List of world map changes

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Map of the world

Below is a chronological list of political or geological events, which would alter the appearance of a world map. Changes usually include (but are not limited to) the alteration of borders, the creation and fall of states, changes of geographical names, as well as some unusually destructive natural disasters. Through the knowledge of such dates and events, the approximate year and age of a world map could be calculated and estimated.

Not all maps of the world of an age or period will be the same throughout the globe; as different mapmakers (or their employers) may have different views on the sovereignty and/or territorial integrity of the countries of the world and/or possess different levels of technological and/or geographical insight, the maps created by them might differ significantly.

Contents

21st century[edit]

2010s[edit]

2016[edit]

  • April 9 — The governments of Egypt and Saudi Arabia formally agree on their maritime boundary, ceding control of Sanafir and Tiran islands to Saudi Arabia.[1]

2015[edit]

2014[edit]

2013[edit]

2012[edit]

2011[edit]

2010[edit]

The former Netherlands Antilles Islands

2000s[edit]

2009[edit]

2008[edit]

Recognized by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru.
Map of states that have recognized Kosovo independence
  Kosovo
  States that formally recognize Kosovo as independent
  States that do not recognize Kosovo as independent.

2007[edit]

2006[edit]

2005[edit]

2004[edit]

2003[edit]

Serbia and Montenegro map

2002[edit]

East Timor declares independence from Indonesia

2001[edit]

2000[edit]

20th century[edit]

1990s[edit]

1999[edit]

1998[edit]

1997[edit]

1996[edit]

1995[edit]

1994[edit]

1993[edit]

1992[edit]

1991[edit]

1990[edit]

1980s[edit]

1989[edit]

1988[edit]

1987[edit]

1986[edit]

1985[edit]

1984[edit]

1983[edit]

1982[edit]

1981[edit]

1980[edit]

1970s[edit]

1979[edit]

1978[edit]

1977[edit]

1976[edit]

1975[edit]

1974[edit]

1973[edit]

1972[edit]

1971[edit]

1970[edit]

1960s[edit]

1969[edit]

1968[edit]

1967[edit]

1966[edit]

1965[edit]

1964[edit]

1963[edit]

1962[edit]

1961[edit]

1960[edit]

1950s[edit]

1959[edit]

1958[edit]

1957[edit]

1956[edit]

1955[edit]

1954[edit]

1953[edit]

1952[edit]

1951[edit]

1950[edit]

1940s[edit]

1949[edit]

1948[edit]

1947[edit]

1946[edit]

1945[edit]

World map of colonisation in 1945.

1944[edit]

1943[edit]

1942[edit]

The Axis-controlled territory in Europe at the time of its maximal expansion (1941–42).

1941[edit]

1940[edit]

1930s[edit]

1939[edit]

1938[edit]

1937[edit]

1936[edit]

1935[edit]

1934[edit]

1933[edit]

1932[edit]

1931[edit]

1920s[edit]

Map of Europe from the 1920s

1929[edit]

1928[edit]

1927[edit]

1926[edit]

1925[edit]

  • December 6 - Britain adjusts the Egyptian border in favor of Italian Libya, giving it the Jarabub and Kufra oases.
  • June 29 - Britain transfers control of northern Jubaland to Italy, becoming the Italian colony of Oltre Giuba.
  • January 1 — In Norway, the capital Kristiania is renamed Oslo.

1923[edit]

1922[edit]

1921[edit]

  • October 13 — Treaty of Kars:
    • Turkey relinquishes claims to Armenia
    • Turkey gains the area around Kars and southern Achara
  • October 13 — Niger established as a separate colony
  • October 12 — Upper Silesia divided between Poland and Germany
  • September 18 - Short-lived and unrecognized Rif Republic declared in Spanish Morocco.
  • August 14 - Tuvan People's Republic established as a Soviet satellite state.
  • June 1 — France reorganizes French West Africa, colony of Mauritania established
  • March 18 — Peace of Riga - new borders between Poland and Soviet Russia, Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Belarus defined.

