List of transport megaprojects

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This is a list of transport megaprojects. Care should be taken in comparing the cost of projects from different times, even a few years apart due to inflation; comparing nominal costs without taking this into account can be highly misleading.

The size and scope of projects varies considerably; some projects are made up of a package of different infrastructure projects, while others may be single part of a larger network.

In order to limit the size and scope of this list, recent infrastructure that cost less than $1 billion is not listed; this is a common definition of a megaproject. However, historically significant projects may be listed. See also list of megaprojects.

Completed projects[edit]

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Start of construction Year of completion Image Notes
AVE - Spain's high-speed railway network High-speed railway Spain 44[1] 1992 2016 - continues expansion 40[1] billion euros
Baikal–Amur Mainline railway (Sovetskaya Gavan, Khabarovsk Krai) to (Tayshet Irkutsk Oblast), Russia 15[2] 1974 1984 Ayam-route-map.png
Baku–Tbilisi–Kars railway railway Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey 0.6[3] 2007 2017 Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway Map.svg
Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (2016) Road Bridge Seattle and Medina, Washington, United States 4.56[4] 2012 2016
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro) Subway line Los Angeles, United States 4.5[5] 1986 2000 Ansaldobreda A650.jpg
Colorado T-REX Project (TRansportation EXpansion) Highway & light rail upgrade Denver, Colorado 1.7[6] 2001 2006 Pd Denver trexmap.gif
Caracas-La Guaira highway Highway Greater Caracas, Venezuela 0.06[7][8] 1950 1953 Tunelífico... (3097155570).jpg
Copenhagen metro phase 1-3 metro system Copenhagen, Denmark 1.47[9] 1996 2007 DR Byen.jpg 11,400,000,000 DKK
Russky Bridge Road Bridge Vladivostok (Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula) and Russky Island, Russia 1.1[10] 2008 2012 Russki Island Bridge, Russia1.jpg
Jubilee Line Extension metro line London, United Kingdom 6.83 (2010USD)[11] 1993 1999 Westminster.tube.station.jubilee.arp.jpg 3.5 billion GBP
Saint Lawrence Seaway canal system St Lawrence River and North American Great Lakes 0.470[12] 1954 1959 Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway map 1959.png
First Transcontinental Railroad railroad Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California 0.1[13] 1863 1869 Golden Spike ceremony, Promontory, Utah, May 10, 1869.jpg $2.6bn today
Trans-Siberian Railway Railroad Moscow to Russian Far East(Vladivostok) 0.770[14] 1891 1916 Transsibirische Eisenbahn.png
Second Avenue Subway Subway Extension New York 4.5[15] 2007 2016/2017
Panama Canal canal Panama 0.375[16] 1881 1914 Panama Canal Map EN.png
Suez Canal canal Sinai Peninsula, Egypt 0.082[17] 1859 1869 USS America (CV-66) in the Suez canal 1981.jpg
Interstate Highway System network of limited-access roadways United States 114[18] 1956 1992[19][20] Map of current Interstates.svg 425 billion in 2006 dollars[21]
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project 17 bridges connecting the islands of Honshū and Shikoku Japan 48[22] 1999 Map of Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project.svg 4 trillion Yen
Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway High-speed rail Eastern China, PRC (Beijing to Shanghai, via Tianjin and Nanjing) 33.1[23] 2008 2011 Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Beijing–Shanghai Railway.jpg (RMB 220.9bn)
"Big Dig" Central Artery/Tunnel Project Road tunnel Boston, Massachusetts, United States 22[24] 1991 2007 Tunnel-large.jpg 14.6 billion USD
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway High-speed rail China 18.5[25] 2005 2009 GuangZhouNanStation.jpg (RMB 116.6bn)
Toei Ōedo Line Rapid Transit Tokyo, Japan 18.4[26] 2000 Toei-tsukishima-platform.jpg (¥1.400 billion)
Channel Tunnel Subsea railway tunnel Strait of Dover, English Channel 15.4[27] 1988 1994 Course Channeltunnel en.svg (GBP9.5bn)
Adler–Krasnaya Polyana road and railway Freeway and railway Russia 9.4[28] 2014
Milan–Bologna high-speed railway High-speed rail Italy 9.1 2008 Frecciarossa.JPG (€6.9 billion)
Egnatia Odos Freeway Northern Greece 8.4[29] 1994 2009 GR-A2 course.png (€5.9bn)
Ionia Odos Freeway Western Greece 1.8[30] 2007 2017 GR-A5 (northern section) course.png (€1.4bn)
High Speed 1 High-speed rail Southeast England, UK 8.4[31] 2007 KingsCrossDevelopmentModel.jpg (GBP5.2bn)
Bologna–Florence high-speed railway High-speed rail Italy 6.9 2009 (€5.2 billion)
Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Road bridge San Francisco, California 6.4 2002 2013 ProposedSFOBBEasternSpanRecrop.jpg
Øresund Bridge Rail/road bridge/tunnel Denmark-Sweden 5.7[32] 1995 1999 Oresund Bridge narrow.JPG (DKK30.1bn)
Crimean Bridge Rail/road bridge Russia (one end is recognized internationally as being owned by Ukraine, but is de facto controlled by Russia) 3.7[33] 2015 2018 (road bridge)
2019 (rail bridge)
Crimean Bridge 1.jpg
Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge Road bridge Kobe, Japan 5[34] 1988 1998 Akashi Bridge.JPG
Lötschberg Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Swiss Alps, Switzerland 4.6 1999 2007 (CHF 4.3 billion)
Marina Coastal Expressway Highway Singapore 3.4[35][36] 2008 2013[37] (S$4.3 bn)
Clem Jones Tunnel Road tunnel Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 3.4[38] 2006 2010 Brisbane ST 03.jpg (AUD3.2bn)
Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway High-speed rail Beijing, China[39] 3.2 2005 2008 Beijng-Tianjin ligne TGV viaduc IMG 4433.JPG (RMB 20.42bn)
Marmaray Tunnel Subsea railway tunnel Istanbul, Turkey 3 2004 2013 Marmaray Istanbul Project.png
Budapest Metro Line 4 Rapid Transit line Budapest, Hungary 2.1[40][41] 2004 2014 Budapest metro 4 construction 03.jpg (HUF 452bn)
Jiaozhou Bay Bridge bridge Shandong, China 1.5[42] 2007 2011 The Jiaozhou Bay Bridge.jpg
Freeway Durango-Mazatlán and Baluarte Bridge Freeway and road bridge Durango-Sinaloa, Mexico 1.46[43][44] 2008 2012 Puente Baluarte 03.jpg
Incheon Bridge bridge South Korea 1.4 2005 2009 Incheon bridge (12).jpg (KRW 1.25tn)
Shanghai Maglev Train Maglev Shanghai, China 1.33 2001 2004 Maglev june2005.jpg (RMB 10bn)
Vasco da Gama Bridge Road bridge Lisbon, Portugal 1.3[45] 1995 1998 Vasco da Gama Bridge aerial view.jpg (€897m / 180bn PTE)
Blanka tunnel complex Road tunnel Prague, Czech Republic 1.75[46] 2006 2015 DOD Bubenečský tunel 2014, směr Dejvický tunel.jpg
Gotthard Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Swiss Alps, Switzerland 10.6[47] 1996 2016 Gotthard Base Tunnel.jpg (CHF 9.74 billion)
World Trade Center Transportation Hub Transit center and retail New York City, New York, USA 3.9[48] 2006 2016
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge bridge Istanbul, Turkey 2[49] 2013 2016 Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Turkey) under construction on 6 October 2015.JPG (Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 4.5 billion)|
German Unification Transport Project (Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit) Transport project to achieve the German Unity Germany 42[50] 1991 2016 – continues expansion until 2020
Bay Area Rapid Transit Rapid transit system San Francisco Bay Area 1.586[51] 1964 1976 - continues expansion $9.279 billion adjusted for inflation

