List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect, the term culture specifically including aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, etc.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted. Multiracial groups (such as Métis and Coloureds) should be listed as subgroups of the ethnic groups they are descended from.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups (i.e. less than 100,000) are often indigenous peoples.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (millions; estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abazins Northwestern CaucasianAbazgiAbaza Abazinia (Russia) 0.2 million Askharua, Tapanta IslamSunni Islam
Abkhazians Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Abkhazia (Georgia)[1] 0.2 million Bzyb, Abzhui, Zamurzakan ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Acoli Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoAcholi Acoliland (Uganda, South Sudan) 1.2 million Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticAfar Afaria (Ethiopia), Djibouti 2.3–4.2 million Islam
African Americans[2] Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglishAmerican EnglishAfrican-American English[3] United States 40.9 million Gullah, Black Hebrew Israelites,[a] Americo-Liberians, Black Nova Scotians (specifically descendants of Black Loyalists), Krio,[4] Black Seminoles ChristianityProtestantism
Afrikaners[5] Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutchAfrikaans South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape), Namibia 3.5 million[6] Boers, Coloureds[7] (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) ChristianityProtestantism
Agaw Afro-AsiaticCushiticAgaw Agew Awi (Ethiopia) 0.9 million Bilen, Awi, Qemant ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Akan Niger–CongoKwaPotou-TanoAkan Ghana, Ivory Coast 20 million[8] Asante, Akuapem, Akyem, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé, Rastafaris,[a] Antiguans,[b][9] along with numerous slave descendants[10] in[9] Jamaica[11] (including Jamaican Maroons, Krio,[4] Raizals, Afro-Costa Ricans,[12] Miskito Coast Creoles, and Bocas del Toro Creoles),and Suriname (including Afro-Suriname creoles[13] and Ndyuka) Christianity
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro (Ulcinj and Gusinje), Kosovo[14] 7–8 million Ghegs, Tosks, Kosovars, along with significant populations in Turkey, Italy (including Arbëreshë), Greece, Germany, Switzerland and United States Islam
Ambundu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 4 million[8] Angolares Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Amharia (Ethiopia) 30 million ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Anuak Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAnuak Anuakia (Ethiopia) 0.3 million Christianity
Apache Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApache Yavapai-Apache Nation (United States) 0.12 Native American religion
Arabs[15] AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arabia (Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) 450 million[16] Bedouins, Druze,[a] Bahrainis,[b][17] Shirazi[18] (including Zanzibaris), Iraqis[19] (including Marsh Arabs), Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Lebanese[20] (including Maronites),[a] Omanis, Qataris, Saudis, Syrians[19] (including Alawites),[a] Emiratis, Yemenis (including Hadhrami), along with significant poulations in Brazil, Indonesia, Sudan,[21] Chad,[22] Iran, Turkey, India, Venezuela, and the United States Islam
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Armenia, Republic of Artsakh 7 million Hemshin,[23] Cherkesogai, along with significant populations in Russia, United States, France, Georgia (including the Javakheti Armenians), Lebanon, and Germany Christianity
Aromanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceAromanian Southern Balkans[24] 0.3 million significant populations in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Assyrians[25] AfroasiaticSemiticAssyrian Neo-Aramaic Assyria (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey) 2–3.3 million Mandaeans,[a] Iraqis[19] (including Marsh Arabs), Syrians[19] (including Alawites),[a] Rûm,[a][26] along with significant populations in the United States and Sweden Christianity
Austrians Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAustro-Bavarian Austria 8-8.5 million South Tyroleans, along with significant populations in United States, Canada, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar–AndicAvar Avaristan (Russia) 1.5 million Avar-Andi-Dido peoples IslamSunni Islam
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 1.8 million ChristianityCatholicism
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Azerbaijan, South Azerbaijan (Iran) 28–35 million Qarapapaqs, Bayat,[27] Shahsevan, Karadaghis, Ayrums, Iranian Azerbaijanis, along with significant populations in Georgia and Russia IslamShia Islam
Balanta Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBakBalanta Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and The Gambia 0.4 million Islam, Traditional African religions
Balinese AustronesianSunda-SulawesiBalinese Bali (Indonesia) 4.2 million HinduismBalinese Hinduism
Balkars TurkicCommon TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.13 million IslamSunni Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianBalochi Balochistan (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) 10 million significant populations in the United Arab Emirates and Turkmenistan IslamSunni Islam
Balti Sino-TibetanTibeticLadakhi-BaltiBalti Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.5 million IslamShia Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese Myanmar 30 million Anglo-Burmese[28] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger–CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 2.7 million Haratin[29] Islam
Banda Ubangian languagesBanda languages Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million Christianity
Bariba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSavannasBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.4 million Islam
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 2 million Islam
Basques Basque Basque Country (Spain, France) 2.4 million[30] signiifcant populations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Uruguay ChristianityCatholicism
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicBelarusian Belarus 9.5–10 million significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanBengali Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura, Barak Valley) 300 million[31] Sylhetis, Bangladeshis,[b] along with significant populations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States Islam, Hinduism