1920[edit]

1910s[edit]

1919[edit]

Territory ceded by Bulgaria in the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
  • November 27 — Bulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine:
    • Western Thrace is ceded to the Entente
    • The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is recognized and a small amount of land along the western border is ceded to it
    • Dobruja is returned to Romania
  • September 25 — Spitsbergen awarded to Norway
New borders of the states formed by the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
  • September 12 - Bonin-Pichon agreement transfers two desert strips from French control to Italian Libya.
  • September 10 — Austria signs Treaty of Saint Germain:
  • August 11 – Germany adopts the Weimar Constitution, establishing the Weimar Republic (retaining the name Deutsches Reich)
  • August 8 — The United Kingdom acknowledges the complete independence of Afghanistan
  • July 10 — France and the United Kingdom agree on frontier between their mandates in the Cameroons
German losses as a result of the treaty of Versailles.
Poland and the Baltic states after the Treaty of Versailles.

1918[edit]

1917[edit]

1916[edit]

  • November 15 — Germany and Austria-Hungary create a puppet Kingdom of Poland from the territory of Congress Poland taken from the Russian Empire

1914[edit]

  • April 17 - Tannu Uriankhai is officially made a protectorate of Russia.

1913[edit]

1912[edit]

1911[edit]

1910[edit]

1900s[edit]

1909[edit]

  • April — the 1878 Treaty of Berlin is amended, recognizing Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • March 10 - Siam (Thailand) transfers its southernmost provinces to British Malaya in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

1908[edit]

1907[edit]

1905[edit]

1904[edit]

1903[edit]

1902[edit]

1901[edit]

19th century[edit]

1890s[edit]

1898[edit]

1880s[edit]

1888[edit]

1886[edit]

1884[edit]

1883[edit]

1881[edit]

1870s[edit]

1878[edit]

The Principality of Bulgaria according to the terms of the Treaties of San Stefano (black outline) and Berlin (green). Eastern Rumelia is shown in red.

1876[edit]

1875[edit]

1873[edit]

1872[edit]

1871[edit]

1870[edit]

1860s[edit]

1868[edit]

  • In Japan, the city of Edo becomes the new capital and is renamed Tokyo

1867[edit]

  • October 18 — The United States of America purchases Alaska from Russia
  • July 1 — Canada becomes independent, with originally only four provinces
  • May 29 — The Austrian Empire becomes Austria-Hungary

1866[edit]

1865[edit]

1864[edit]

1863[edit]

1862[edit]

  • April 12 — The British colony of Queensland's western border is shifted from 141°E to 138°E

1861[edit]

1860[edit]

1850s[edit]

1859[edit]

1858[edit]

1856[edit]

1855[edit]

1853[edit]

1852[edit]

1851[edit]

1840s[edit]

1849[edit]

1848[edit]

1847[edit]

1846[edit]

1844[edit]

1840[edit]

1830s[edit]

1839[edit]

1838[edit]

1836[edit]

1833[edit]

1832[edit]

1831[edit]

1830[edit]

1820s[edit]

1829[edit]

1828[edit]

1827[edit]

1826[edit]

  • The Argentine Republic is proclaimed

1825[edit]

1824[edit]

1823[edit]

1822[edit]

1821[edit]

  • November 28 Independence Panama from Spain

September 28 — The First Mexican Empire is established

1820[edit]

1810s[edit]

Retreat of European colonialism and change of political borders in South America, 1700–prese

1819[edit]

1818[edit]

1817[edit]

1816[edit]

1815[edit]

1814[edit]

1813[edit]

1812[edit]

1811[edit]

1810[edit]

1800s[edit]

1809[edit]

1808[edit]

1807[edit]

1806[edit]

1805[edit]

1804[edit]

1803[edit]

1802[edit]

  • Napoleon separates the Canton of Valais from the Helvetic Republic to form the Rhodanic Republic

1801[edit]

1800[edit]

Animated image depicting U.S. territorial growth

18th century[edit]

1790s[edit]

1799[edit]

1798[edit]

1797[edit]

1795[edit]

1793[edit]

1792[edit]

1791[edit]

  • March 4 — Vermont is admitted to the United States of America

1780s[edit]

1788[edit]

1784[edit]

1783[edit]

1770s[edit]

1776[edit]

1772[edit]

1760s[edit]

1768[edit]

1763[edit]

1762[edit]

1750s[edit]

1758[edit]

1752[edit]

1751[edit]

  • September 21 — Through the Treaty of Strömstad, the border between Sweden and Norway is finally settled, from the beginning of the land border in Iddefjord until Norway's border on Russia at Varanger (since Finland was part of Sweden at this time, the border between the two countries continued beyond the present end point of the border between Norway and Sweden).

