Cinema of India
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|No. of screens||6,000 single screens (2016)
2,100 multiplex screens (2016)
|• Per capita||6 per million (2016)|
|Produced feature films (2014)|
|Number of admissions (2013)|
|Gross box office|
|Total||₹15,500 crore (US$2.4 billion) (2016)|
|National films||India: US$2.1 billion (2015)|
|South Asian cinema|
The cinema of India consists of films produced across India. Cinema as a medium has immense popularity in the country and as many as 1,600 films in various languages of India are produced annually. Indian films have also wide following throughout the rest of South Asia and it is even available in mainstream cinemas in parts of the Greater Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Africa and elsewhere. Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the "father of Indian cinema". The Dadasaheb Phalke Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour, by the Government of India in 1969, and is the most prestigious and coveted award in Indian cinema.
In the 20th century, Indian cinema, along with the Hollywood and Chinese film industries, became a global enterprise. As of 2013, in terms of annual film output, India ranks first, followed by Nollywood, Hollywood and China. In 2012, India produced 1,602 feature films. The Indian film industry reached overall revenues of $1.86 billion (₹93 billion) in 2011. This is projected to rise to $3 billion (₹200 billion) in 2016. In 2015, India had a total box office gross of US$2.1 billion, one of the largest in the world. Enhanced technology paved the way for upgrading from established cinematic norms of delivering product, altering the manner in which content reached the target audience. Biopics like Dangal emerged as transnational blockbusters grossing over $300 million worldwide in the early 21st century. Indian cinema found markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. The Indian government extended film delegations to foreign countries such as the United States of America and Japan while the country's Film Producers Guild sent similar missions through Europe.
The provision of 100% foreign direct investment has made the Indian film market attractive for foreign enterprises such as 20th Century Fox, Sony Pictures, Walt Disney Pictures and Warner Bros. Indian enterprises such as AVM Productions, Prasad's Group, Sun Pictures, PVP Cinemas, Zee, UTV, Suresh Productions, Eros Films, Ayngaran International, Pyramid Saimira, Aascar Films and Adlabs also participated in producing and distributing films. Tax incentives to multiplexes have aided the multiplex boom in India. By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India, making the commercial presence of the medium felt.
The South Indian film industry defines the four film cultures of South India as a single entity. They are the Telugu, the Tamil, the Malayalam and the Kannada industries. Although developed independently over a long period, gross exchange of film performers and technicians as well as globalisation helped to shape this new identity.
The Indian diaspora consists of millions of Indians overseas for which films are made available both through media such as DVDs and by screening of films in their country of residence wherever commercially feasible. These earnings, accounting for some 12% of the revenue generated by a mainstream film, contribute substantially to the overall revenue of Indian cinema, the net worth of which was found to be US$1.3 billion in 2000. Music in Indian cinema is another substantial revenue generator with the music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Golden Age of Indian cinema
- 3 Modern Indian cinema
- 4 Global discourse
- 5 Influences
- 6 Multilinguals
- 7 Regional industries
- 7.1 Assamese cinema
- 7.2 Bengali cinema
- 7.3 Brajbhasha cinema
- 7.4 Bhojpuri cinema
- 7.5 Chhattisgarhi cinema
- 7.6 Gujarati cinema
- 7.7 Hindi cinema
- 7.8 Kannada cinema
- 7.9 Konkani cinema
- 7.10 Malayalam cinema
- 7.11 Meitei cinema
- 7.12 Marathi cinema
- 7.13 Indian Gorkha cinema
- 7.14 Odia cinema
- 7.15 Punjabi cinema
- 7.16 Sindhi cinema
- 7.17 Sherdukpen cinema
- 7.18 Tamil cinema
- 7.19 Telugu cinema
- 7.20 Tulu cinema
- 8 Genres and styles
- 9 Film production house
- 10 Film music
- 11 Film location in India
- 12 Awards
- 13 Film institutes in India
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Following the screening of the Lumière and Robert Paul moving pictures in London (1896), animated photography became a worldwide sensation and by mid-1896 both Lumière and Robert Paul films had been shown in Bombay. In the next year a film presentation by one Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, namely The Flower of Persia (1898). The Wrestlers (1899) by H. S. Bhatavdekar showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay was the first film ever to be shot by an Indian. It was also the first Indian documentary film.
The first Indian film released in India was Shree Pundalik a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at 'Coronation Cinematograph', Bombay. Some have argued that Pundalik does not deserve the honour of being called the first Indian film because it was a photographic recording of a popular Marathi play, and because the cameraman—a man named Johnson—was a British national and the film was processed in London.
The first full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, Dadasaheb is the pioneer of Indian film industry a scholar on India's languages and culture, who brought together elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra (1913), a silent film in Marathi. The female roles in the film were played by male actors. The film marked a historic benchmark in the film industry in India. Only one print of the film was made and shown at the Coronation Cinematograph on 3 May 1913. It was a commercial success and paved the way for more such films. The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916.
The first Indian chain of cinema theatres, Madan Theatre was owned by the Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout the Indian subcontinent starting from 1902. He founded Elphinstone Bioscope Company in Calcutta. Elphinstone merged into Madan Theatres Limited in 1919 which brought many of Bengal's most popular literary works to the stage. He also produced Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra in 1917, a remake of Phalke's Raja Harishchandra (1913).
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was an Indian artist and a pioneer in the production of silent Indian movies and talkies. Starting from 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema's history, like travelling to different regions in Asia, to promote film work. He was the first to build and own cinema halls in Madras. In South India, the first Tamil talkie Kalidas which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara Nataraja Mudaliar also established South India's first film studio in Madras.
During the early twentieth century cinema as a medium gained popularity across India's population and its many economic sections. Tickets were made affordable to the common man at a low price and for the financially capable additional comforts meant additional admission ticket price. Audiences thronged to cinema halls as this affordable medium of entertainment was available for as low as an anna (one-sixteenth of a rupee) in Bombay. The content of Indian commercial cinema was increasingly tailored to appeal to these masses. Young Indian producers began to incorporate elements of India's social life and culture into cinema. Others brought with them ideas from across the world. This was also the time when global audiences and markets became aware of India's film industry.
In 1927, the British Government, to promote the market in India for British films over American ones, formed the Indian Cinematograph Enquiry Committee. The ICC consisted of three British and three Indians, led by T. Rangachari, a Madras lawyer. This committee failed to support the desired recommendations of supporting British Film, instead recommending support for the fledgling Indian film industry. Their suggestions were shelved.
Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara which was the first Indian talkie film, on 14 March 1931. Irani later produced the first south Indian talkie film Kalidas directed by H. M. Reddy released on 31 October 1931. Jumai Shasthi was the first Bengali talkie. Following the inception of 'talkies' in India some film stars were highly sought after and earned comfortable incomes through acting. Actor of the time, Chittor V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor, singer, music composer, producer and directors in India. He was known as the Paul Muni of India in the media.
In 1933, East India Film Company has produced its first Indian film Savitri. Based on a noted stage play by Mylavaram Bala Bharathi Samajam, the film was directed by C. Pullaiah casting stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam as Yama and Savithri, respectively and shot in Calcutta on a budget of ₹ 75,000. The blockbuster film has received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival. The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh. As sound technology advanced, the 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in India's films. Studios emerged across major cities such as Madras, Calcutta and Bombay as film making became an established craft by 1935, exemplified by the success of Devdas, which had managed to enthrall audiences nationwide. In 1937, Kisan Kanya directed by Moti B was released. It is the first colour film made in India. 1940 film, Vishwa Mohini, is the first Indian film, depicting the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi.
Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. Bombay Talkies came up in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune had begun production of films meant for the Marathi language audience. Filmmaker R. S. D. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930), banned by the British Raj in India as it depicted actors as Indian leaders, an expression censored during the days of the Indian independence movement. Sant Tukaram, a 1936 film based on the life of Tukaram (1608–50), a Varkari Sant and spiritual poet, was screened at the 1937 edition of Venice Film Festival and thus became the first Indian film to be screened at an international film festival. The film was subsequently adjudged as one of the three best films of the year in the World. In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, has co-produced and directed the social problem film, Raithu Bidda, which was banned by the British administration in the region, for depicting the uprise of the peasantry among the Zamindars during the British raj.
The Indian Masala film—a slang term used for commercial films with a mix of song, dance, romance etc.—arose following World War II. South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout India with the release of S.S. Vasan's Chandralekha. During the 1940s cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival. The partition of India following its independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios went to the newly formed Pakistan. The strife of partition would become an enduring subject for film making during the decades that followed.
After Indian independence the cinema of India was inquired by the S. K. Patil Commission. S.K. Patil, head of the commission, viewed cinema in India as a 'combination of art, industry, and showmanship' while noting its commercial value. Patil further recommended setting up of a Film Finance Corporation under the Ministry of Finance. This advice was later taken up in 1960 and the institution came into being to provide financial support to talented filmmakers throughout India. The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1948 which eventually became one of the largest documentary film producers in the world with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9000 prints for permanent film theatres across the country.
The Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA), an art movement with a communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and the 1950s. A number of realistic IPTA plays, such as Bijon Bhattacharya's Nabanna in 1944 (based on the tragedy of the Bengal famine of 1943), prepared the ground for the solidification of realism in Indian cinema, exemplified by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas's Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) in 1946. The IPTA movement continued to emphello hasize on reality and went on to produce Mother India and Pyaasa, among India's most recognizable cinematic productions.