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisa, Libya, Mauritania, Western Sahara) 25–30 million[32]–50 million[33][34][35][36][37] Tuaregs, Kabyle, Chaoui, Arab-Berbers[38] (including Algerians,[b] Libyans, Moroccans, Sahrawi, Tunisians), along with significant populations in France (including Arabs in France),[39] Belgium (including Moroccans in Belgium), and the Netherlands (including Moroccan-Dutch) IslamSunni Islam
Berta Nilo-SaharanBerta Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million Islam
Beti[40] Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuBeti Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea 3 million Fang, Ewondo, Eton, Bulu, Bebil, Bebele Christianity
Bissa Niger–CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.7 million Islam
Bodo Sino-TibetanBrahmaputranBodo-GaroBodo Bodoland (India) 1.5 million Bathouism
Bosniaks[41] Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak (Serbia, Montenegro) 3–4.5 million significant populations in Serbia, Turkey, Austria, Germany and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Brahui DravidianBrahui Pakistan 2.4 million[42] Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicBreton[43] Brittany (France) 6–8 million ChristianityCatholicism
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicBulgarian Bulgaria, Western Outlands (Serbia), Budjak (Ukraine) 9–11.3 million Pomaks,[a] along with significant populations in Turkey, Ukraine and Moldova, Romania and Serbia, Germany, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries (Spain, France) 8–10 million[44] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans[b] ChristianityCatholicism
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 1.5-2 million Kists IslamSunni Islam
Cherokee IroquoianCherokee[45] United States (North Carolina, Tennessee)[46] 0.3 million[47] Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band, United Keetoowah Band Christianity
Chin Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin-NagaChin Chin State (Myanmar) 2.1 million Kukis, Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom, Lushai, Hmar, Anal, Koireng, Zomi Christianity
Choctaw Muskogean languagesChoctaw Choctaw Nation (United States) 0.2 million Native American religion
Chokwe Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 2 million Virjal, Anatri ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian Circassia (Russia) 4–8 million Circassian tribes: Adygeans, Kabardians, Cherkess, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 12 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicCornish[48] Cornwall (United Kingdom) 6–11 million significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican Corsica (France) 0.3 million Christianity
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree Creeland (Canada), Montana 0.4 million Métis (including Métis in Canada), Oji-Cree Christianity, Native American religion
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7.5–8.5 million Bunjevci, Krashovani, Janjevci, Sokci, along with significant populations in Italy (including Molise Croats), Austria, United States, Chile, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, along with significant populations in United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Dagaaba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1 million Traditional African religions, Islam, Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicDanish Denmark 7 million significant populations in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Germany. ChristianityProtestantism
Dargins Northeast CaucasianDarginDargwa Darginstan in Dagestan (Russia) 0.7 million Islam
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticDinka Dinkaland (South Sudan) 5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Duala Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSawabantuDuala Littoral Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million Kole, Mboko, Kwe, Wovea, Subu, Mungo, Limba Christianity, Traditional African religions
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicDutch Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) 16–29 million[49] Flemings, Arubans Mennonites,[a][50] Surinamese (including Afro-Surinamese creoles),[13] Dutch Indonesians, along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Christianity
Dyula Niger–CongoMandeMandingDyula Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali 2.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.6 million Christianity, Traditional African religionsEfik mythology
Egyptians[51] AfroasiaticEgyptianCoptic[52] Egypt 100 million Sa'idis, Copts[a] IslamSunni Islam
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish England (United Kingdom) 100 million Australians,[b] English Canadians, Kriols,[53] English Americans, Anglo-Burmese[28] ChristianityProtestantism
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million Võros, Setos ChristianityProtestantism
Ewe Niger–CongoGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million Christianity, Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun
Fijians AustronesianOceanicCentral PacificFijian Fiji 0.6 million ChristianityProtestantism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland, Meänmaa (Sweden), Ingria (Russia) 6.5 million Kvens, Forest Finns, along with significant populations in Sweden (including Tornedalians), Russia, United States, and Canada. ChristianityProtestantism
Fon Niger–CongoGbeFon Dahomey (Benin) 4.1 million[8] Numerous slave descendants (particularly Afro-Haitians (including Louisiana Creoles), Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, and Afro-Puerto Ricans) Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrench France, Romandy (Switzerland), Wallonia-Brussels (Belgium), Aosta Valley (Italy) 100 million[54] Walloons, Romands, Arpitans, Pieds-Noirs,[55], Waldensians,[a], Quebecers, Métis (including Métis in Canada), Haitians (including Afro-Haitians), French West Indians, French Guianese, along with significant populations in the United States (including Louisiana Creoles), Madagascar, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicFrisian Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 1.5 million West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityProtestantism
Friulians RomanceRhaeto-RomanceFriulian Friuli (Italy) 0.6 million ChristianityCatholicism
Fula Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoSenegambianFula West Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Mali)[56] 20-25 million Wodaabe, Haratin,[29] Toucouleur Islam
