £3,000 (equivalent to £200,000 in 2016).[30] It was itself replaced in 1837 by a stone bridge.[126]
Dee Hills House Chester, Cheshire
53°11′30″N 2°52′36″W / 53.1918°N 2.8767°W / 53.1918; -2.8767 (Dee Hills Park, Chester)
1814 Built as a country house, later used as offices.[127][128][129] II
Chapel of West Hall High Legh, Cheshire
53°21′11″N 2°27′06″W / 53.3531°N 2.4518°W / 53.3531; -2.4518 (St John's Chapel, High Legh)
1814 Built with an Ionic front, replacing a ruined chapel dating from 1408. Burnt down in 1891, and the remaining fragments were incorporated in St John's Church.[130][131][132]
Lord Hill's Column Shrewsbury, Shropshire
52°42′15″N 2°43′54″W / 52.7042°N 2.7318°W / 52.7042; -2.7318 (Lord Hill's Column, Shrewsbury)
Shrewsbury Column.jpg
1814–16 Harrison made modifications mainly to the pedestal of the structure that had been designed by Edward Haycock.[15][133][134] II*
Allerton
(Grove House)
Liverpool, Merseyside
53°22′21″N 2°53′14″W / 53.3726°N 2.8873°W / 53.3726; -2.8873 (Allerton, Liverpool)
1815 Built as a house for Jacob Fletcher. The grounds have been used as a municipal golf course since 1921. The house has been seriously damaged by fire and is in ruins, other than its northwest part, which is used as the golf club house.[135][136][137] II
Cranage Bridge Holmes Chapel, Cheshire
53°12′23″N 2°21′51″W / 53.2064°N 2.3643°W / 53.2064; -2.3643 (Cranage Bridge, Holmes Chapel)
1815–16 A timber bridge carrying what is now the A50 road over the River Dane. It was later replaced by a bridge in stone.[138]
Dorfold Hall Acton, Cheshire
53°04′07″N 2°32′42″W / 53.0685°N 2.5451°W / 53.0685; -2.5451 (Dorfold Hall, Acton)
Dorfold Hall, Acton.jpg 1816 The interior of the east wing was remodelled.[139][140] I
The Marquess of Anglesey's Column Llanfairpwyll, Anglesey
53°13′15″N 4°11′48″W / 53.2208°N 4.1967°W / 53.2208; -4.1967 (Marquess of Anglesey's Column, Anglesey)
Marquess of Anglesey's Column - geograph.org.uk - 786189.jpg
1816–17 A column in Greek Revival Doric style to commemorate the achievements of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey in the Napoleonic Wars.[141][142][143] II*
St Paul's Church Liverpool, Merseyside 1818 A domed ceiling for the church, which originally dated from 1763–79. It closed in 1901, and has since been demolished.[144][145]
Chester Cathedral Chester, Cheshire
53°11′31″N 2°53′26″W / 53.1919°N 2.8905°W / 53.1919; -2.8905 (Chester Cathedral)
Chester Cathedral.jpg 1818–20 Harrison was the first architect to be involved in the 19th-century restoration of the cathedral. His work included rebuilding the front of the central south transept.[146][147][148] I
Watergate House Chester, Cheshire
53°11′22″N 2°53′46″W / 53.1894°N 2.8962°W / 53.1894; -2.8962 (Watergate House, Chester)
Watergate House, Watergate Street - geograph.org.uk - 1100004.jpg 1820 Built as a town house for Henry Potts, Clerk of the Peace for the County of Cheshire. It later became the headquarters of Western Command, then the headquarters of the Cheshire Community Council. It has since been used as offices.[149][150][151][152] II*
Exchange Chester, Cheshire c. 1820 Harrison made internal alterations. The exchange burnt down in 1862.[153]
Hoole Hall Chester, Cheshire
53°12′23″N 2°51′16″W / 53.2063°N 2.8545°W / 53.2063; -2.8545 (Hoole Hall, Chester)
c. 1820 Harrison designed a cast iron veranda and conservatory.[154] II
Chirk Castle Chirk, Wrexham, Wales
52°56′07″N 3°05′21″W / 52.9352°N 3.0893°W / 52.9352; -3.0893 (Chirk Castle)
ChirkCastle1.JPG c. 1820 Harrison made alterations to the east wing.[155][156][157] I
Hardwick Grange Hadnall, Shropshire
52°47′17″N 2°42′18″W / 52.7880°N 2.7049°W / 52.7880; -2.7049 (Hardwick Lodge, Hadnall)
1821 Alterations made for Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill, at a cost of £4,911 (equivalent to £380,000 in 2016).[30] It was later extended, but demolished in 1931. Harrison's entrance lodge survives and is listed at Grade II.[158][159][160] II
New Buildings, Magdalen College Oxford
51°45′11″N 1°14′45″W / 51.7530°N 1.2459°W / 51.7530; -1.2459 (New Buildings, Magdalen College, Oxford)
1821–24 Alterations to the buildings of 1733.[12][161] I
Tilstone Lodge Tilstone Fearnall, Cheshire
53°08′41″N 2°38′46″W / 53.1448°N 2.6461°W / 53.1448; -2.6461 (Tilstone Lodge)
1821–25 A country house built for Admiral John Richard Delap Halliday, (later Tollemache).[162][163][164][165] II
St Martin's Lodge Chester, Cheshire
53°11′31″N 2°53′26″W / 53.1919°N 2.8905°W / 53.1919; -2.8905 (St Martin's Lodge, Chester)
1822–23 A villa built by Harrison for his own use. It has since been used for various purposes, including as a parsonage, and as an administrative office for the police.[13][166][167] II
Admiralty Arch Holyhead, Anglesey, Wales
53°18′51″N 4°37′29″W / 53.3142°N 4.6247°W / 53.3142; -4.6247 (Memorial gateway, Holyhead)
Admirality arch Holyhead.jpg 1822–24 Built to commemorate the landing of George IV in 1821.[16] II*
The Citadel Hawkstone Park, Shropshire
52°51′09″N 2°38′18″W / 52.8525°N 2.6384°W / 52.8525; -2.6384 (The Citadel, Hawkstone Park)
The Citadel - geograph.org.uk - 1330404.jpg 1824–25 Built for Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill as a dower house. Later a hotel.[168][169][170] II*
Old Dee Bridge Chester, Cheshire
53°11′08″N 2°53′19″W / 53.1855°N 2.8887°W / 53.1855; -2.8887 (Old Dee Bridge, Chester)
Old Dee Bridge, Chester.jpg 1825–26 Medieval bridge widened by the addition of a footway on the east side, and new arches.[17][171][172] I
Grosvenor Bridge Chester, Cheshire
53°11′01″N 2°53′46″W / 53.1836°N 2.8961°W / 53.1836; -2.8961 (Grosvenor Bridge, Chester)
Grosvenor Bridge Chester4.JPG 1827–33 Harrison designed the bridge as an alternative crossing of the River Dee to the Old Dee Bridge. He resigned before it was finished, and its completion was supervised by his pupil William Cole. At the time it was built it was the largest structure of its type in the world.[3][18][19][20][21][22][48] Its span of 200 feet (61 m) is still the longest masonry arch in Britain.[34] I

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