Golden Age of Indian cinema
Following India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Indian cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Indian films of all time were produced during this period.
This period saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengali cinema, which accounted for a quarter of India's film output at the time. Early examples of films in this movement include Neecha Nagar (1946) directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Ritwik Ghatak's Nagarik (1952), and Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism and the "Indian New Wave". Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of The Apu Trilogy (1955–1959) by Satyajit Ray, marked his entry in Indian cinema. The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and led to the Parallel Cinema movement being firmly established in Indian cinema. Its influence on world cinema can also be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties" which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".
The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy, also had an important influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy. Some of the experimental techniques which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions while filming Pratidwandi (1972). Ray's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually cancelled, is also widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak went on to direct many more critically acclaimed art films, and they were followed by other acclaimed Indian independent filmmakers such as M. S. Sathyu, Mrinal Sen, Mani Kaul, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, Girish Kasaravalli and Buddhadeb Dasgupta. During the 1960s, Indira Gandhi's intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India further led to production of off-beat cinematic expression being supported by the official Film Finance Corporation.
Commercial Hindi cinema also began thriving, with examples of acclaimed films at the time include Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi, and Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955) directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. Some epic films were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960). V. Shantaram's Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957) is believed to have inspired the Hollywood film The Dirty Dozen (1967). Madhumati (1958), directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak, popularised the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture. Other mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.
Dilip Kumar (Muhammad Yusuf Khan), who debuted in the 1940s and rose to fame in the 1950s, was one of the biggest Indian movie stars. He was a pioneer of method acting, predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Much like Brando's influence on New Hollywood actors such as Al Pacino and Robert De Niro, Kumar inspired many famous Indian actors, from Amitabh Bachchan and Naseeruddin Shah to Shah Rukh Khan to Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Kumar was described as "the ultimate method actor" (natural actor) by Satyajit Ray.
Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar, directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, won the Grand Prize (Palme d'Or) at the first Cannes Film Festival in 1946, Indian films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival for nearly every year in the 1950s and early 1960s, with a number of them winning major prizes at the festival. Satyajit Ray also won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy, and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival. The films of Khwaja Ahmad Abbas were nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival three times, with Neecha Nagar winning it, along with nominations for Awaara and Pardesi (1957).
Ray's contemporaries, Ritwik Ghatak and Guru Dutt, were overlooked in their own lifetimes but had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s and 1990s. Ray is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema, with Dutt and Ghatak. In 1992, the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll ranked Ray at No. 7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, while Dutt was ranked No. 73 in the 2002 Sight & Sound greatest directors poll.
A number of Indian films from this era are often included among the greatest films of all time in various critics' and directors' polls. A number of Satyajit Ray films appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll, including The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 4 in 1992 if votes are combined), Jalsaghar (ranked No. 27 in 1992), Charulata (ranked No. 41 in 1992) and Aranyer Din Ratri (ranked No. 81 in 1982). The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll also included the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (both tied at #160), the Ritwik Ghatak films Meghe Dhaka Tara (ranked #231) and Komal Gandhar (ranked #346), and Raj Kapoor's Awaara, Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra, Mehboob Khan's Mother India and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at #346. In 1998, the critics' poll conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya included The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 1 if votes are combined), Ray's Charulata and Jalsaghar (both tied at #11), and Ghatak's Subarnarekha (also tied at #11).
At this juncture, South Indian cinema saw the production works based on the epic Mahabharata, such as Mayabazar, listed by IBN Live's 2013 Poll as the greatest Indian film of all time, and Narthanasala received awards for best production design and best actor to S. V. Ranga Rao, at the Indonesian Film Festival. Sivaji Ganesan became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won the "Best Actor" award at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour by the French Government in 1995. Tamil cinema is also influenced by Dravidian politics, with prominent film personalities like C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa becoming Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.
Modern Indian cinema
Some filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s, alongside Satyajit Ray, M. S. Sathyu, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta and Gautam Ghose in Bengali cinema; K Balachandar, Balu Mahendra, Bharathiraaja and Mani Ratnam in Tamil cinema, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, John Abraham and G. Aravindan also Bharathan and Padmarajan in Malayalam cinema; Nirad Mohapatra in Oriya cinema; K. N. T. Sastry and B. Narsing Rao in Telugu cinema; Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Ram Gopal Varma and Vijaya Mehta in Hindi cinema. However, the art film bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema.
The 1970s saw the rise of Hindi commercial cinema in form of enduring films such as Aradhana (1969), Sachaa Jhutha (1970), Haathi Mere Saathi (1971), Anand (1971), Kati Patang (1971) and Amar Prem (1972), Dushman (1972), Daag (1973) establishing Rajesh Khanna as the first Superstar of Indian Cinema. Later, in the mid 70s, action films like Zanjeer (1973) and Sholay (1975), solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma made on a shoe-string budget was also released in 1975 and became a mega success on box office and a cult. Another important film from 1975 was Deewar, directed by Yash Chopra and written by Salim-Javed. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on the real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan, it was described as being "absolutely key to Indian cinema" by Danny Boyle. 1980 Telugu film, Sankarabharanam, which dealt with the revival of Indian classical music, has won the Prize of the Public at the Besancon Film Festival of France in 1981. 1970 Kannada film, Samskara directed by Pattabhirama Reddy, pioneered the parallel cinema movement in south Indian cinema. The film won Bronze Leopard at the Locarno International Film Festival.
Many Tamil-language films have premiered or have been selected as special presentations at various film festivals across the globe, such as Mani Ratnam's Kannathil Muthamittal, Vasanthabalan's Veyyil and Ameer Sultan's Paruthiveeran. Kanchivaram (2009) was selected to be premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films have been a part of films submitted by India for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions, next only to Hindi. Mani Ratnam's Nayagan (1987) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list. In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007.
Malayalam cinema of Kerala experienced its own 'Golden Age' in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some of the most acclaimed Indian filmmakers at the time were from the Malayalam industry, including Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, T. V. Chandran and Shaji N. Karun. Adoor Gopalakrishnan, who is often considered to be Satyajit Ray's spiritual heir, directed some of his most acclaimed films during this period, including Elippathayam (1981) which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival, as well as Mathilukal (1989) which won major prizes at the Venice Film Festival.
Shaji N. Karun's debut film Piravi (1989) won the Camera d'Or at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, while his second film Swaham (1994) was in competition for the Palme d'Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival. Commercial Malayalam cinema also began gaining popularity with the action films of Jayan, a popular stunt actor whose success was short-lived when he died while filming a dangerous helicopter stunt.
Commercial Hindi cinema further grew throughout the 1980s and the 1990s with the release of films such as Ek Duuje Ke Liye (1981), Mr India (1987), Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Tezaab (1988), Chandni (1989), Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Baazigar (1993), Darr (1993), Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Pyar Kiya Toh Darna Kya (1998) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998), many of which starred Anil Kapoor, Salman Khan, Sridevi, Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Madhuri Dixit and Kajol. At this juncture, Shekhar Kapur's cult classic, Bandit Queen (1994) which received international recognition, has also garnered high criticism by Arundhati Roy in her film review entitled "The Great Indian Rape-Trick". However, the film highlighted the revival of feminist themes.
In the late 1990s, 'Parallel Cinema' began experiencing a resurgence in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of Satya (1998), a crime film based on the Bombay underworld, written and directed by Ram Gopal Varma, with screenplay by Anurag Kashyap. The film's success led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir, urban films reflecting social problems in Bombay city. Later films made on organised crime in Bombay include Madhur Bhandarkar's Chandni Bar (2001) and Traffic Signal (2007), Ram Gopal Varma's Company (2002) and its sequel D (2005), as well as Anurag Kashyap's Black Friday (2004).
Vishal Bhardwaj's 2014 film Haider, the third instalment of Indian Shakespearean Trilogy after Maqbool (2003) and Omkara (2006), won the People's Choice Award at the 9th Rome Film Festival in the Mondo Genere category making it the first Indian film to achieve this feat. Other art film directors active today include Mrinal Sen, Mir Shaani, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Gautam Ghose, Sandip Ray and Aparna Sen in Bengali cinema; Puttanna Kanagal, Dore Bhagavan, Siddalingaiah in Kannada; Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun and T.V. Chandran in Malayalam cinema; Nirad Mohapatra in Oriya cinema; Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal, Mira Nair, Nagesh Kukunoor, Sudhir Mishra and Nandita Das in Hindi cinema; K. N. T. Sastry, B. Narsing Rao, Akkineni Kutumba Rao, Deva Katta in Telugu cinema and Santosh Sivan in Tamil cinema. Deepa Mehta, Anant Balani, Homi Adajania, Vijay Singh and Sooni Taraporevala have garnered recognition in Indian English cinema.
Indians during the colonial rule bought film equipment from Europe. The British funded wartime propaganda films during World War II, some of which showed the Indian army pitted against the axis powers, specifically the Empire of Japan, which had managed to infiltrate into India. One such story was Burma Rani, which depicted civilian resistance offered to Japanese occupation by the British and Indians present in Myanmar. Pre-independence businessmen such as J. F. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in global cinema.
Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions became visible with its films making early inroads into the Soviet Union, Middle East, Southeast Asia, and China. Some mainstream Indian movie stars, like the Akshay Kumar, Khans of Bollywood (Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan, Dilip Kumar), the Kapoor family (Raj Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor), Nargis, Mithun Chakraborty, Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan, Rajnikanth, Madhuri Dixit and Aishwarya Rai gained international fame across Asia and Eastern Europe. For example, Indian films were popular in the Soviet Union, more so than Hollywood films and occasionally even domestic Soviet films. From 1954 to 1991, 206 Indian films (175 of which were Bollywood films) were imported in the Soviet Union, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions, with 50 Indian films drawing more than 20 million viewers (compared to 41 Hollywood films), with some such as Awaara (1951) and Disco Dancer (1982) drawing more than 60 million viewers, establishing Indian actors like Raj Kapoor, Nargis, Rishi Kapoor and Mithun Chakroborty as household names in the country. The Hindi film actors Raj Kapoor and Aamir Khan also became very popular in China, with films such as Awaara, 3 Idiots (2009), and Dangal (2016), one of the top 20 highest-grossing films in China.
Indian films frequently appeared in international fora and film festivals. This allowed Parallel Bengali filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray to achieve worldwide fame, with his films gaining success among European, American and Asian audiences. Ray's work subsequently had a worldwide impact, with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese, James Ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, Elia Kazan, François Truffaut, Steven Spielberg, Carlos Saura, Jean-Luc Godard, Isao Takahata, Gregory Nava, Ira Sachs and Wes Anderson being influenced by his cinematic style, and many others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work. The "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". Subrata Mitra's cinematographic technique of bounce lighting also originates from The Apu Trilogy. Ray's film Kanchenjungha (1962) also introduced a narrative structure that resembles later hyperlink cinema. Since the 1980s, some previously overlooked Indian filmmakers such as Ritwik Ghatak and Guru Dutt have posthumously gained international acclaim.
Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in South East Asia and many parts of the world. Since Chandralekha, Muthu was the second Tamil film to be dubbed into Japanese (as Mutu: Odoru Maharaja) and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998. In 2010, Enthiran grossed a record $4 million in North America.
Many Asian and South Asian countries increasingly came to find Indian cinema as more suited to their sensibilities than Western cinema. Jigna Desai holds that by the 21st century, Indian cinema had managed to become 'deterritorialized', spreading over to the many parts of the world where Indian diaspora was present in significant numbers, and becoming an alternative to other international cinema.
Indian cinema has more recently begun influencing Western musical films, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the genre in the Western world. Baz Luhrmann stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, subsequently fuelling a renaissance of the genre. Danny Boyle's Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was also directly inspired by Indian films, and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". Other Indian filmmakers are also making attempts at reaching a more global audience, with upcoming films by directors such as Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Jahnu Barua, Sudhir Mishra and Pan Nalin.
Indian Cinema was also recognised at the American Academy Awards. Indian films, Mother India (1957), Salaam Bombay! (1988) and Lagaan (2001), were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Indian winners of the Academy Awards include Bhanu Athaiya (costume designer), Satyajit Ray (filmmaker), A. R. Rahman (music composer), Resul Pookutty (sound editor) and Gulzar (lyricist), Cottalango Leon and Rahul Thakkar Sci-Tech Award.
Netflix have also entered India.
There have generally been six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema. The first was the ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish.
The second influence was the impact of ancient Sanskrit drama, with its highly stylised nature and emphasis on spectacle, where music, dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya, derived from the root word nrit (dance), characterising them as spectacular dance-dramas which has continued in Indian cinema. The Rasa method of performance, dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama, is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema from that of the Western world. In the Rasa method, empathetic "emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience," in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living, breathing embodiment of a character" rather than "simply conveying emotion." The rasa method of performance is clearly apparent in the performances of popular Hindi film actors like Amitabh Bachchan, Shah Rukh Khan. It is also evident in the nationally acclaimed Hindi films like Rang De Basanti (2006) starring Aamir Khan in lead role, and internationally acclaimed Bengali films directed by Satyajit Ray.
The third influence was the traditional folk theatre of India, which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra of West Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, Yakshagana of Karnataka, 'Chindu Natakam' of Andhra Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
The fourth influence was Parsi theatre, which "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft." All of these influences are clearly evident in the masala film genre that was popularised by Manmohan Desai's films in the 1970s and early 1980s, particularly in Coolie (1983), and to an extent in more recent critically acclaimed films such as Rang De Basanti.
The fifth influence was Hollywood, where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s, though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction.
However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex and interesting ways." The final influence was Western musical television, particularly MTV, which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of recent Indian films. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995).
Like mainstream Indian popular cinema, Indian Parallel Cinema was also influenced also by a combination of Indian theatre (particularly Sanskrit drama) and Indian literature (particularly Bengali literature), but differs when it comes to foreign influences, where it is more influenced by European cinema (particularly Italian neorealism and French poetic realism) rather than Hollywood. Satyajit Ray cited Italian filmmaker Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves (1948) and French filmmaker Jean Renoir's The River (1951), which he assisted, as influences on his debut film Pather Panchali (1955). Besides the influence of European cinema and Bengali literature, Ray is also indebted to the Indian theatrical tradition, particularly the Rasa method of classical Sanskrit drama. The complicated doctrine of Rasa "centers predominantly on feeling experienced not only by the characters but also conveyed in a certain artistic way to the spectator. The duality of this kind of a rasa imbrication" shows in The Apu Trilogy. Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953) was also influenced by De Sica's Bicycle Thieves and in turn paved the way for the Indian New Wave, which began around the same time as the French New Wave and the Japanese New Wave. Ray known as one of the most important influences to Parallel Cinema, was depicted as an auteur (Wollen). The focus of the majority of his stories portrayed the lower middle class and the unemployed (Wollen). It wasn't until the late 1960s that Parallel Cinema support grew (Wollen).
Some Indian films are known as "multilinguals," having been filmed in similar but non-identical versions in different languages. This was done in the 1930s. According to Rajadhyaksha and Willemen in the Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema (1994), in its most precise form, a multilingual is
a bilingual or a trilingual [that] was the kind of film made in the 1930s in the studio era, when different but identical takes were made of every shot in different languages, often with different leading stars but identical technical crew and music.:15
Rajadhyaksha and Willemen note that in seeking to construct their Encyclopedia, they often found it "extremely difficult to distinguish multilinguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages ... it will take years of scholarly work to establish definitive data in this respect.":15
Films are made in many cities and regions in India including Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu, Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Konkan (Goa), Kerala, Maharashtra, Meitei, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu among others.
|Table: Breakdown by languages|
|Breakdown of 2016 Indian feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification sorted by languages.
Note: This table indicates the number of films certified by the CBFC's regional offices in nine cities. The actual number of films produced may be less.
|Language||No. of films|
|Hindi||340 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 340|
|Tamil||291 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 291|
|Telugu||275 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 275|
|Kannada||204 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 204|
|Marathi||180 (digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 181|
|Malayalam||168 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 168|
|Bengali||149 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 149|
|Bhojpuri||67 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 67|
|Punjabi||45 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 45|
|Gujarati||45 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 45|
|Odia||41 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 41|
|Assamese||20 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 20|
|Rajasthani||10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10|
|Chhattisgarhi||10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10|
|Tulu||10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10|
|Konkani||6 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 6|
|English||5 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 5|
|Haryanvi||4 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 4|
|Maithali||3 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 3|
|Sindhi||3 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 3|
|Urdu||3 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 3|
|Bodo||2 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 2|
|Total||1607 (digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 1903|
The Assamese language film industry traces its origin to the works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was also a distinguished poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati in 1935, under the banner of Critrakala Movietone. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, had to shoulder the added responsibilities as the script writer, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60,000 rupees, was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed miserably. Like so many early Indian films, the negatives and complete prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle whatever is left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, the second picture, Indramalati, was filmed between 1937 and 1938, and was finally released in 1939. The beginning of the 21st century has seen Bollywood-style Assamese movies hitting the screen.
The Bengali language cinematic tradition of Tollygunge located in West Bengal has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed. Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Rituparno Ghosh's Choker Bali, starring Aishwarya Rai. Bengali filmmaking also includes Bengali science fiction films and films that focus on social issues. In 1993, the Bengali industry's net output was 57 films.
The history of cinema in Bengal dates back to the 1890s, when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theatres in Calcutta. Within five years, the first seeds of the industry were sown by Hiralal Sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema when he set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre, Calcutta, Minerva Theatre, Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen's works, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D.G.) established Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali owned production company, in 1918. However, the first Bengali Feature film Billwamangal was produced in 1919 under the banner of Madan Theatre. Bilat Ferat was the IBFC's first production in 1921. Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.
In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry due to Tollygunge rhyming with "Hollywood" and because it was the centre of the Indian film industry at the time. It later inspired the name "Bollywood", as Bombay later overtook Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry, and many other Hollywood-inspired names. The 'Parallel Cinema' movement began in the Bengali film industry in the 1950s. A long history has been traversed since then, with stalwarts such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Ritwik Ghatak and others having earned international acclaim and securing their place in the history of film and actors like Uttam Kumar and Soumitra Chatterjee were the greatest actor in Bengali film industry.