Fur Nilo-SaharanDarfuranFur Darfur (Sudan) 1 million IslamSunni Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa-Dangme Greater Accra (Ghana) 2 million Ga, Adangbe Christianity
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova), Budjak (Ukraine) 0.2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galicians Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia (Spain) 3.2 million ChristianityCatholicism
Ganda Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.3 million Abayudaya[a][57] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Garifuna[58] ArawakanIgneriGarifuna Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[59] 0.6 million Black Caribs ChristianityCatholicism
Gbagyi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidGwari Nigeria 0.4 million Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 5–7 million Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans, Bats ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicGerman Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Alsace (France) 100–150 million[60] Bavarians, Franconians, Hessians, Swabians, Alsatians, German Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Pomeranians, Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Silesian Germans, Carpathian Germans, Danube Swabians, Transylvanian Saxons, Amish,[a] Hutterites,[a] Mennonites,[a][50] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Kazakhstan, Belgium, and Denmark. Christianity
Gorontaloan AustronesianGorontalo-MongondowGorontaloan Gorontalo (Indonesia) 1.9 million IslamSunni Islam
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece, Cyprus 14–17 million Greek Cypriots,[61] Pontic Greeks,[62] Cappadocian Greeks,[62] Sarakatsani, Urums, [63] along with significant populations in Albania (including Northern Epirotes), Italy, Ukraine, Georgia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guaranís TupiTupi-GuaraniGuarani Amazonia (Paraguay) 0.3 million Paraguayans Guarani mythology, ChristianityCatholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanGujarati Gujarat (India) 50–60 million[64] Gujarati Americans, Zarabes Hinduism
Gumuz Afro-Asiatic languagesKomuzGumuz Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million Traditional African religion
Gurage Afro-AsiaticSemiticSouth SemiticGurage Guragia (Ethiopia) 3.6 million Christianity
Gurma Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaGurma Gurmaland (Burkina Faso), Niger 3.3 million Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurGurunsi Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 0.9 million Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Nuna, Kassena Traditional African religions, IslamSunni Islam
Hadiya AfroasiaticCushiticHighland East CushiticHadiyya Hadiya & Gurage Zones (Ethiopia) 1 million Christianity, Islam
Han Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China, Taiwan 1,300 million[65] Hui[a][66] (including Dungan),[a] along with significant populations in the United States, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand,[67] Indonesia, Myanmar (including Panthays),[a] Canada, the Philippines (including Sangley), Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France (including Chinois), the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, and Panama Chinese folk religion[68]
Harari Afro-AsiaticSemiticEthiopianHarari Hararia (Ethiopia) 0.2 million Islam
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Hausaland (Niger, Nigeria) 50 million Islam
Hawaiians AustronesianPolynesianHawaiian[69] Hawaii (United States) 0.5 million Christianity
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianDariHazaragi Afghanistan 7–8 million IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuHerero Hereroland (Namibia), Angola 0.3 million OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongicWest HmongicHmong China (Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei), Vietnam, Laos, Thailand 14-15 million Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion, Buddhism, Christianity
Huli Trans-New GuineaEnganHuli Southern Highlands Province (Papua New Guinea) 0.3 million Christianity
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary, Székely Land (Romania), Felvidék (Slovakia) 13.1–14.7 million Jasz, Palóc, along with significant populations in Romania (including Székelys and Csangos), Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Germany, the United States, and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 18.5 million Christianity
Ibibio Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoBenue–CongoCross RiverLower Cross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 5 million Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.5 million ChristianityProtestantism
Igbo Niger–CongoIgboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 34 million[8] Antiguans,[b][9] Bahamians,[b][9][70] Barbadians,[b][9] along with numerous slave descendants (particularly Kriols,[53] Afro-Dominicans of Dominica, Afro-Grenadians, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Vincentians, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, and Afro-Puerto Ricans) Christianity
Ijaw Niger–CongoIjaw Nigeria (Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta States) 10 million Christianity
Ingushes Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhIngush Ingushetia (Russia) 0.7 million IslamSunni Islam
Inuit Eskimo-AleutInuit Greenland (Denmark), Canada (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, NunatuKavut), Alaska (United States) 0.2 million Greenlandic Inuit (including Kalaallit) Christianity
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicIrish[71] Ireland (Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom) 70–80 million[72] Irish Travellers and significant populations in the United States,[73] the United Kingdom,[74] Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityCatholicism
Iroquois IroquoianNorthern Iroquoian languages Haudenosauneega (United States, Canada) 0.2 million Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora Longhouse Religion
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalian Italy[75] 60–140 million[76] Sicilians, Waldensians,[a] Argentines,[b] along with significant populations in Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityCatholicism
Japanese[77] JaponicJapanese Japan 133 million Kantō, Kansai, Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Hōnichi, Satsugū, Chūgoku, Echigo, Tōkai, Shinshuu, Hokuriku, Hachijō, Nikkei Shinto
Javanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianJavanese Java (Indonesia) 105 million[78] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, Javanese Malaysians IslamSunni Islam, Hinduism
