List of zamindari estates in Madras Presidency

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Zamindaris were established in the Madras Presidency by the government of the British East India Company starting from 1799 onwards. These settlements were established in order to delineate authority to landlords and thereby relieve the ryot from the control of middlemen who often exploited them. Often, these zamindars were Indian Native princes who lost their sovereignty due to British expansion. The zamindari settlement was based on a similar settlement established in Bengal. The Zamindari settlement of Madras was largely unsuccessful and was wrapped up in 1852. However, a few Zamindaris remained till India's independence in 1947.

Land proprietorship in Madras Presidency[edit]

The colonial Madras Presidency comprised an area of 148,796 square miles (385,380 km2), of which 141,705 square miles (367,010 km2) were under direct British rule, while the rest was distributed amongst the princely states. In the areas administered by the British, three systems of land proprietorship existed: zamindaris, inams and ryotwaris.

In 1911, zamindari estates covered 26 million acres (110,000 km2) and occupied over one-fourth of the total area of the presidency.[1] In 1945-46, there were 20,945,456 acres (84,763.25 km2) of Zamindari estates which yielded a revenue of 97,83,167 Rupees and 58,904,798 acres (238,379.26 km2) of ryotwari lands which yielded a revenue of Rs. 7,26,65,330.[2]

Zamindaris from 1799 to 1852[edit]

The zamindari system was introduced in the Madras Presidency in 1799 in the aftermath of the defeat of the Polygars in the Polygar Wars.

Zamindaris in 1877-1920[edit]

In 1877, C. D.Maclean made a survey of the existing zamindaris under the jurisdiction of Madras Presidency. As per this survey, a few of these zamindaris were larger than some of the smaller princely states in the Presidency. The largest of these were Vizianagaram which is 12,000 sq miles, Ramnad, Ganapur and Sivaganga, Ramnad and Sivaganga being demoted princely states, were larger in size than the princely states of Cochin or Pudukkottai. Ramnad, the larger of the two, covered an area of 2,351 square miles (6,090 km2), and was second only to Travancore amongst princely states in Madras Presidency. Karvatinuggur, Kalahasti, Nuzvid, Poonganur, Paralekhemidi and Podile and Darsi divisions of Venkatagiri were larger in size than the princely state of Banganapalle while Virasanapettah, Arni and Kanguni were larger than Sandur.

List of zamindaris in Madras Presidency in the year 1877
Zamindari Area
(in square miles)
Population in 1877 Revenue paid to the Madras government in 1877
(in rupees)
Chengalpattu district
Kayapakkam 2 670
Ganjam district
Akkayavalasa 1 788 278
Asika 3.56 7,712 4,857
Athgarh 149.37 77,228 60,000
Baruva 10.25 8,454 7,800
Beddam 1.75 217 89
Belamarapalavalasa 2.33 855
Beridi 14.75 10,960 4,500
Budharsinghi 4.25 3,244 500
Chackipalli 0.75 1,018 869
Chikiti 64.5 40,789 34,000
Chinnakemidi 55.31 29,849 20,000
Chinnatangam 7.43 395 424
Chittivalasa 1 5,698 2,074
Danta 4.06 3,220 3,309
Dharakot 50.25 31,262 25,000
Davabhumi 4 3,539 5,188
Gopalpur 1,171 5,165 3,699
Jalantar 25.5 18,450 7,000
Jarada 9 5,813 1,002
Jarangi 2.75 2,336 1,002
Jonnupada 0.31 138 93
Khallikot 84 42,589 19,000
Karakavalasa 9.06 7,795 4,048
Konsalacuttur 0.33 574 393
Kurla 3.75 5,457 5,455
Lusaram 0.75 320 332
Malgam 1.56 916 572
Mandasa 35.75 34,508 14,000
Mungatavalasa 5.75 3,695 4,048
Palur 16.31 4,173 553
Paralekhemedi 451.5 252,391 82,139
Peddakemidi 78.43 40,810 23,500
Peddatangam 0.31 564 424
Rajapur 0.18 266 76
Santalaksimipur 7.06 485 1,192
Seddibeharakuttur 0.25 109 103
Seerghar 20.75 9,595 5,500
Srikurmana
(part of Vizianagaram)
17.75 16,927 Included in Vizianagaram
Surada 46 15,324 4,000
Surangi 14.75 12,919 3,500
Talasamudram 1.37 923 2,383
Takkali Estates 61.56 58,054 49,088
Tallavalasa 0.37 387 424
Tarla 28.75 24,639 4,000
Tarlepatta 0.75 388 256
Tilaru 15.75 6,180 3,654
Towdam 2.5 1,030 686
Urlam 14.5 11,061 13,582
Yellamanchilli 1 643 654
Godavary district
Bhadrachalam and Rakapalli 505 27,695 21,090
Cocanada and Coringa 168 91,860 -
Markundapadu 150 5,500 15,000
Pittapore 188 79,606 3,41,627[3]
Polavaram 292 58,274[4] 43,210[5]
Kolanka