Under construction[edit]

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions of USD) Construction start year Projected year of completion Image Notes
Sha Tin to Central Link Railway Hong Kong, From Tai Wai, New Territories to Admiralty, Hong Kong Island 12 2012 2019-2021 (expected)
Shatin to Central Link proposal final.svg
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (under construction) Bridge–tunnel Hong Kong , Zhuhai and Macau 17 2009 2018 HZMB route.svg
Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway (under construction, phase 1 completed) Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Kano, Kano State in Nigeria 8.3[52] 2011 2018 (phase 2)
Lagos-Calabar Railway Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Calabar, Cross River 11.9[53] 2018 (expected) TBA
Abuja Light Rail (phase 1 nearing completion)[54] Light Rail, Commuter Rail Abuja, FCT, Nigeria 2.7[54][55] 2007 2018 (phase 1)[56]
Lagos Rail Mass Transit (phase 1 nearing completion) Rapid Transit, Commuter Rail Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria 3.6[57][58] 2009 2018 (blue line)
Badagry Deep Sea Port (under construction) seaport Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria 2.3[59] 2016 2018 (phase 1)[60]
Fourth Mainland Bridge Bridge Across the lagoon to connect Ikorodu and Lekki cities of Lagos State 4.2[61] 2018 (expected) TBA
Lekki Port (under construction) Seaport Lekki, Lagos State, Nigeria 1.6[62] 2015 2018 (phase 1)
Honolulu Rail Transit (under construction) Railway Oahu, Hawaii 10 2011 2022
New Tappan Zee Bridge (under construction) Bridge Replacement South Nyack to Tarrytown New York, USA 3.9 2013 2018 New Tappan Zee bridge 2016 Aug c jeh.jpg
California High-Speed Rail