Jews[79] AfroasiaticSemiticNorthwest SemiticCanaaniteHebrew[80] Israel 17-20 million Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, Sephardim, Teimanim, Italkim, Romaniotes, Mountain Jews, Krymchaks, Litvaks, Cochin Jews, Beta Israel, Bene Israel, Lemba,[81] Crimean Karaites,[82] Samaritans,[a][83] Messianic Jews,[a][84] Israelis, Palestinians (including Arab citizens of Israel and Palestinian Jews)[85] along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Jingpo Sino-TibetanSalJingpho Kachin State (Myanmar), Yunnan (China) 1.1 million Christianity, Animism
Jola Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoBak-BijagoJola Jolaland (Senegal) 0.5 million Traditional African religions
Kalanga Niger–Congo languagesAtlantic–CongoBantuKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.9 million Nambya Traditional African religion, Christianity
Kalenjin Nilo-SaharanNiloticSouthern NiloticKalenjin Rift Valley Province (Kenya) 5 million Keiyo, Tugen, Marakwet, Nandi, Kipsigis, Sabaot, Pökoot, Sebei Christianity
Kannadigas DravidianKannada Karnataka (India) 37–55 million Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Kanuriland (Nigeria), Niger, Chad, Cameroon 10 million Kanembu Islam
Karachays TurkicCommon TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.6 million IslamSunni Islam
Karen Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanKaren Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 7 million Karen, Pwo Karen BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Karenni Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanKarenni language Kayah State (Myanmar) 0.2 million Kayan Animism, BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanDardicKashmiri Kashmir (India, Pakistan) 5.6 million[86][87] Kashmiri Pandits,[a] Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam
Kashubians Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPomeranianKashubian language Kashubia (Poland) 0.6 million ChristianityCatholicism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 17 million significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanNepali Nepal 12.9 million Chhetri, Bahun Hinduism
Khakas TurkicSiberian TurkKhakas Khakassia (Russia) 0.1 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 15–17 million Cambodian Americans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kikuyu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuKikuyu Kenya 9.9 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Komi UralicPermicKomi language Komi Republic, Permyakia (Russia) 0.6 million Komi-Zyrians, Komi-Permyaks, Izhma Komi ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanKonkani Goa (India) 7.4 million Hinduism
Kongo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKongo Kongoland (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola) 10 million[8] Lari, Vili, Mayombe, Bahamians,[b][9][70] along with numerous slave descendants (particularly Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Trinbagonians, Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Ecuadorians, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, Afro-Brazilians (including Pardo Brazilians), and Afro-Surinamese) Christianity, Traditional African religionsKongo religion
Koreans KoreanicKorean Korea 82.5 million[88] significant populations in the United States, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Buddhism, Christianity
Kumyks TurkicKypchakKumyk Kumykia in Dagestan and Chechnya (Russia) 0.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianKurdish Kurdistan (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria) 30–38 million Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Yazidis,[a] Shabak,[a] along with significant populations in France and Germany. IslamSunni Islam
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Laks Northeast CaucasianLak Lakia in Dagestan (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Lango Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLango Uganda 1.8 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Lao Tai-KadaiTaiSouthwestern TaiLao Laos 4 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.5–1.6 million Latgalians, Kursenieki, Selonians ChristianityProtestantism
Laz KartvelianKarto-ZanZanLaz Lazistan (Turkey, Georgia) 0.2–1 million IslamSunni Islam, ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Lezgins Northeast Caucasian languagesLezgicLezgian Lezgistan (Russia, Azerbaijan) 1 million IslamSunni Islam
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7–4.1 million Samogitians, Aukstaitians, Lietuvninkai ChristianityCatholicism
Luba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuLuban Lubaland (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 13 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLuo Kenya, Tanzania 7 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Luxembourgers Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicHigh GermanLuxembourgish Luxembourg, Arelerland (Belgium) 0.5 million significant populations in Brazil, and United States ChristianityCatholicism
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianLuri Iran 5 million IslamShia Islam
Maasai Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticMaasai Maasailand (Tanzania, Kenya) 1.7 miilion Samburu Maasai faith
Macedonians[89] Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian Republic of Macedonia 2.5 million Torbesh,[a] Mijaks, along with significant populations in Australia and Greece ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMafa Cameroon 0.8 million Christianity
Makassarese AustronesianSouth SulawesiMakassaricMakassarese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 3 million Sunni Islam
Malays AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalay Malay world (Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia) 30 million Kedahans, Pattani, Kelantanese, Terengganuans, Pahang, Perakians, Berau, Bruneians, Cape Malays[90] IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianMalayalam Kerala (India) 40–60 million significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.4 million Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicSiculo-ArabicMaltese Malta 0.7 million Gozitans ChristianityCatholicism
Manchu AltaicTungusicManchu[91] Manchuria (China) 10.4 million Manchu shamanism, Buddhism
Mandinka Niger–CongoMandeMandingMandinka (Mandingo), Maninka, Kassonke, Kita Maninka Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Ivory Coast 13 million[8] numerous slave descendants (particularly Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Panamanians, and Cape Verdeans) Islam, Christianity