Braj Bhasha language films present Brij culture mainly to rural people, predominant in the nebulous Braj region centred around Mathura, Agra, Aligarh and Hathras in Western Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur & Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab in Uttar Pradesh. The first Brij Bhasha movie produced in India was Brij Bhoomi (1982), which was a success throughout the country. made by actor, producer & director Shiv Kumar in banner of "Ocaon Movies". Later Brij Bhasha cinema saw the production of films like Jamuna Kinare, Brij Kau Birju, Bhakta Surdas, and Jesus. The culture of Brij is presented in the films Krishna Tere Desh Main (Hindi), Kanha Ki Braj Bhumi,Brij ki radha dwarika ke shyam and Bawre Nain,
Bhojpuri language films predominantly cater to people who live in the regions of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh and also have a large audience in Delhi and Bombay due to migration of Bhojpuri speakers to these metros. Besides India, there is a large market for these films in other Bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies, Oceania, and South America. Bhojpuri language film's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner" 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges," 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.
The industry experienced a revival in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart," directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot the hero of that film, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom. This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry") in 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad, and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy") in 2005. In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs. Although a smaller industry compared to other Indian film industries, the extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City.
Chhollywood was born in 1965 with the first Chhattisgarhi film Kahi Debe Sandesh ("In Black and White"), directed and produced by Manu Nayak. It was a story of intercaste love and it is said that former Indian Prime minister Indira Gandhi watched the movie. Naidu[who?] wrote the lyrics for the film, and two songs of the movie were sung by Indian singer Mohammad Rafi. Niranjan Tiwari directed Ghar Dwar in 1971, produced by Vijay Kumar Pandey. However, both movies did not do well at the box office, and disappointed the producers. No movie was produced[clarification needed] for nearly 30 years thereafter.
Before the arrival of talkies, several silent films were closely related with Gujarati people and culture. Many film directors, producers and actors who are associated with silent films were Gujarati and Parsi. There were twenty leading film company and studios owned by Gujaratis between 1913 and 1931. They were mostly located in Bombay (now Mumbai). There were at least forty-four leading Gujarati directors during this period.
Gujarati cinema dates back to 9 April 1932, when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta, was released. Leeludi Dharti (1968) was the first colour film of Gujarati cinema. After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry saw a decline. The industry has been revived in recent times. The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception. In 2005, the Government of Gujarat announced a 100% entertainment tax exemption for Gujarati films.
Gujarati cinema is chiefly based on scripts which range from mythology to history and social to political. Since its origin Gujarati cinema has experimented with stories and issues from Indian society. The films are generally targeted at a rural audience but after a recent revival also caters to an audience with urban subjects.
The Hindi language film industry of Bombay—also known as Bollywood—is the largest and most powerful branch and controls Indian cinema. Hindi cinema initially explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959). International visibility came to the industry with Raj Kapoor's Awara and later in Shakti Samantha's Aradhana starring Rajesh Khanna and Sharmila Tagore. Hindi cinema grew during the 1990s with the release of as many as 215 films.
In 1995 the Indian economy began showing sustainable annual growth, and Hindi cinema, as a commercial enterprise, grew at a growth rate of 15% annually. The salary of lead stars increased greatly. Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3–4 films. Institutions such as the Industrial Development Bank of India also came forward to finance Hindi films. A number of magazines such as Filmfare, Stardust, and Cine Blitz became popular.
The audience's reaction towards Hindi cinema is distinctive, with involvement in the films via clapping, singing, and reciting familiar dialogue with the actors.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Gubbi Veeranna (1891 – 1972) was an Indian theatre director and artist and an awardee of the prestigious Padma Shri conferred by the President of India. He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada theatre.Gubbi Veeranna is like Bhishma of Kannada film industry. His contribution to kannada film Industry is invaluable. Kannada actor Rajkumar was working in Gubbi Veeranna's camp and later he became important actor
Gubbi Veeranna a started Karnataka Gubbi Productions which was a company to produce films. He first produced Sadarame in 1935, in which he acted in the lead role. The film had C.I.D. Sakunthala, Ashwathama, B. Jayamma in the cast and was directed by Raja Chandrasekar. He then produced Subhadra which had Honnappa Bhagavathar in the lead. In 1942, he produced Jeevana Nataka with Kemparaj Urs in the lead. He again acted in the lead role in the film Hemareddy Mallamma, in 1945. He produced Sathya Shodhanai in 1953, which was a Tamil Film and had again starred Honnappa Bhagavathar. Karnataka Gubbi Productions was later called as The Karnataka Films Ltd., it is attributed to have started the film career of Rajkumar when it agreed to offer him the lead role in his first film Bedara Kannappa. He has also produced silent movies like His Love Affair which was directed by a foreigner, Raphel Algoet. In this film, the lead role of the actor was played by Gubbi Veeranna himself and the actress was none other than his wife, Jayamma. In 1956, he produced Sadaarme, which had T.N. Balakrishna in lead and also had Kalyan Kumar. It was the remake of 1936 movie with the same name. In 1959, he produced Sagothari, a Tamil Film which had K. Balaji in the Lead.
Gubbi Veeranna productions film Bedara Kannappa (1954), Director H. L. N. Simha received the first Certificate of Merit. The film was based on the folktale of the hunter Kannappa who proves his extreme devotion to Lord Shiva by plucking out both of his, eyes. However, the first "President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Kannada" was only awarded at the 5th National Film Awards ceremony held on 16 April 1958 to the 1957 film Premada Puthri. The film was directed by R. Nagendra Rao and produced under his banner R. N. R. Pictures
The Kannada film industry, also referred to as Sandalwood, is based in Bengaluru and caters mostly to the state of Karnataka. Vishnuvardhan and Rajkumar were eminent actors along with Ambarish, Anant Nag, Shankar Nag,Prabhakar, Udaya Kumar, Kalyan Kumar, Gangadhar, Ravichandran, Girish Karnad, Prakash Raj, Charan Raj, B Jayamma, Leelavathi, Kalpana, Bharathi, Jayanthi, Pandari Bai, Aarathi, Jaimala, Tara, Umashri and Ramya.
Film directors from the Kannada film industry like H. L. N. Simha, R. Nagendra Rao, B. R. Panthulu, M. S. Sathyu, Puttanna Kanagal, G. V. Iyer, Girish Karnad, T. S. Nagabharana Siddalingaiah, B. V. Karanth, A K Pattabhi, T. V. Singh Thakur, Y. R. Swamy, M. R. Vittal, Sundar Rao Nadkarni, P. S. Moorthy, S. K. A. Chari, Hunsur Krishnamurthy, Prema Karanth, Rajendra Singh Babu, N. Lakshminarayan, Shankar Nag, Girish Kasaravalli, Umesh Kulkarni, Suresh Heblikar etc have garnered national recognition. Other noted film personalities in Kannada are, Bhargava, G.K. Venkatesh, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan-Nagendra, Geethapriya, Hamsalekha, R. N. Jayagopal, M. Ranga Rao, Yogaraj Bhat etc.
Kannada cinema, along with Bengali and Malayalam films, contributed simultaneously to the age of Indian parallel cinema. Some of the influential Kannada films in this genre are Samskara (based on a novel by U. R. Ananthamurthy), Chomana Dudi by B. V. Karanth, Tabarana Kathe, Vamshavruksha, Kaadu Kudure, Hamsageethe, Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu, Accident, Maanasa Sarovara, Bara, Chitegoo Chinte, Galige, Ijjodu, Kaneshwara Rama,Ghatashraddha, Tabarana Kathe, Mane, Kraurya, Thaayi Saheba, Bandhana, Muthina Haara, Banker Margayya, Dweepa, Munnudi, Bettada Jeeva, Mysore Mallige, Chinnari Muththa etc
The Government Film and Television Institute, Bangalore (formerly a part of S.J. Polytechnic) is believed to be the first government institute in India to start technical courses related to films. Legends like V K Murthy and Govind Nihalani passed out from this institute.
Konkani language films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of the smallest film industries in India, with just four films produced in 2009. Konkani language is spoken mainly in the states of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Kerala. The first full length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo, which was released on 24 April 1950, and produced and directed by Jerry Braganza, a native of Mapusa, under the banner of Etica Pictures. Hence, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani Film Day. Karnataka is the hub of a good number of Konkani speaking people. There is an immense body of Konkani literature and art in Karnataka. Several films have been noted among the Karnataka Konkani folks. Kazar (English: Marriage) is a 2009 Konkani film directed by Richard Castelino and produced by Frank Fernandes. Ujvaadu (Shedding New Light on Old Age Issues) was directed and produced by Kasaragod Chinna, whose stage name is Sujeer Srinivas Rao. The pioneering Mangalorean Konkani film is Mog Ani Maipas.
Malayalam film industry is based in Kochi. It is considered to be the fourth largest among the film industries in India. Malayalam film industry is known for films that bridge the gap between parallel cinema and mainstream cinema by portraying thought-provoking social issues with top notch technical perfection but with low budgets. Filmmakers include Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, G. Aravindan, K. G. George, Padmarajan, Sathyan Anthikad, T. V. Chandran and Bharathan.
Vigathakumaran, a silent movie released in 1928 produced and directed by J. C. Daniel, marked the beginning of Malayalam cinema. Balan, released in 1938, was the first Malayalam "talkie". Malayalam films were mainly produced by Tamil producers until 1947, when the first major film studio, Udaya Studio, was established in Kerala. In 1954, the film Neelakkuyil captured national interest by winning the President's silver medal. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist, Uroob, and directed by P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat, it is often considered as the first authentic Malayali film. Newspaper Boy, made by a group of students in 1955, was the first neo-realistic film in Malayalam. Chemmeen (1965), directed by Ramu Kariat and based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, went on to become immensely popular, and became the first South Indian film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film.