(under construction)

High-speed railway California 64.2[63] 2015 2030
A topographic map of California with California High-Speed Rail
California High-Speed Rail route.svg
Locations of planned California High-Speed Rail route and stations. Phase I: blue; Phase II: gold. (The separate XpressWest system is shown in cyan.) Route is approximate in some places.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor

(under construction)

Economic corridor Gwadar, Pakistan to Kashgar, China 46 2015 2020 (expected) ChinaPakistanEconomicCorridor.png
Barcelona Metro line 9

(under construction)

Rapid transit line Barcelona, Spain 26.3[64][65] 2009 2020 (expected) L10 051.JPG (€19bn)
Santiago Metro Line 6

(Under Construction)

Rapid transit line Santiago, Chile 1.2 2011 2017
Michelle Bachelet visita instalaciones del Taller Cerrillos de nueva Línea 6 de Metro (30657937662).jpg
Santiago Metro Line 3 Rapid transit line Santiago, Chile 1.7 2012 2018
Metro de Santiago - Santiago Bueras 5.JPG
Santiago Metro Line 7 Rapid transit line Santiago, Chile 2.9 2017 2025 (expected)
Crossrail

(under construction)

Commuter railway South East England, United Kingdom 25.8[66] 2009 2018 (expected) Ada-panorama-2.jpg (GBP15.9bn)
Cross River Rail (under construction) Rapid transit Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4.3[67][68] 2017 2024[67] AUD $5.4 billion
Second Avenue Subway Phase 2

(under construction)

Rapid transit line New York City, New York, United States 6[69] TBA 2026 Phase 2 (expected) 96th Street Station (31000690483).jpg
Klang Valley MRT Line 1 (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 11.7[70] 2012 2017 (expected) (MYR36B)
Orange Line (Lahore Metro) (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Lahore, Pakistan 1.6 2015 2018 (expected)
Karachi-Lahore Motorway

(under construction)

Motorway Pakistan 11.5 2015 2018 (expected) Pakistani motorway.jpg
Thameslink Programme

(under construction)

Commuter rail upgrade Southeast England, UK 8.9-9.7[71] 2009 2018 (expected) (GBP5.5-6.0bn)
NHDP Highway upgrade India 71[72] 2000 2018
NH 47 between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu, India.
(INR 4.5 trillion).This project will be completed by early 2018 and will be supersized by Bharatmala project.
Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong Section

(under construction)

High-speed rail Guangdong, China—Hong Kong 10.1[73][74] 2010 2018 (expected) GZ-SZ-HK High Speed Railway HK Section alignment map.png
Highway Vespucio Oriente Road tunnel Santiago, Chile 1.1 2017 2022
Autopista Vespucio Oriente (plano).jpg
Highway Costanera Central Road tunnel Santiago, Chile 1.2 2017 2024
Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway (under construction) Railway Jerusalem, Israel 2 2001 2018
Tunnel Agua Negra Pass Road tunnel San Juan, Argentina, Coquimbo Region, Chile 1.5 2018 2025 (expected)
Proyecto tunel agua negra.jpg
WestConnex Road tunnel Sydney, Australia 11.3 ($15 billion AUD) 2015 Stage 1 & 2- 2019 (expected)

Stage 3- 2023 (expected)

WestConnex Logo.png
Fastracks Light Rail, Commuter Rail Denver, Colorado 6.5[75] 2006 2018 (expected)
City Rail Link Commuter Rail Auckland, New Zealand 2.4[76] 2015 2020-21

(expected)