Manx Indo-EuropeanCelticGaelicManx[92] Isle of Man 0.1 million significant populations in Australia, United States, and Canada ChristianityProtestantism
Māori AustronesianPolynesianMāori[93] New Zealand 0.9 million Cook Islanders Christianity
Mapuche AraucanianMapudungun Wallmapu (Chile,Argentina) 1.7 million Huilliche Christianity
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMarathi Maharashtra (India) 87 million[94] Mahar Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Mari El (Russia) 0.6 million Meadow Mari, Hill Mari ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasa Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million Christianity, Islam
Masalit Nilo-SaharanMabanMasalit Sudan, Chad 0.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Mayans Mayan Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), Honduras, El Salvador 7 million Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Xinca, Tektitek, Huastecan, Mopan, Lacandon, Chontal, Akatek, Jakaltek, Q'anjob'al, Tzeltal, Mocho', Tojolab'al, Mam, Ixil, Tzotzil, Poqomam, Yucatecan, Motozintlecos, Awakatek, Kaqchikel, Sakapultek, Sipakapense, Uspantek, Ch'ol, Tz'utujil, Hispanic Belizeans, Guatemalans ChristianityCatholicism, Maya religion
Mbaka UbangianNgbakaMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million ChristianityCatholicism, Traditional African religions
Mende [Niger–Congo]MandeSouthwestern MandeMende Sierra Leone (Southern and Eastern Provinces) 1.9 million Islam
Merina AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianEast BaritoMalagasy Antananarivo Province (Madagascar) 5 million Christianity
Minahasan AustronesianPhilippineMinahasan Minahassa Peninsula (Indonesia) 1.4 million ChristianityProtestantism
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianNuclear Malayo-PolynesianMalayo-SumbawanMalayicMalayanMinangkabau Indonesia 8 million IslamSunni Islam
Miskito MisumalpanMiskito Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua, Honduras) 0.2 million ChristianityProtestantism, Animism
Mixtec Oto-MangueanMixtecanMixtec Mexico 0.9 million Trique, Cuicatecs ChristianityCatholicism, Mesoamerican religion
Mon AustroasiaticMonicMon Mon State (Myanmar) 1.1 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Mongo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuBangi-NtombaMongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 12 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols AltaicMongolian China (Inner Mongolia, Dzungaria), Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia) 11 million Buryats, Oirats (including Kalmyks), Daur, Moghol, Hamnigan, Monguor, Yugur, Khatso, Santa, Bonan, Sart Kalmyks, Soyot, Sichuan Mongols, Sogwo Arig, Altai Uriankhai, Ordos, Kanja BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million significant populations in Serbia, and United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinic Mordovia (Russia) 0.8 million Erzyas, Mokshas, Teryukhans, Qaratays ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mossi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaMossi Mossiland (Burkina Faso) 7.6 million Islam
Naga Sino-TibetanNaga India (Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam), Myanmar 4 million Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Mao, Maram, Poumai, Rongmei, Sangtam, Sumi, Tangkhul, Tangsa and Zeliang Christianity
Nahuas Uto-Aztecan languagesNahuanNahuatl Mexico 2.5 million ChristianityCatholicism, Aztec religion
Nama[95] KhoeKhoekhoe Namaland (Namibia), South Africa 0.3 million[6] Damara, Coloureds[7] (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Christianity
Navajo Dené–YeniseianNa-DenéAthabaskanNavajo Navajo Nation (United States) 0.3 million ChristianityCatholicism
Ngalop Sino-TibetanTibeticDzongkha Bhutan 0.7 million Kheng, Bumthang BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Nias AustronesianNorthwest SumatranNias Nias island (Indonesia) 1 million Christianity
Nogais TurkicCommon TurkicKipchakNogai Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, Chechnya, Stavropol District, Astrakhan Oblast (Russia) 0.1 million Ak Nogai, Karagash IslamSunni Islam
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityProtestantism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian Nubia (Egypt, Sudan) 2–15 million Islam
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer Nuerland (South Sudan) 5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianNuristani Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million IslamSunni Islam
Occitans Indo-EuropeanItalicRomanceOccitano-RomanceOccitan Occitania (France, Italy, Spain) 16 million Aranese Christianity
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanOdia Odisha (India) 32 million[96] Hinduism
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Oromia(Ethiopia), Kenya 35–45 million[97] IslamSunni Islam, ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianEast IranianOssetian South Ossetia (Georgia),[98] North Ossetia-Alania (Russia) 0.8 million Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Otomi Oto-MangueanOtomianOtomi Mexico 0.7 million ChristianityCatholicism, Mesoamerican religion
Ovambo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuOshiwambo Ovamboland (Namibia), Angola 1.6 million ChristianityProtestantism
Ovimbundu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 6 million Christianity
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPamir Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China) 0.3 million IslamShia Islam
Pa'O Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanPa'O Myanmar 1.8 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 40–60 million[99] Pashtun Americans IslamSunni Islam
Persians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersian Iran 49 million Parsi[a] IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[100][101][102][103][104] significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityCatholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 42-125 million[105] Azoreans, Madeirans, Brazilians, Cape Verdeans, Luso-Indians, Macanese, along with significant populations in the United States, Venezuela, France, Canada, South Africa, Angola, the United Kingdom, and Portuguese Luxembourger. ChristianityCatholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanPunjabi East and West Punjab (Pakistan, India) 121 million[106] Sikhs,[a] along with significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Islam
Qashqai TurkicOghuzQashqai Iran 1 million IslamShia Islam
Quechua Quechua languages Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 10 million ChristianityCatholicism