1740s[edit]

1747[edit]

1740[edit]

1730s[edit]

1739[edit]

1720s[edit]

1729[edit]

1728[edit]

1721[edit]

1720[edit]

  • January 21 — Sweden cedes the portion of Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene and east of the Peenestrom to Prussia

1710s[edit]

1719[edit]

1718[edit]

1715[edit]

1714[edit]

1713[edit]

  • Gibraltar passes from Spain to Great Britain

1711[edit]

1700s[edit]

1707[edit]

17th century[edit]

1700[edit]

1690s[edit]

1699[edit]

1680s[edit]

1685[edit]

1682[edit]

1681[edit]

1660s[edit]

1664[edit]

1663[edit]

1662[edit]

1661[edit]

1660[edit]

1650s[edit]

1658[edit]

1653[edit]

  • May 4 — The precise borders between Swedish Pomerania and Farther Pomerania (Brandenburg-Prussia) are determined in the Treaty of Stettin

1640s[edit]

1648[edit]

1645[edit]

1640[edit]

1630s[edit]

1638[edit]

1634[edit]

1620s[edit]

1626[edit]

1623[edit]

1620[edit]

1610s[edit]

1617[edit]

1610[edit]

1600s[edit]

1607[edit]

1601[edit]

16th century[edit]

1598[edit]

  • Kuchum, Khan of Sibir is killed in battle with Russian forces, thus completing the Russian conquest of Siberia.

1596[edit]

1591[edit]

1584[edit]

1580[edit]

1575[edit]

Historical map of the world by Ortelius, 1570 CE

1570[edit]

1569[edit]

1563[edit]

1562[edit]

1561[edit]

1559[edit]

1558[edit]

1532[edit]

1530[edit]

1526[edit]

1522[edit]

1519-1521[edit]

1513[edit]

1513[edit]

1504[edit]

1501[edit]

15th century[edit]

1500[edit]

1499-1501[edit]

1498[edit]

1494[edit]

1492[edit]

1488[edit]

1482[edit]

1481[edit]

1478[edit]

1472[edit]

1469[edit]

1453[edit]

  • May 29 — The Byzantine capital of Constantinople falls after an invasion by the Ottoman Empire, ending the Byzantine Empire

1432[edit]

14th century[edit]

1384[edit]

1366[edit]

1358[edit]

1349[edit]

1347[edit]

1346[edit]

1341[edit]

1326[edit]

1323[edit]

  • August 12 - The treaty of Nöteborg is signed between Sweden and Novgorod, resulting in the first true border regelation in Swedish Finland.

1316[edit]

1305[edit]

1301[edit]

13th century[edit]

1299[edit]

1293[edit]

  • March 10 - Sweden conquers the southeastern parts of Finland.

1279[edit]

1278[edit]

1276[edit]

  • Kingdom of Majorca is split from the Crown of Aragon, which are inherited by different sons of James I of Aragon

1266[edit]

1260[edit]

1258[edit]

1245[edit]

1238[edit]

1237[edit]

1236[edit]

  • Mongols invade Northern Korea

1235[edit]

  • Aragon conquers Ibiza, which becomes part of the Kingdom of Majorca

1231[edit]

1235[edit]

1228[edit]

1227[edit]

1224[edit]

1223[edit]

  • Mongols defeat East Slavic warriors

1219[edit]

1218[edit]

1217[edit]

1216[edit]

1215[edit]

1210[edit]

12th century[edit]

1197[edit]

1190[edit]

1170[edit]

1162[edit]

1156[edit]

  • King Erik den helige of Sweden leads the first crusade to Finland and incorporates it with Sweden.