(NZD$3.5bn)
Eglinton Crosstown Light rail Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5.230[77] 2010 2020-23 (expected)
Noord/Zuidlijn Rapid transit line Amsterdam, Netherlands 4.4[78] 2002 2017 (expected)
The beginning of the bored tunnels under the Damrak, 2011
(€3.1bn)
Bar-Boljare highway Highway Montenegro 3.7[79][80] 2015[81] 2019 Montenegro motorways.JPG (2.77 billion €)
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel Road Tunnel Seattle, Washington, United States 3.1[82] early 2018[83]
Grand Paris Express Automated rapid transit Paris, Ile de France, France 27 2014 from 2020 to 2030 Grand paris express.svg 4 new lines, 200 km, 72 new stations
Scarborough Subway Extension Rapid transit Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2.6 2018 (expected) 2023 (expected) CA$3.4 billion[84]
Ohio River Bridges Project Road bridges and interchange reconfiguration Louisville metropolitan area, Kentucky and Indiana, United States 2.3[85] 2014 2024 (expected)
Confederation Line (stages 1 and 2) Rapid transit Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 3.9 2013[86] 2018[87] (stage 1) 2023[88] (stage 2) Confederation Line train testing near St. Laurent station, January 2018.jpg $2.1 billion + $3.0 billion CA$)[89]
Tehran-Shomal Freeway, 121 km Freeway Tehran and Mazandaran Province, Iran 1.7[90] 2017 Tehran-Shomal.png (HUF 452bn)
Stuttgart 21 Railway & Urban Development Stuttgart, Germany 7.4 2010 2023 Map Stuttgart 21 outer.svg estimates up to 6.8 bn €
Birmingham Northern Beltline (I-422) Highway Birmingham, Alabama, United States 5.445 2014 2054 (expected)
Brenner Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Innsbruck, Austria to Franzensfeste, Italy 10.7 2008 2026 (€8.7 bn)
Koralm Tunnel Railway tunnel Styria / Carinthia, Austria 6.6 2009 2022→26 (€5.4 bn, est. 10+ bn[91])
Semmering Base Tunnel Railway tunnel Lower Austria / Styria, Austria 4.0 2012 2024 (€3.3 bn)
Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor High Speed Railway From Ahmedabad, Gujarat to Mumbai, Maharashtra 16 2019 2022
Bharatmala Highway building and upgradation All over India 100 2017 2022
Sagarmala Port Coastal areas of India 120 2017 2025

Airport projects[edit]

Airport Location IATA Code Passengers (total) Year completed Cost (in US Dollars)
Abu Dhabi International Airport Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates AUH 20,000,000 1982 6.8 billion
Adolfo Suarez Madrid-Barajas International Airport Terminals 4 and 4S Madrid, Spain MAD 47,000,000 2006 8.7 billion
Al Maktoum International Airport Jebel Ali, UAE DWC 2010 32 billion
Athens International Airport Athens, Greece ATH 16,225,885 2001 3 billion
Bandung Majalengka International Airport Majalengka Regency, West Java, Indonesia KJT 15 billion
Barcelona International Airport Barcelona, Spain BCN 29,209,595 4 billion
Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport Berlin, Germany BER 2020 (expected) 7.5 billion
Changi Airport Terminal 3 Singapore SIN 22,000,000 2008 1.4 billion[92]
Changi Airport Terminal 4 Singapore SIN 2017 1 billion[93]
Ciudad Real Central Airport Ciudad Real, Spain CQM Ceased operations in 2012 2009 1.41 billion
Clark International Airport Angeles City, Philippines CRK 10 billion
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport Santiago, Chile SCL 30,000,000 2021 1 billion
Denver International Airport Denver, Colorado, United States DEN 50,167,485 1995 4.8 billion
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou, China CAN 59,732,147 2004 3 billion
Hong Kong International Airport Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong HKG 70,502,000 1998 20 billion[94]
Incheon International Airport Incheon, South Korea ICN 28,677,161 2001 5 billion (Phase 1)

2.6 billion (Phase 2)

Istanbul New Airport Istanbul, Turkey N/A 150,000,000 (expected)[95] 2018 (expected) 29 billion[96]
Kansai International Airport Greater Osaka Area, Japan KIX 23,214,756 1994 20 billion
King Abdulaziz International Airport Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JED 18,000,000 1981 7.2 billion[97]
King Shaka International Airport Durban, South Africa DUR 7,500,000 2010 1 billion
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia KUL 52,643,511 1998 3.5 billion
Kuala Namu International Airport Medan, Indonesia KNO 2013 4.4 billion[98]
Long Thanh International Airport Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam N/A 2020 (expected) 10 billion
Montreal Mirabel International Airport Montreal, Canada YMX 1975
Navi Mumbai International Airport Mumbai, India N/A 2019 (expected) 2 billion
New Chennai International Airport Chennai, India N/A 1 billion
New Gwadar International Airport Gwadar, Pakistan N/A 1 billion
Newark Liberty International Airport Terminal C Newark, New Jersey, United States EWR 33,399,207 2003 1.2 billion
New Islamabad International Airport Islamabad, Pakistan IBD 2018 3.91 billion
New Lisbon Airport Lisbon, Portugal N/A 2022 (expected) 4.5 billion
New Mexico City International Airport Mexico City, Mexico MEX 120,000,000 (expected) 2020 (expected) Phase I 13 billion
Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok, Thailand BKK 55,892,428 2006 3.8 billion

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