Rakhine Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanBurmishRakhinenese Rakhine State (Myanmar) 3.5 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Rejang people AustronesianBidayuhRejang language Rejang Lebong Regency (Indonesia) 1.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Rohingyas[107] Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State (Myanmar) 2.4 million[108] Islam, Hinduism
Romani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRomani Europe[109] (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Finland, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom) 12 million Roma, Iberian Kale, Finnish Kale, Welsh Kale, Romanichal, Sinti, Manush, Romanisæl, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Boyash, Lom, Dom, along with significant populations in[110] Turkey, the United States, and Brazil. Christianity[111]
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova, Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak (Ukraine) 24 million[112] Moldovans, along with significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[113] Cossacks,[114], Pomors, Lipovans,[a] along with significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ryukyuans Japonic languagesRyukyuan Ryukyu islands (Japan) 1.9 million Amami, Miyako, Yonaguni, Yoron, Ishigaki, Yaeyama, Kikai Ryukyuan religion, Shintoism
Rusyns Indo-EuropeanSlavicRusyn Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland) 0.1 million[115][116][117] Pannonian Rusyns, Lemkos, Hutsuls, Boykos [118] Christianity
Saho Afro-AsiaticCushiticSaho Eritrea 0.5 million Islam
Samoans AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianOceanicPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa) 0.6 million American Samoans Christianity
Sangirese AustronesianPhilippineSangiricSangirese Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 0.6 million ChristianityProtestantism
Sami UralicFinno-UgricSami Sápmi, (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia) 0.1 million Inari Sami, Kildin Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ter Sami, Ume Sami Protestantism
Sara Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicSara Chad, Central African Republic 3–4 million Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia (Italy) 1.7 million[119] ChristianityCatholicism
Scottish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicScottish Gaelic[120] Scotland (United Kingdom) 28–40 million[72] Ulster Scots,[121], Orcadians, Shetlanders, Highlanders, along with significant populations in the United States (including Scotch-Irish Americans), Canada, Australia, and Argentina ChristianityProtestantism
Senufo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenufo Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million Kosovo Serbs, along with significant populations in Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Serer Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianSerer Senegal 1.8 million Noon, Laalaa, Ndut, Niominka, Palor, Saafi, Toucouleur Islam
Shan Tai-KadaiTaiSouthwestern TaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 4—6 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Shilluk Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuo NiloticShilluk South Sudan 1.5 million ChristianityCatholicism
Shona Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuShona Mashonaland (Zimbabwe) 10.7–11.7 million Manyika, Ndau Christianity, Traditional African religions
Sidama Afro-AsiaticCushiticHigland EastSidaama Sidamia (Ethiopia) 8.5 million Christianity
Silesian Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicLechiticSilesian Silesia (Poland), Czech Silesia (Czech Republic) 2 million Cieszyn Vlachs, Silesian Gorals ChristianityCatholicism
Siddi[122] Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHindustani[123] Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sindh), India (Karnataka, Gujarat, Hyderabad) 0.4 million Islam
Silt'e Afro-AsiaticSemiticEthiopian SemiticSilt'e Siltia (Ethiopia) 1 million Islam
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSindhi Sindh (Pakistan) 40 million Indian Sindhis Islam
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 16 million[124] British Sri Lankans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sioux Siouan languagesSioux language Lakota (United States) 0.2 million Lakota, Dakota, Nakoda, Assiniboine Native American religion
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million significant populations in Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million Carinthian Slovenes, Italy Slovenes ChristianityCatholicism
Soga Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticSomaliSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16–20 million Hawiye, Darod, Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir, American Somalis, British Somalis, Swedish Somalis, Canadian Somalis, Somali diaspora Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger–CongoMandeSoninke Mali 1 million Haratin[29] Islam
Sotho Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaSotho Free State (South Africa), Lesotho 5.3–6.4 million Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain 47[125]–500 million Castilians, Andalusians, Asturians, Leonese, Cantabrians, Aragonese,[126] Extremadurans, Mirandese, Canary Islanders,[127] Mexicans, Colombians, Argentines,[b] Peruvians, Venezuelans, Chileans, Ecuadorians, Guatemalans, Cubans, Bolivians, Dominicans,[128] Hondurans, Paraguayans, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Panamanians, Uruguayans, Hispanic Belizeans, along with significant populations in France, Brazil, and the United States (including Hispanic and Latino Americans, Californios, Tejanos, Hispanos of New Mexico, and Puerto Ricans) ChristianityCatholicism
Sundanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSundanese Java 40 million Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Swahili Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSabakiSwahili Swahili coast (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros) 0.5[129]-1.8 million[130] Shirazi[18] (including Zanzibaris) Islam
Swazi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniSwazi Mpumalanga (South Africa), Swaziland 2.4 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 14.2 Million Scanians, Jamtish, Gutnish, along with significant populations in Finland (including Åland Swedes), the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityProtestantism
Tabasaran Northeastern CaucasianLezgicSamurTabasaranese Tabasaranstan (Russia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Tagalogs AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 30 million Filipino Americans ChristianityCatholicism