The period from the late 1980s to early 1990s is popularly regarded as the 'Golden Age of Malayalam Cinema' with the emergence of actors Mohanlal, Mammootty, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Bharath Gopi, Murali, Thilakan and Nedumudi Venu and filmmakers such as I. V. Sasi, Bharathan, Padmarajan, K. G. George, Sathyan Anthikad, Priyadarshan, A. K. Lohithadas, Siddique-Lal, T. K. Rajeev Kumar and Sreenivasan.
K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA) is an autonomous institute established by the Government of Kerala at Thekkumthala in Kottayam District in Kerala state as a training-cum-research centre in film/audio-visual technology.
Meitei cinema is a small filmmaking industry in the state of Manipur. This region started its film making industry with a full length black and white film Matamgee Manipur in 1972. Meitei cinema started to produce many films starting in the 1980s. Langlen Thadoi (1984) was Meitei cinema's first full length colour film.
Meitei cinema has started gaining its momentum with a force since the imposition of a ban on the screening of Hindi films in entertainment houses in Manipur. Screening of Hindi movies has come to a halt in this volatile border state despite reiterated appeals made by the successive Chief Ministers. This move has given fresh impetus to the film producers, artists and film lovers in the state.
The Meitei film industry is a vibrant one, with as many as 80-100 movies being made per year, despite constraints of infrastructure and the issues arising out of conflict. Cinemas opened in Imphal after World War II and the first full-length Meitei movie was made in 1972. The boom happened in 2002, the height of the secessionist movement from India.
Aribam Syam Sharma's Imagi Ningthem won the prestigious Grand Prix in the Nantes International Film Festival in France in 1982. The whole of France got the opportunity to know about Manipur through a nationwide telecast of Imagi Ningthem on French television. After watching Ishanou (a world acclaimed cinema of Meitei film directed by Aribam Syam Sharma), westerners were inspired to take up research on Lai Haraoba and Manipur's rich folklore. Maipak, Son of Manipur is the first Meitei documentary film and was released on 9 November 1971.
Marathi cinema includes the films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is one of the oldest industry in Indian cinema. The pioneer of cinema in Union of India was Dadasaheb Phalke, who brought the revolution of moving images to India with his first indigenously made silent film Raja Harishchandra in 1913, which is considered by IFFI and NIFD part of Marathi cinema as it was made by a Marathi crew.
The first Marathi talkie film, Ayodhyecha Raja (produced by Prabhat Films), was released in 1932, just one year after Alam Ara, the first Hindi talkie film. Marathi cinema has grown in recent years, with two of its films, namely Shwaas (2004) and Harishchandrachi Factory (2009), being India's official entries for the Oscars. Today the industry is based in Mumbai but it sprouted and grew first from Kolhapur and then Pune.
There are many Marathi movies. Some of the more notable are Sangte Aika, Ek Gaon Bara Bhangadi, Pinjara of V. Shantaram, Sinhasan, Pathlaag, Jait Re Jait, Saamana, Santh Wahate Krishnamai, Sant Tukaram, and Shyamchi Aai by Pralhad Keshav Atre, based on Sane Guruji's novel Shamchi Aai. Marathi has made an immense contribution to Indian cinema, as many Marathi-speaking actors have brought glamour to the Indian film industry. Marathi film industry has included the work of actors including Durga Khote, V. Shantaram, Nutan, Lalita Pawar, Nanda, Tanuja, Shriram Lagoo, Ramesh Deo, Seema Deo, Nana Patekar, Smita Patil, Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Sonali Kulkarni, Sonali Bendre, Urmila Matondkar, Reema Lagoo, Mamta Kulkarni, Padmini Kolhapure, and Sachin Khedekar.
In today's list many filmmakers, directors, music directors, and actors have added glory to Marathi cinema. Natsamrat by Mahesh manjarekar, Lay Bhari by director Nishikant Kamat, and Balak Palak by Ritesh Deshmukh production house gave new stream to Marathi cinema. Shala. Duniyadari is the first highest-grossing film in that time who gave new face to Marathi cinema. now Sairat by Nagraj manjule crossed all records as of 2016. Narbachi wadi is a beautiful film recited in Konkan. Music director Ajay-atul gave new fame to Marathi music.
Indian Gorkha cinema
The Odia film industry is the Bhubaneswar and Cuttack based Odia language film industry. The first Odia talkie Sita Bibaha was made by Mohan Sunder Deb Goswami in 1936. Shreeram Panda, Prashanta Nanda, Uttam Mohanty and Bijay Mohanty started the revolution in the Oriya film industry by not only securing a huge audience but also bringing in a newness in their presentation. His movies heralded in the golden era of the Odia commercial industry by bringing in freshness to Odia movies. Then the first colour film was made by Nagen Ray and photographed by a Pune Film Institute trained cinematographer Surendra Sahu titled Gapa Hele Be Sata ("although a story, it is true"). The golden phase of Odia cinema was 1984 when two Odia films, Maya Miriga and Dhare Alua, were showcased in Indian Panorama, and Nirad Mohapatra's Maya Miriga was invited to the Critics Week at Cannes. The film received the Best Third World Film award at Mannheim Film Festival, Jury Award at Hawaii and was shown at London Film Festival.
K.D. Mehra made the first Punjabi film, Sheela (also known as "Pind di Kudi" (Rustic Girl)). Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheela was made in Calcutta and released in Lahore, the capital of Punjab; it ran very successfully and was a hit across the province. Due to the success of this first film many more producers started making Punjabi films. As of 2009, Punjabi cinema had produced between 900 and 1,000 movies. The average number of releases per year in the 1970s was nine; in the 1980s, eight; and in the 1990s, six. In 1995, the number of films released was 11; it plummeted to seven in 1996 and touched a low of five in 1997. Since the 2000s the Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets, and home grown stars as well as Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part. Manny Parmar made the first 3D Punjabi film, Pehchaan 3D, which released in 2013.
Though striving hard to survive, mainly because of not having a state or region to represent, the Sindhi film industry has been producing movies in intervals. The first Sindhi movie produced in India was the 1958 film Abana, which was a success throughout the country. Later the Sindhi cinema saw the production of some Bollywood style films like Hal Ta Bhaji Haloon, Parewari, Dil Dije Dil Waran Khe, Ho Jamalo, Pyar Kare Dis: Feel the Power of Love and The Awakening. There are numerous personalities of Sindhi descent who have been and are contributing in Bollywood, including G P Sippy, Ramesh Sippy, Nikhil Advani, Tarun Mansukhani, Ritesh Sidhwani, and Asrani.
Director Songe Dorjee Thongdok introduced the first Indian film in the language of Sherdukpen with his film Crossing Bridges in 2014. The language and cinema are native of the north-eastern state Arunachal Pradesh. Dorjee is planning on making future films in the same language, contributing one more regional dialect to the world of Indian cinema.
H. M. Reddy directed the first south Indian talkie film Kalidas, shot in Tamil and Telugu. Sivaji Ganesan became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won the Best Actor award at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour by the French Government in 1995.
Tamil cinema is also influenced by Dravidian politics, with prominent film personalities like C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa becoming Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu. K. B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India. She was also the first person in the Indian film industry to command a salary of one lakh rupees.
Tamil films are distributed to various parts of Asia, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe and Oceania. The industry has inspired Tamil film-making in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada.
Rajnikanth is referred to as "Superstar" and has since continued to hold a matinee idol status in the popular culture of South India. His mannerisms and stylised delivery of dialogue in films contribute to his mass popularity and appeal. After earning ₹26 crore (US$4.1 million) for his role in Sivaji (2007), he became the highest paid actor in Asia after Jackie Chan. Kamal Haasan made his debut in Kalathur Kannamma, for which he won the President's Gold Medal for Best Child Actor. Haasan is tied with Mammootty and Amitabh Bachchan for the most Best Actor National Film Awards, with three. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan has starred in the highest number of films submitted India for the Academy Award Best Foreign Language Film.
The highest number of theatres are located in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana which produce films in the Telugu language. In 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu Film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood, with 268, 245 and 286 films in each year respectively. Ramoji Film City, which holds the Guinness World Record for the world's largest film production facility, is located in Hyderabad. The Prasad's IMAX in Hyderabad is the world's largest 3D IMAX screen and is the most attended screen in the world. The highest grossing Telugu movie till date is Baahubali 2: The Conclusion Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was considered the "father of Telugu cinema". The annual Raghupati Venkaiah Award was incorporated into the Nandi Awards to recognize people for their contributions to the Telugu film industry. uppaladadiyam Nagayya was the first multilingual film actor, singer, music composer, producer and director in South India to be honoured with the Padma Shri. He was known as the Paul Muni of India in the media. S. V. Ranga Rao is one of the first Indian actors of the time to receive the international award at the Indonesian Film Festival, held in Jakarta, for Narthanasala in 1963. N. T. Rama Rao was one of the most commercially successful Telugu actors of his time.
B. Narsing Rao, K. N. T. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy have garnered international recognition for their pioneering work in Parallel Cinema. Adurthi Subba Rao has garnered ten National Film Awards, the highest individual awards in Telugu cinema, for his pioneering work as a director. S. P. Balasubramanyam holds the Guinness World Record of having sung the most number of songs for any male playback singer in the world; the majority of his songs were sung in Telugu.