Tuni</ref>

Tuni 376 50,201
Kistna district
Nuzvid 561 107,465 1,08,221
Virsanapettah 257 55,662 20,829
Madura district
Ammayanayakkanur 100
Ramnad 2,351 504,131 3,38,686
Sivaganga 1,557 434,253 2,88,317
Nellore district
Darsi division 488 73,139 Revenue included under Venkatagiri
Podile division 405 62,934 Revenue included under Venkatagiri
North Arcot district
Arni Jagir(e) 170 77,679 5,933
Kalahasti 602 135,104 1,76,816
Kangundi 179 52,047 22,959
Karvattinuggur 634 289,894 1,80,495
Poonganur 524 109,282 66,859
Venkatagiri
South Arcot district
Iruvelpattu 8 400
Keezhthaniyalampattu 10 550
Tanjore district
Kabisthalam
Kunniyur > 24
Poondi > 24
Ukkadai > 24
Vadapadimangalam > 24
Tirunelveli district
Alagapuri 5.2 2,452
Avudyapuram 13.36 6,960
Ettaiyapuram 527.47 140,108
Kollapatti 20.4 7,530
Jennalkudi 11.34 3,532
Kadambur 25.8 7,590
Kollakondan 1.35 9,021
Kulattur 15.27 4,903
Mannarkottai 21.16 13,900
Maniachi 15 3,190
Melmandai 34.1 4,460
Pavali 11.48 4,034
Setthur 91.44 11,916
Singampatti 110.38 16,295
Sivagiri 122.38 49,531
Surandei 1.34 2,580
Talavankottai 6.14 3,117
Uurkad 3.32 3,903
Uuttumalai 124.49 31,541
Vizagapatam district
Anakapalli 597 143,549 -
Bimlipatam 243 113,079 -
Bobbili 333 140,739 -
Chepudipalli 615 162,827 -
Gajapatinagarum 276 121,758 -
Gunupur 2,000 63,127 -
Golaconda 874 26,720 1,02,374
Hill tracts of Golconda and Viravalli 500 15,880 -
Kotpad N. A. 132,655 N. A.
Kurupam 800 80,034 2,50,000
Malkangiri N. A. 12,801 N. A.
Nowrangpur N. A. 87,363 N. A.
Parvatipur 402 123,830 -
Rayagada 1,000 59,780 -
Salur 222 77,006 -
Vavilavalasa and Siripuram 440.30 33,006 -
Sarvasiddi 960 129,185 1,90,595
Serungavarapukota 318 130,362 -
Viravalli 688 166,184 -
Vizagapatam 216 90,467 -
Vizianagaram 12,000 149,920 -
Source:MaClean, C. D. (1877). Standing Information regarding the Official Administration of Madras Presidency. Government of Madras. pp. 419–434. 

Other zamindaris[edit]

This is a list of other zamindaris which were either not included in MaClean's list or were non-existent at the time of the enumeration.

Zamindari District
Ammayanayakannur[6]
Anegundi[7]
Bodinaickanur[8]
Chikiti[9]
Chinna Merangi[10]
Panyam estate[11]
Dharakote[12]
Ramakrishnarajuvari Peta

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Statesman, Pg 154
  3. ^ The rent for Pittapoor also included the rent for Cocanada and Coringa
  4. ^ [https://books.google.co.in/books?id=wooZAAAAYAAJ mperial Gazetteer of India,James Sutherland Cotton, Sir Richard Burn, Sir William Stevenson Meyer Clarendon Press, 1908 - Great Britain]
  5. ^ A Century of Politics in Andhra Pradesh: Ethnicity & Regionalism in Indian State. Rationalist Voice Publications. 2002. 
  6. ^ "Indian princely states starting with A". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  7. ^ "Anegundi Zamindari". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  8. ^ "Indian princely states sarting with B". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  9. ^ "Chikiti Zamindari". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  10. ^ "Indian princely states sarting with C". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  11. ^ "Indian princely states starting with P". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Dharakote Zamindari". Indian princely states website. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 

Further reading[edit]