Tahitians AustronesianPolynesianTahitian[131] Tahiti (France) 0.2 million Christianity
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianDari/Tajik Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 18–27 million IslamSunni Islam
Tama Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicNorthern Eastern SudanicTamanTama Chad, Sudan 0.3 million Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka (Northern and Eastern Provinces) 78 million[132] Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France (including Malbars). Hinduism
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia), Crimea 6.8 million Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Dobruja Tatars, Chinese Tatars, Nagaybak,[a] Kryashens.[a] IslamSunni Islam
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 90 million[133] Hinduism
Temne Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoMelTemne Sierra Leone 2.2 million Islam
Thais Tai-KadaiThai Thailand 59 million Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Isans, Tai Lü, Thai Americans Buddhism
Tibetans Sino-TibetanTibeto-KanauriBodishTibetan Tibet (China) 6.2 million BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticTigrinya Eritrea, Tigrayia (Ethiopia) 9 Million ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tigre Afro-AsiaticSemiticEthiopicTigre Eritrea 1.8 million Islam
Tiv Niger-CongoAtalantic-CongoTivoidTiv Nigeria 7 miillion Christianity
Toraja AustronesianSunda–SulawesiToraja Indonesia (North Toraja Regency, Sulawesi) 1.1 million Christianity
Toubou Nilo-SaharanSaharanTebu Toubouland (Chad, Niger, Sudan, Libya) 0.7 million Daza, Teda IslamSunni Islam
Tsonga Niger-CongoAtlanticBantuSouthern BantuTswa-RongaTsonga Mozambique, South Africa 6 million Traditional African religions
Tswana Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Tswanaland (South Africa), Botswana 6 million Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Turkana Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticTurkana Turkanaland (Kenya) 1 million ChristianityCatholicism
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey, Northern Cyprus 63–72 million Turkish Cypriots,[134] Meskhetian Turks,[135] Yörüks, along with significant populations in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, the United States, Syria,[136] and Iraq[136] IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6 million IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Tuvans TurkicSiberianTuvan Tuva (Russia) 0.3 million Tozhu Tuvans,Todzhans Tuvans BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt Udmurtia (Russia) 0.6 million Besermyan ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicUkrainian Ukraine 38–59 million[137] Boykos, Hutsul, Poleshuks, Cossacks,[114] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Uyghurs TurkicKarlukUyghur Uyghuristan (China) 10 million Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 25 million Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Venda Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuTshivenda Vendaland (South Africa) 1 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 84 million[138] significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana, Vietnamese folk religion
Wa AustroasiaticPalaungicWaicWa Wa State (Myanmar) 1.2 million Buddhism, Animism
Welayta Afro-AsiaticOmoticOmetoWolayitta Wolayitia (Ethiopia) 2 million Christianity
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicWelsh[139] Wales (United Kingdom) 6–16.3 million significant populations in Argentina, the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityProtestantism
Wolof Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia) 6.2 million[8] numerous slave descendants[10] (particularly Afro-Kittians, Afro-Nevisians, Afro-Saint Lucians), Haratin[29] IslamSunni Islam
Xhosa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniXhosa Xhosaland (South Africa) 8 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Yoruba Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoVolta-NigerEdekiriYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin) 43 million[8] Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, Oku, Bahamians,[b][9][70] along with numerous slave descendants (particularly Afro-Grenadians, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, and Afro-Brazilians (including Pardo Brazilians)) Christianity, Islam
Zaghawa Nilo-SaharanSaharanZaghawa Chad 0.4 million IslamSunni Islam
Zande Niger–CongoZande Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 1.1 million Christianity
Zapotec Oto-MangueanZapotecan languages Mexico 1.1 million ChristianityCatholicism, Mesoamerican religion
Zhuang Tai KadaiTaiZhuang Zhuangia (China) 18 million Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 10–11 million Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Religious group.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nationality. Nationalities listed under more than one ethnicity indicates that the majority are multiracial and share ancestry.

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Abkhazia is currently a de facto independent state.
  2. ^ This list will be using the most common usage of this ethnonym (a group of people who have descended from the trans-Atlantic slave trade and have resided in the United States for centuries) and will therefore exclude other African groups residing in the United States (such as recent immigrants from Africa, Afro-Caribbean Americans, and Black Hispanic Americans); it will also exclude the Louisiana Creoles, who have distinctive characteristics that differs from other African Americans. Because African Americans have lost almost all of their native culture by the end of slavery (and have only just been recently discovered via genetic testing to be mostly of Yoruba, Mandinka, and Kongo descent along with some English ancestry) ethnologists have almost universally see them as an separate ethnic group.
  3. ^ Because African-American English (particularly African-American Vernacular English, or AAVE) has historically been stigmatized, the majority of African Americans are bi-dialectal and speak standard American English.
  4. ^ a b Many Krio are also the descendants of other liberated/freed slaves.
  5. ^ Although the Afrikaners predominantly descended from Dutch settlers of the Dutch Cape Colony (along with some French and German ancestry), the general consensus among ethnologists is that due to the passage of time, the Afrikaners eventually became their own ethnic group.
  6. ^ a b Not including the 6.3 million Coloureds.