S. V. Ranga Rao, N. T. Rama Rao, Kanta Rao, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Savitri, Gummadi and Sobhan Babu have received the erstwhile Rashtrapati Award for best performance in a leading role. Sharada, Archana, Vijayashanti, Rohini, Nagarjuna Akkineni, and P. L. Narayana have received the National Film Award for the best performance in acting. Chiranjeevi was listed among "the men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema" by IBN-live India.
Nowadays 30 to 40 films are made evry year in Tulu language.K N Tailor and Machchendra nath Pandeshwar, are icons of Tulu language films. The first film, Enna Thangadi, was released in 1971. Usually Tulu films are released in theatres across the Tulu Nadu region and on DVD. The critically acclaimed Tulu film Suddha won the award for Best Indian Film at the Osian film festival held at New Delhi in 2006. Oriyardori Asal, released in 2011, is the most successful Tulu film to date.
- The first Tulu film was Enna Thangadi, released in 1971.
- Dareda Budedi produced by K.N. Taylor was the second feature film, released in 1971.
- Koti Chennaya (1973) directed by Vishu Kumar was the first history-based Tulu film.
- The first Tulu colour film Kariyani Kattandi Kandani was produced in 1978 by Aroor Bhimarao.
- Bisatti Babu produced in 1972 was the first recipient of the state government award for the best Tulu film.
- Bangar Patler produced in 1993 by Richard Castelino won the highest national and international awards.
- September 8, directed by Richard Castelino, starring Kannada actor Sunil and Kannada writer, K Shivaram Karanth was shot in 24 hours entirely in Mangalore, a record in the world cinema.
- Sudda won the award for the best Indian film at the eighth Asian Film Festival "Ocean - Cinefan".
- Nirel directed by Ranjith Bajpe, produced by Shodhan Prasad and co-produced by San Poojary will be the first Tulu movie totally produced overseas.
Genres and styles
Masala is a style of Indian cinema, especially in Bollywood, Cinema of West Bengal and South Indian films, in which there is a mix of various genres in one film. For example, a film can portray action, comedy, drama, romance and melodrama all together. Many of these films also tend to be musicals, including songs filmed in picturesque locations, which is now very common in Bollywood films. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. The genre is named after masala, a mixture of spices in Indian cuisine.
Parallel Cinema, also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave, is a specific movement in Indian cinema, known for its serious content of realism and naturalism, with a keen eye on the social-political climate of the times. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood cinema and began around the same time as the French New Wave and Japanese New Wave. The movement was initially led by Bengali cinema (which has produced internationally acclaimed filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, and Ritwik Ghatak) and then gained prominence in the other film industries of India. Some of the films in this movement have garnered commercial success, successfully straddling art and commercial cinema. An early example of this was Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953), which was both a commercial and critical success, winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. The film's success paved the way for the Indian New Wave.
The neo-realist filmmakers were the Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray, closely followed by Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Shyam Benegal, Shaji N.Karun, Adoor Gopalakrishnan and Girish Kasaravalli Ray's films include The Apu Trilogy, consisting of Pather Panchali (1955), Aparajito (1956) and The World of Apu (1959). The three films won major prizes at the Cannes, Berlin and Venice Film Festivals, and are frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.
Film production house
There are more than 1000 production houses in the Indian film industry, but few have managed to be successful in the market. AVM Productions is an Indian film production studio. It is the oldest surviving studio in India. Such production houses have helped Indian cinema reach an international platform, releasing films and distributing them to audiences overseas. Some well-known production houses in the Indian film industry include Yash Raj Films, Red Chillies Entertainment, Dharma Productions, Eros International, Balaji Motion Pictures, UTV Motion Pictures, Indian Movies Limited and Geetha Arts.
Music in Indian cinema is a substantial revenue generator, with the music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. The major film music companies of India are Saregama and Sony Music. Commercially, film music accounts for 48% India's net music sales. A typical Indian film may have around 5–6 choreographed songs spread throughout the film's length.
The demands of a multicultural, increasingly globalized Indian audience often led to a mixing of various local and international musical traditions. Local dance and music nevertheless remain a time tested and recurring theme in India and have made their way outside of India's borders with its diaspora. Playback singers such as Mohammad Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar drew large crowds with national and international film music stage shows. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st saw extensive interaction between artists from India and the western world. Artists from Indian diaspora blended the traditions of their heritage to those of their country to give rise to popular contemporary music.
Film location in India
In filmmaking, a location is any place where a film crew will be filming actors and recording their dialog. A location where dialog is not recorded may be considered as a second unit photography site. Filmmakers often choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place, however location shooting is also often motivated by the film's budget.
The most popular locations for film shooting in India are typically the centres of Indian cinema - Mumbai for Hindi and Marathi cinema, Kochi for Malayalam cinema, Chennai for Tamil cinema, Hyderabad for Telugu cinema, Calcutta for Bengali cinema, Bangalore for Kannada cinema and so on. Apart from these there are several national locations which are prominently used by Indian filmmakers. These include Manali and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Srinagar and Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, Lucknow, Agra and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Ooty in Tamil Nadu, Amritsar in Punjab, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Jaipur in Rajasthan, Delhi, Kerala and Goa.
This section lists the most important film awards given for Indian cinema by national and state authorities.
Below are the major non-governmental (private) awards.
Filmfare Awards South
|1954||Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.|
|Screen Awards||1994||Screen Weekly|
|Zee Cine Awards||1998||Zee Entertainment Enterprises|
|Asianet Film Awards||1998||Asianet|
|IIFA Awards||2000||Wizcraft International Entertainment Pvt Ltd|
|Zee Gaurav Puraskar||2003||Zee Entertainment Enterprises|
|Apsara Awards||2004||Apsara Producers Guilt awards|
|Marathi International Film and Theatre Awards||2010||Marathi Film Industry|
|South Indian International Movie Awards||2012||South Indian Film Industry|
|Punjabi International Film Academy Awards||2012||Parvasi Media Inc.|
|Prag Cine Awards||2013||Prag AM Television|
|Filmfare Awards East||2014||Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.|
Film institutes in India
Several institutes, both government run and private, provide formal education in various aspects of filmmaking. Some of the prominent ones include:
- AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
- Annapurna International School of Film and Media, Hyderabad
- Asian Academy of Film & Television
- Biju Pattnaik Film and Television Institute of Odisha
- BOFTA - Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy, Kodambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
- Centre for advanced media studies, Patiala
- Department of Culture & Media studies, Central University of Rajasthan
- Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), Pune
- Film-Theater Studies, SOH, Tamil Nadu Open University, Saidapet, Chennai
- Government Film and Television Institute, Bangalore
- K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA), Kottayam, Kerala
- L. V. Prasad Film & TV Academy, Chennai
- MGR Film and Television institute, Chennai
- Matrikas Film School
- National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad
- Palme Deor Media College, Tambaram west, Chennai and Arulananda Nagar, Thanjavur
- Regional Government Film and Television Institute (RGFTI), Guwahati
- Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute, Calcutta
- School of Media and Cultural Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
- Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka
- Whistling Woods International
- National school of drama(NSD) Delhi
- Bengaluru International Film Festival
- Bollywood 100 Crore Club
- Bollywood 1000 Crore Club
- Cinema of Bangladesh
- Cinema of Nepal
- Cinema of Pakistan
- Cinema of West Bengal
- List of Indian animated movies
- International Film Festival of India
- International Film Festival of Kerala
- Khans of Bollywood
- Kolkata International Film Festival
- List of cinema of the world
- List of highest-grossing Indian films
- List of Indian Academy Award winners and nominees
- Malayalam cinema
- Joshi, Hemant. "Indywood The Indian Film Industry" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Gaikwad, Sanjay. "The real aspiration for movies and growth of screens lie in tier-2 and -3 India". PressReader. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Tamil leads as India tops film production". Times of India. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Table 11: Exhibition - Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Hasan Suroor (26 October 2012). "Arts : Sharmila Tagore honoured by Edinburgh University". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Electrolux-2nd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Dadasaheb Phalke Father of Indian Cinema". Thecolorsofindia.com. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Bāpū Vāṭave; National Book Trust (2004). Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. National Book Trust. ISBN 978-81-237-4319-6. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Sachin Sharma (28 June 2012). "Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Vilanilam, J. V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 128. ISBN 81-7829-515-6.
- "::Directorate of Film Festivals::". Dff.nic.in. 10 June 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Khanna, 155
- "Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second largest film producer – UN". United Nations. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Chinese film industry races close to Bollywood". The Times of India. 10 January 2011.
- Bollywood 2012: Nine Blockbusters. Hollywoodreporter.com (28 December 2012). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Frater, Patrick (13 April 2016). "Asia Expands Domination of Global Box Office". Variety. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Dangal grossed $301m worldwide
- Khanna, 158
- Khanna, 159
- "Business Line: Today's Paper / MARKETING: Disney fantasy film in Telugu, Tamil". Business Line. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Walt Disney picks Shruti, Siddharth!". The Times of India. 17 March 2010.
- Khanna, 156
- 'Baahubali' Catapults Toward All-Time Record Indian Gross. Forbes.com (14 July 2015). Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Times of India". The Times Of India.
- Potts, 74
- Potts, 75
- Burra & Rao, 252
- McKernan, Luke (31 December 1996). "Hiralal Sen (copyright British Film Institute)". Retrieved 1 November 2006.
- Kadam, Kumar (24 April 2012). "दादासाहेब तोरणेंचे विस्मरण नको!". Archived from the original on 8 October 2013.