1154[edit]

1139[edit]

1130[edit]

  • December 25 — The Norman Kingdom of Sicily is established; the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria is disestablished

11th century[edit]

1092[edit]

  • William Rufus, son of William the Conqueror, invades Cumberland (then part of Scotland) and incorporates it into England.

1091[edit]

  • Noto, Sicily is conquered by the County of Sicily, ending the Muslim Emirate of Sicily

1088[edit]

1076[edit]

  • Muslim Almoravids conquer Ghana
  • The kingdoms of Pamplona and Aragon are reunited (in a personal union) under Sancho Ramírez, who styled himself "King of the Aragonians and Pamplonese". The two kingdoms are now de jure separate entities

1075[edit]

  • Muslims conquer Syria

1071[edit]

1066[edit]

1065[edit]

1061[edit]

1059[edit]

1043[edit]

1042[edit]

  • The Norman County of Apulia and Calabria is established

1018-1054[edit]

1035[edit]

  • The territory that would come to be the Kingdom of Aragon is united under Ramiro I of Aragon

1032[edit]

1030[edit]

1018[edit]

  • English (Northumbrian) land north of the Tweed is ceded to Scotland

10th century[edit]

1000[edit]

  • December — King Stephen I of Hungary is crowned and begins the transformation of the early Hungarian state into the Christian Kingdom of Hungary. This is considered to be the official date of foundation of the country.
  • Gunnbjörn Ulfsson spots islands off the coast of Greenland. European discovery of the island itself is dated to the 980s, when explorers arrived from Iceland and Norway.
  • Leif Ericson discovers Newfoundland and establishes a short-lived colony at L'Anse aux Meadows.

975[edit]

ca. 965[edit]

  • The Byzantine Empire establishes the theme of Lucania.
  • The Byzantine Empire establishes the Catepanate of Italy.
  • The Kalbids take the last remaining Byzantine territory in Sicily.

962[edit]

961[edit]

959[edit]

954[edit]

948[edit]

942[edit]

941[edit]

927[edit]

922[edit]

  • The County of Aragon falls under the control of the Kingdom of Pamplona

920[edit]

918[edit]

916/17[edit]

910[edit]

  • December 10 — The Kingdom of Asturias moves its capital to León and becomes the Kingdom of León

909[edit]

902[edit]

  • The Byzantine city of Taormina, Sicily falls to the Emirate of Ifriqiya

9th century[edit]

891[edit]

880s[edit]

  • Byzantine control in southern Italy is extended over most of Apulia and Calabria.

880[edit]

Frankish kingdoms in 888
  • The Kings of West Francia cede their portion of Lotharingia to East Francia by the Treaty of Ribemont.

878[edit]

876[edit]

  • The Byzantine Empire re-conquers Bari.

873[edit]

  • The Byzantine Empire re-conquers Otranto from the Saracens.

872[edit]

870[edit]

  • As a result of the Treaty of Meerssen, Lotharingia is divided between East and West Francia, and Provence is divided between East Francia, West Francia and the Kingdom of Italy.

860[edit]

858[edit]

855[edit]

851[edit]

843[edit]

Partitions of Francia by the Treaty of Verdun

831[edit]

825[edit]

824[edit]

820[edit]

  • The title Count of Aragon is usurped and Aragon ceases to be a vassal of the Franks

814[edit]

  • Cornwall loses its independence to Wessex, possibly becoming a sub-kingdom

804[edit]

8th century[edit]

795[edit]

788[edit]

787[edit]

  • Benevento submits to Frankish overlordship but retain effective autonomy

785[edit]

774[edit]

769[edit]

768—769[edit]

759[edit]

754[edit]

751[edit]

744[edit]

734[edit]

  • Franks annexed the Frisian lands between the Vlie and the Lauwers

718[edit]

717[edit]

711[edit]

7th century[edit]

690[edit]

  • Muslims conquer North Africa[34]

681[edit]

680[edit]

634[edit]

628[edit]

  • Hwicce becomes a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia.

6th century[edit]

553[edit]

  • The Ostrogothic Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantine Empire

534[edit]

5th century[edit]

493[edit]

490[edit]

  • Odoacer is defeated at the river Adda by the Goths and flees

486[edit]

480[edit]

476[edit]

469[edit]

457-461[edit]

  • Western Roman Emperor Majorian makes a concerted effort to try to restore the Empire, and reconquers most of Hispania and southern Gaul

451-453[edit]

  • Huns attack the Western Roman Empire

435[edit]

  • The Vandals establish a kingdom in North Africa

429[edit]

  • Vandals enter Africa

426[edit]

  • Alans leave Hispania

418[edit]

411[edit]

405[edit]

402[edit]

4th century[edit]

395[edit]

  • Roman Empire splits into eastern and western portions

370[edit]

358[edit]

  • Franks allowed to settle in Toxandria (present-day Belgium)

330[edit]

301[edit]

3rd century[edit]

274[edit]

  • The Gallic Empire is disestablished

273[edit]

  • The Palmyrene Empire is disestablished

271[edit]

  • Roman Dacia is abandoned

269[edit]

  • Roman Emperor Claudius II recovers Hispania from the Gallic Empire

260[edit]

240[edit]

1st century CE[edit]

World in year 1.

71-84[edit]

43–47[edit]

  • The Romans found Londinium, a town that will with time become modern London

5[edit]

1st millennium BCE[edit]

1st century BCE[edit]

30[edit]

  • Egypt becomes a Roman province

58-50[edit]

  • Romans conquer Gaul

63[edit]

111[edit]

  • By this date, Emperor Wu of Han had conquered much of what is today Southern China and Northern Vietnam from the Yue

133[edit]

135[edit]

  • Western half of Minyue conquered by China

146[edit]

148[edit]

  • Mithridates I of Parthia conquers Ectebana

168[edit]

  • Romans dissolve the Kingdom of Macedon after the Battle of Pydna.

180[edit]

187[edit]

197[edit]

  • Seleucids take control of Coele Syria and Judea from Ptolemaic Egypt
  • Romans force Philip of Macedon to abandon Greece in the Peace of Flamininus, while allowing him to maintain Macedon itself.

209[edit]

  • The Romans conquer Cartagena from the Carthaginians, bringing Carthaginian Spain under Roman control

211[edit]

221[edit]

  • Qin Dynasty unifies China

230[edit]

  • Han state conquered by Qin

238[edit]

241[edit]

  • Sicily becomes first Roman province

266[edit]

  • Ashoka unifies most of South Asia

281[edit]

291[edit]

294[edit]

301[edit]

306[edit]

309[edit]

316[edit]

321[edit]

323[edit]

329[edit]

332[edit]

338[edit]

348[edit]

375[edit]

387[edit]

404[edit]

  • Darius II of Persia, loses control over Egypt and Thrace
  • Athens surrenders to Sparta and her allies, resulting in the dismemberment of the Delian League and a temporary Spartan hegemony

405[edit]

406[edit]

  • Akragas in Sicily is abandoned by the Greeks and sacked by Carthage

409[edit]

479[edit]

525[edit]

535[edit]

539[edit]

546[edit]

550[edit]

586[edit]

  • Traditional date for the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah at the hands of the Babylonians.

605[edit]

609[edit]

  • Harran, the new capital of Assyria, is destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians

612[edit]

  • Nineveh falls to a coalition of the Medes and Babylonians

650[edit]

653[edit]

657[edit]

671[edit]

695[edit]

705[edit]

  • The capital of Assyria moves from Dur-Sharrukin to Nineveh.

706[edit]

713[edit]

  • The Neo-Hittite states of Tabal and Hilakku fall to the Assyrians

717[edit]

  • The Neo-Hittite state of Carchemish falls to the Assyrians

720[edit]

  • Traditional date for the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel at the hands of the Assyrians

732[edit]

  • The Assyrians conquer Damascus, ending the kingdom of Aram-Damascus.

733-734[edit]

745[edit]

753[edit]

  • April 21 — The foundation of the city of Rome. The precise date is based on legend, but archaeological evidence suggests Rome did grow to city size from an earlier village in the 8th century BCE.

879[edit]

931[edit]

  • The kingdoms of Israel splits into the kingdom of Israel in Samaria and the Kingdom Judah in the south.