- Raghavendara, MK (5 May 2012). "What a journey".
- Damle, Manjiri (21 April 2012). "Torne's 'Pundlik' came first, but missed honour". The Times Of India.
- Mishra, Garima (3 May 2012). "Bid to get Pundalik recognition as first Indian feature film".
- Burra & Rao, 253
- "Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany : The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- The Hindu : Friday Review Hyderabad : 'Nijam cheppamantara, abaddham cheppamantara ...'
- Velayutham, Selvaraj. Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2.
- Muthiah, S. (7 September 2009). "The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Burra & Rao, 252–253
- Purohit, Vinayak (1988). Arts of transitional India twentieth century, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan. p. 985. ISBN 978-0-86132-138-4. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- [Narayanan, Arandhai (2008) (in Tamil) Arambakala Tamil Cinema (1931–1941). Chennai: Vijaya Publications. pp. 10–11. ISBN].
- "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. Retrieved 12 November 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Nagaiah – noble, humble and kind-hearted". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 April 2005.
- "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V. Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Narasimham, M. L. (7 November 2010). "SATI SAVITHRI (1933)". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Bhagwan Das Garg (1996). So many cinemas: the motion picture in India. Eminence Designs. p. 86. ISBN 81-900602-1-X.
- "The Hindu News". 6 May 2005.
- Burra & Rao, 254
- "First Indian Colour Film". Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "A revolutionary filmmaker". The Hindu. 22 August 2003. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Citation on the participation of Sant Tukaram in the 5th Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematographica in 1937". National Film Archive of India. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "How free is freedom of speech?". Postnoon. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Rajadhyaksa, 679
- Rajadhyaksa, 684
- Rajadhyaksa, 681–683
- Rajadhyaksa, 681
- "Satyajit Ray". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Aditya Chakrabortty. "Satyajit Ray's artifice and honesty set him apart from other film directors". the Guardian.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- World Archipelago. "Book Details". columbia.edu.
- "Satyajit Ray: five essential films". British Film Institute.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 17.
- Sharpe, Jenny (2005). "Gender, Nation, and Globalization in Monsoon Wedding and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge". Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism. 6 (1): 58–81 [60 & 75]. doi:10.1353/mer.2005.0032.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (July 2002). "Reviewed work(s): The Cinemas of India (1896–2000) by Yves Thoraval". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (29): 3023–4.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 18.
- Maker of innovative, meaningful movies. The Hindu, 15 June 2007
- Ghatak, Ritwik (2000). Rows and Rows of Fences: Ritwik Ghatak on Cinema. Ritwik Memorial & Trust Seagull Books. pp. ix & 134–36.
- Hood, John (2000). The Essential Mystery: The Major Filmmakers of Indian Art Cinema. Orient Longman Limited. pp. 21–4.
- "Do Bigha Zamin". Filmreference.com. 3 August 1980. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Srikanth Srinivasan (4 August 2008). "Do Bigha Zamin: Seeds of the Indian New Wave". Dear Cinema. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Rajadhyaksa, 683
- Sragow, Michael (1994). "An Art Wedded to Truth". The Atlantic Monthly. University of California, Santa Cruz. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "Subrata Mitra". Internet Encyclopedia of Cinematographers. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Nick Pinkerton (14 April 2009). "First Light: Satyajit Ray From the Apu Trilogy to the Calcutta Trilogy". The Village Voice. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- Ray, Satyajit. "Ordeals of the Alien". The Unmade Ray. Satyajit Ray Society. Archived from the original on 27 April 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
- Neumann P. "Biography for Satyajit Ray". Internet Movie Database Inc. Retrieved 29 April 2006.
- Newman J (17 September 2001). "Satyajit Ray Collection receives Packard grant and lecture endowment". UC Santa Cruz Currents online. Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 29 April 2006.
- Mother India on IMDb
- "Film Festival – Bombay Melody". University of California, Los Angeles. 17 March 2004. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- Bobby Sing (10 February 2008). "Do Ankhen Barah Haath (1957)". Bobby Talks Cinema. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Doniger, Wendy (2005). "Chapter 6: Reincarnation". The woman who pretended to be who she was: myths of self-imitation. Oxford University Press. pp. 112–136 .
- Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar, The Quint, December 11, 2015
- "Unmatched innings". The Hindu. 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- "India and Cannes: A Reluctant Courtship". Passion For Cinema. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 18–9.
- Santas, Constantine (2002). Responding to film: A Text Guide for Students of Cinema Art. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8304-1580-9.
- Kevin Lee (5 September 2002). "A Slanted Canon". Asian American Film Commentary. Retrieved 24 April 2009.
- Totaro, Donato (31 January 2003). "The "Sight & Sound" of Canons". Offscreen Journal. Canada Council for the Arts. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Sight and Sound Poll 1992: Critics". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- Aaron and Mark Caldwell (2004). "Sight and Sound". Top 100 Movie Lists. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "SIGHT AND SOUND 1992 RANKING OF FILMS". Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "SIGHT AND SOUND 1982 RANKING OF FILMS". Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "2002 Sight & Sound Top Films Survey of 253 International Critics & Film Directors". Cinemacom. 2002. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "'Mayabazar' is India's greatest film ever: IBNLive poll". Ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Iffi.nic.in. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Sivaji Ganesan's birth anniversary". The Times of India. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 132–133
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.
- Rajadhyaksa, 685
- Rajadhyaksa, 688
- Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Iffi.nic.in. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "End of a path-breaking journey". Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 16 May 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Pvt. Ltd. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
- "India's Oscar failures (25 Images)". Movies.ndtv.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Nayakan, All-Time 100 Best Films, Time, 2005
- Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (2013). The Eye Of The Serpent: An Introduction To Tamil Cinema. Westland. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4.
- "Cinema History Malayalam Cinema". Malayalamcinema.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- "The Movie Interview: Adoor Gopalakrishnan". Rediff. 31 July 1997. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- Adoor Gopalakrishnan on IMDb
- Shaji N. Karun on IMDb
- Arundhati Roy, Author-Activist india-today.com. Retrieved 16 June 2013
- "The Great Indian Rape-Trick" Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine., SAWNET - The South Asian Women's NETwork. Retrieved 25 November 2011
- Aruti Nayar (16 December 2007). "Bollywood on the table". The Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Christian Jungen (4 April 2009). "Urban Movies: The Diversity of Indian Cinema". FIPRESCI. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Muzaffar Raina (25 November 2013). "Protests hit Haider shoot on Valley campus". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "The Official Awards of the ninth edition of the Rome Film Festival". romacinefest.it. 25 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Velayutham, 174
- Desai, 38
- How To Become A Foreign Movie Star In China: Aamir Khan's 5-Point Formula For Success, Forbes, 11 June 2017
- Bollywood affair: how Indian cinema arrived in the USSR, The Calvert Journal, Calvert 22 Foundation, August 2015
- Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 43, Cornell University Press, 2011
- Do you remember Jimmy Jimmy?, SBS, 18 March 2017
- Dr. Sudha Ramachandran (2 June 2015). "Budding romance: Bollywood in China". Asia Times.
- Anil K. Joseph (20 November 2002). "Lagaan revives memories of Raj Kapoor in China". Press Trust of India. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
- "Rahman's 'Lagaan' cast a spell on me". Sify. 13 February 2004. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- "RussiaToday : Features: Bollywood challenges Hollywood in Russia". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
- Ashreena, Tanya. "Promoting Bollywood Abroad Will Help to Promote India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- Indian Films in Soviet Cinemas: The Culture of Movie-going After Stalin, page 75, Indiana University Press, 2005
- Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 44, Cornell University Press, 2011
- Behind The Scenes Of Hindi Cinema: A Visual Journey Through The Heart Of Bollywood, page 138, Royal Tropical Institute, 2005
- The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War, page 357, Routledge, 2014
- A Taste for Indian Films: Negotiating Cultural Boundaries in Post-Stalinist Soviet Society, page 312, Indiana University
- Sergey Kudryavtsev. "Зарубежные популярные фильмы в советском кинопрокате (Индия)".
- Sergey Kudryavtsev. "Зарубежные фильмы в советском кинопрокате".
- "Bollywood re-enters Russian homes via cable TV". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- 'Dangal' Makes More History In China, Joins List Of All-Time 20 Biggest Box Office Hits, Forbes, 9 June 2017
- Arthur J Pais (14 April 2009). "Why we admire Satyajit Ray so much". Rediff.com. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- Chris Ingui. "Martin Scorsese hits DC, hangs with the Hachet". Hatchet. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Sheldon Hall. "Ivory, James (1928–)". Screen Online. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- Dave Kehr (5 May 1995). "THE 'WORLD' OF SATYAJIT RAY: LEGACY OF INDIA'S PREMIER FILM MAKER ON DISPLAY". Daily News. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Suchetana Ray (11 March 2008). "Satyajit Ray is this Spanish director's inspiration". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- André Habib. "Before and After: Origins and Death in the Work of Jean-Luc Godard". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2006.
- Daniel Thomas (20 January 2003). "Film Reviews: Grave of the Fireflies (Hotaru no Haka)". Archived from the original on 6 February 2003. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- "On Ray's Trail". The Statesman. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- Robinson, A (2003). Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: the Biography of a Master Film-maker. I. B. Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-86064-965-3.