2nd millennium BCE[edit]

1077[edit]

1550[edit]

1650[edit]

1940[edit]

  • The Third Dynasty of Ur falls after an Elamite invasion

3rd millennium BCE[edit]

2055[edit]

2181[edit]

2193[edit]

  • The Akkadian Empire collapses after an invasion by the Gutians

2271[edit]

2686[edit]

4th millennium BCE[edit]

c. 3150[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://egyptianstreets.com/2016/04/09/egypt-declares-islands-of-sanafir-and-tiran-as-saudi-arabian-territory/
  2. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/16/costa-rica-nicaragua-border-dispute-icj-international-court-of-justice
  3. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/12/gambia-now-an-islamic-republic-says-president-yahya-jammeh
  4. ^ "India and Bangladesh sign historic territory swap deal". BBC News. 
  5. ^ Matt Smith and Alla Eshchenko, CNN (18 March 2014). "Ukraine cries 'robbery' as Russia annexes Crimea". CNN. 
  6. ^ Marie-Louise Gumuchian (March 17, 2014). "Crimea votes to break from Ukraine, join Russia. What happens next?". CNN. Retrieved March 17, 2014. On Monday, lawmakers in Crimea approved a resolution that declared the Black Sea peninsula an independent, sovereign state. They then filed an appeal to join the Russian Federation. 
  7. ^ "Crimea votes to join Russian Federation: 96.77% say YES". RT. Crimea was declared an independent sovereign state, the Republic of Crimea, on Monday, the autonomous Ukrainian regional parliament's website stated. The Supreme Council of Crimea unanimously voted to integrate of the region into Russia. 
  8. ^ "Putin signs order to recognize Crimea as a sovereign independent state". RT. March 17, 2014. 
  9. ^ Judgment of the ICJ about the maritime dispute between Peru and Chile
  10. ^ World News (30 July 2015). "UN upgrades Palestinian status, bolstering statehood claim". NBC News. 
  11. ^ Judgment of the ICJ about the maritime dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia
  12. ^ "Tuaregs claim 'independence' from Mali". aljazeera.com. 
  13. ^ Elizabeth Flock (3 January 2012). "Hungary loses ‘Republic’ in name, and protests fill capital". Washington Post. 
  14. ^ Abbas, Mohammed & Blair, Edmund (28 February 2011). "Anti-Gaddafi Figures Say Form National Council". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "China's area increases by 1000 km2.". Times of India. 12 January 2011. 
  16. ^ Percival, Jenny. "Underwater Volcano Creates New Island Off Tonga." The Guardian. 21 March 2009.
  17. ^ The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia
  18. ^ UN in Action: Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary
  19. ^ Pierre Tristam. "Text of Palestinian Declaration of Independence (1988) - Full Text of Palestinian Declaration of Independence, or Algiers Declaration of 1988". About.com News & Issues. 
  20. ^ Recognized by Gabon, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia
  21. ^ "The Avalon Project : UN General Assembly Resolution 181". yale.edu. 
  22. ^ Schofield, Victoria (2000-01-01). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860648984. 
  23. ^ Evans, Alistair. "What Caused the Scramble for Africa". About Education. About.com. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  24. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 15, page 93 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-11. 
  25. ^ Chohan, Amar Singh (1997-01-01). Gilgit Agency 1877-1935Second Reprint. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 9788171561469. 
  26. ^ Schofield, Victoria (2000-01-01). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860648984. 
  27. ^ Loveleena Rajeev. "History of the 13 Colonies". Buzzle. 
  28. ^ Beck, Roger et al.(2008). World History: Patterns of Interaction. p. 513
  29. ^ Beck, Roger et al.(2008). World History: Patterns of Interaction. p. 555
  30. ^ "Document: The Purchase of Manhattan Island, 1626 - Dutch New York". Dutch New York. 
  31. ^ Beck, Roger et al.(2008). World History: Patterns of Interaction. p. 417
  32. ^ Christopher Columbus Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 June 2010.
  33. ^ Atlas of World History. Harper Collins. 2001. p. 106
  34. ^ "Chronology of Byzantine Empire (330-1453 A.D.)". thelatinlibrary.com. 
  35. ^ N.S. Gill. "Roman Empire Dominate Timeline". About.com Education.