- "An Interview with Satyajit Ray". 1982. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- Carrigy, Megan (October 2003). "Ritwik Ghatak". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- "Asian Film Series No.9 GURU DUTT Retorospective". Japan Foundation. 2001. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- "Mutu: Odoru Maharaja" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Gautaman Bhaskaran (6 January 2002). "Rajnikanth casts spell on Japanese viewers". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- Desai, 37
- "Baz Luhrmann Talks Awards and 'Moulin Rouge'". About.com. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Guide Picks – Top Movie Musicals on Video/DVD". About.com. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Slumdog draws crowds, but not all like what they see". The Age. Melbourne. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
- "'Slumdog Millionaire' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- Chatterjee, Saibal (21 May 2008). "Indian film-makers going global". BBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Slumdog gets 10 Oscar noms". Rediff News. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- "Netflix set to enter Bollywood-mad India - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "CNN Travel". CNN.
- "Thehindu.com King of Good times Prasad's Imax". The Hindu Newspaper. 7 August 2011.
- "The Seven IMAX Wonders of the World". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Ramoji Film City sets record". Business Line. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 98.
- Matthew Jones (January 2010). "Bollywood, Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions, Meanings and Millionaire". Visual Anthropology. 23 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1080/08949460903368895.
- Cooper, Darius (2000). The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-521-62980-5.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 98–99.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 99.
- Wollen, Peter. "Third World Third Cinema". dogCORP5Billion. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul; Paul Willemen (1994). Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; British Film Institute (London). ISBN 0-19-563579-5.
- "Film Federation Of India".
- "Joymati". IMDb.
- Lakshmi B. Ghosh, A rare peep into world of Assamese cinema The Hindu: New Delhi News: A rare peep into world of Assamese cinema, The Hindu, 2006
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 138
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 139
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 138–140
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 129
- Jamai Shashthi on IMDb: first Bengali talkie
- Sarkar, Bhaskar (2008). "The Melodramas of Globalization". Cultural Dynamics. 20 (1): 31–51 . doi:10.1177/0921374007088054.
- "First Film Produced In Different Languages". merapahad.in. 2 April 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010.
- "Central Board of Film Certification". cbfcindia.gov.in.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "फिल्म 'कान्हा की ब्रज भूमि' में दिखेगा आगरा". jagran. 17 April 2013.
- "- ‘ब्रज की राधा द्वारिका के श्याम’ में झलकेगी ब्रज की संस्कृति - Amar Ujala". Amarujala.
- "ब्रज फिल्म की शूटिंग शुरू". jagran. 1 May 2012.
- Mesthrie, Rajend (1991). Language in Indenture: A Sociolinguistic History of Bhojpuri-Hindi in South Africa. London: Routledge. pp. 19–32. ISBN 978-0-415-06404-0.
- Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo on IMDb
- "The Telegraph – Calcutta: etc". The Telegraph. Calcutta. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Move over Bollywood, Here's Bhojpuri," BBC News Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/south_asia/4512812.stm
- "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Pg 37 ''A film entitled "Kahi Debe Sandesh" the first film to be produced in Chhattisgarh dialect was released for commercial exhibition at Durg''. Books.google.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- P.E.N. All-India Centre, Bombay (1969). "The Indian P.E.N., Volume 35". The Indian P.E.N., Volume 35. 35: 362. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Ghosh, Avijit (16 May 2010). "Chhollywood calling". Times of India. Times of India. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanayake (17 April 2013). Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge. pp. 88–99. ISBN 978-1-136-77284-9.
- "NEWS: Limping at 75". Screen (magazine). 4 May 2007.
- "'Dhollywood' at 75 finds few takers in urban Gujarat". Financial Express. 22 April 2007.
- "Gujarati cinema: A battle for relevance". dna. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Golly! Gujarati films cross 1k mark". The Times of India. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- Roy, Mithun (3 May 2005). "Crisis-hit Gujarati film industry gets 100% tax rebate". Business Standard News. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Bachchan Receives Lifetime Achievement Award at DIFF". Khaleej Times. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
- "When Bollywood's ex-lovers reunited to work together" (Mid-Day.com). Mid Day. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Pippa de Bruyn; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain (2006). Frommer's India. Frommer's. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-471-79434-9.Crusie, Jennifer; Yeffeth, Glenn (2005). Flirting with Pride & Prejudice. BenBella Books, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-932100-72-3.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 10–11
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 10
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 11
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (1998). Oxford Guide to Film Studies. Eds. John Hill and Church Gibson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- "GFTI Bangalore". www.filminstitutebangalore.com/. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Annual report 2009" (PDF). Central Board of Film Certification, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Panaji Konkani Cinema – A Long Way to Go". Daijiworld.com. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Yahoo! Groups". Yahoo!. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- "Konkani Cinema Day – Some Reflections | iGoa". Navhindtimes.in. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- N. J. Nair (23 October 2005). "His pioneering effort set the cameras rolling". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (7 September 2009). "Balan 1938". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Jonathan Crow. "Balan (1938)". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Renaissance for Udaya Studio". The Hindu. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (1 November 2008). "Neelakuyil 1954". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (20 May 2005). "Newspaper Boy: a flashback to the Fifties". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- B. Vijayakumar (22 November 2010). "Chemmeen 1965". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Filmfare for Malayalam Films".
- Special Correspondent (12 January 2016). "Cinema an integral part of our cultural identity". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "History of Oriya Film Industry". izeans.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Orissa Cinema:: History of Orissa Cinema, Chronology of Orissa Films". orissacinema.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "Jatt, Juliet and jameen". Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "Interview with Sange Dorjee". DearCinema. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.
- From the UMICH website
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 133
- Ethiraj, Gopal (14 December 2009). "Rajini is simple, stylish, spiritual, that explains his uniqueness". Asian Tribune. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". The Times of India. 2 October 2010.
- "Telugu film industry enters new era". Blonnet.com. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Largest film studio". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Telugu Cinema Celebrity - Raghupati Venkaiah Naidu". www.idlebrain.com. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "acting mentor". The New Indian Express.
- "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V.Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Mahabhinishkramana, Viswa Nata Chakravarti, M. Sanjay Kishore, Sangam Akademy, Hyderabad, 2005, pp: 69–70.
- "NTR, Sridevi greatest actor of all times in India: survey – Hindustan Times". hindustantimes.com.
- "Arts / Cinema : Conscientious filmmaker". The Hindu (Press release). 7 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Tikkavarapu Pattabhirama Reddy – Poet, Film maker of international fame from NelloreOne Nellore". 1nellore.com. One Nellore.
- "Stars : Star Profiles : Adurti Subbarao: A Tribute". telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
- "Wish singer SPB on his birthday today". The Times of India. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "S P Balasubramaniam". FilmiBeat.
- "S.P. Balasubramanyam - The Man Who Broke The Guiness Book Of Records". lokvani.com.
- "Telugu star Shoban Babu passes away". Hindustan Times. 21 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Social Post (25 March 2009). "Kantha Rao becomes a memory | News – Oneindia Entertainment". Entertainment.oneindia.in. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "100 Years of Cinema: The men who changed the face of Indian films". ibnlive.in.com. IBNLive.
- "AU confers honorary degrees on Chiru, others". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Tulu Cinema at 35". raveeshkumar.com.
- "Quiet voices from afar". dna. 11 November 2006.
- "Things fall apart". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 April 2006.
- "Filmmaker extraordinary". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 July 2006.
- "'Oriyardori Asal' headed for 175-day run in theatres!". Dakshintimes.com. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "It's been a roller-coaster for 40 years". Chennai, India: The Hindu. May 20, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
- "Trends and genres". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 132
- "Take One: The First Annual Village Voice Film Critics' Poll". The Village Voice. 1999. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
- "All-Time 100 Best Movies". Time. 12 February 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- "The Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1992". Sight & Sound. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made By THE FILM CRITICS OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, The New York Times, 2002.
- Business, Standard. "The myth of the overseas market". www.business-standard.com/. Business-Standard. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- Thompson, 74
- Zumkhawala-Cook, 312
- ScoopWhoop. "13 Locations In India Made Famous By Bollywood Movies".
- "Top filming locations in India". 26 October 2015.
- Hungama, Bollywood (16 November 2006). "Vinod Chopra awarded Sunil Dutt Punjab Rattan Award - Vidhu Vinod Chopra - Latest Celebrity news". Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- BOFTA - Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy, Kodambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
- GFTI. "GFTI". www.filminstitutebangalore.com. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- KRNNIVSA. "Govt Film Institute in Kerala". www.krnnivsa.edu.in. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- L.V.Prasad Film & TV Academy. "prasadacademy.com". prasadacademy.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "matrikasfilmschool.com". matrikasfilmschool.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "National Institute of Design - Film and Video Communication". Nid.edu. Retrieved 25 April 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Palme Deor Media College
- http://smcs.tiss.edu/. Missing or empty
- Suresh Chabria; Paolo Cherchi Usai (1994). Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-81-224-0680-1.
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31350-4.
- Desai, Jigna (2004). Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96684-9.
- K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.
- Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
- Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.
- Narweker, Sanjit, ed. Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0-948911-40-9
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
- Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-811257-0.
- Passek, Jean-Loup, ed. (1983). Le cinéma indien. Paris: Centre national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou. ISBN 9782864250371. OCLC 10696565.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6.
- Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.
- Watson, James L. (2009), Globalization, Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.
- Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928. Superintendent, The Government Press, Madras. 1928.
- Dwyer, Rachel; Patel, Divia (2002). Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film. ISBN 978-0-8135-3175-5.
- Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cinema of India.|