  7. ^ a b In addition to being an Afrikaner-, and Nami-descendant community, many Coloureds also share ancestry with at least one of the major ethnic groups residing in South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, particularly the San, who were historically grouped with the Nami by academics.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h The population number here most likely does not include descendants of those who were sold in the Atlantic slave trade.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g The slave populations in the Americas consisted of over forty-five different African ethnic groups, with the following eight being the most numerous: Akan, Ambundu (who were frequently grouped with the Ovimbundu), Fon (who were frequently grouped with other Gbe speakers), Igbo, Kongo, Mandinka (who were frequently grouped with other Mande speakers), Wolof, and Yoruba. This article will limit listing these groups to these eight ethnicities, particularly the ones who are believe to be the most numerous of these slave populations.
  10. ^ a b This term will refer only to the African diaspora in the Americas.
  11. ^ The Afro-Jamaicans also have notable Igbo ancestry. Of the African-slave descendant populations in America, the Jamaicans are one of the few groups to predominately derived from one ethnicity.
  12. ^ The Afro-Costa Ricans refers to the descendants of Jamaican immigrants who arrived in the late 19th century; the original Costa Rican slave population largely integrated into the dominant Spanish population and are extinct as a unique community.
  13. ^ a b Its listing as an Akan sub-group is largely based on the fact that the Afro-Surinamese religion Winti is mostly based on the Akan religion with some Fon influence.
  14. ^ Kosovo is currently a de facto independent state.
  15. ^ The Arab identity is considered to be both an ethnic and a cultural/linguistic one, and due to long periods of Arabization, many Arabic-speaking people view themselves as Arab despite having little to no ancestral connection with the Arabian peninsula. (Although Arabic-speaking Muslims are much more likely to view themselves as Arab than Arabic-speaking Christians, the Arab identity is independent from religious affiliation). For the purpose of this article, the Arab ethnicity will be limited to those whose ancestors originally inhabited Arabia.
  16. ^ This number, largely retrieved from the Arab League population, may include members who are actually of non-Arab descent, such as the Arab-Berbers and the Egyptians, and those who don't even see themselves as Arab, such as the Somalis and the Afar. Despite speaking an Arabic language, the Maltese are almost never considered a part of the Arab people.
  17. ^ The Baharna also have notable Persian, Jewish, and Assyrian ancestry.
  18. ^ a b Although the Shirazi claim to have originated from Iran, they are mainly of Arab and Swahili descent.
  19. ^ a b c d The ethnonyms Iraqis and Syrians refers to those of Arab and Assyrian descent who make up the majority of both countries' populations. Both groups primarily identify themselves as being Arab.
  20. ^ Although the Lebanese are usually considered to be an Arab subgroup, this is not an universal position as some Lebanese, especially the Maronites, reject this notion and view themselves as being the descendants of the ancient Phoenician population (see Phoenicianism). Although genetic studies have shown the majority of Lebanese, regardless of religion, are in fact the descendants of the Phoenicians, the idea that they are a separate ethnic group remains largely confined to Lebanese Christians.
  21. ^ The Sudanese Arabs also have notable Nubian ancestry.
  22. ^ The Baggara also include some non-Arab members such as the Fula.
  23. ^ Because the Hemshin are largely Muslim and have largely hidden their Armenian ancestry, they are sometimes considered a separate ethnic group. This is also why they are not listed as a diaspora population.
  24. ^ The Aromanians are considered to be descendants of the Romanised people of Southern Balkans and they live scattered in many settlements of that region.
  25. ^ Also referred to as Arameans and Syriacs. While they are sometimes considered a ethnoreligious group due the importance of the Syriac church, the Assyrians (as well as many ethnologists) consider themselves as being the descendants of the ancient Assyrian population and therefore see their ethnicity as being independent of their religious beliefs (see also Assyrian continuity).
  26. ^ Although the Rûm are also referred to as Antiochian Greek Christians, the designation "Greek" refers to the Rûm's usage of Koine Greek in their liturgy. Other than some Greek ultranationalists, the Rûm are usually seen (including by themselves) as being of Assyrian origin.
  27. ^ The Bayat have also been seen as a sub-group of the Turkmens and the Turks.
  28. ^ a b Although the Anglo-Burmese is largely used for those of English and Bamar descent, the term can also be used for anyone with European and Burmese (as in any of ethnic groups within Myanmar) ancestry.
  29. ^ a b c d Because the Haratin tend to follow their former master's culture, the former slave population, who are either of Bambara, Fula, Soninke, of Wolof descent, are sometimes classified as being Arab-Berbers.
  30. ^ This number does not include the millions of Latin Americans who are of Basque descent.
  31. ^ roughly 170 million in Bangladesh and 130 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
  32. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  33. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  34. ^ "Berber people". Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  35. ^ Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Steven, L. Danver, M.E. Sharpe/Mesa Verde Publishing, 2013, p.23
  36. ^ Temehu.com. "Berbers (Imazighen) of North Africa: Libya, Algeria & Morocco". www.temehu.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  37. ^ These numbers may not include the Arab-Berbers, who largely identify as being Arab.
  38. ^ The ethnonym Arab-Berbers refer to the Arab-speaking populations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Tunisia who largely identify themselves as being Arab despite actually being mostly Berber descent.
  39. ^ The Arab population in France is predominantly Arab-Berber.
  40. ^ This entry serves as a representation of a larger group known as the Beti-Pahuin; the Beti should be seen on par with those listed on the sub-group column.
  41. ^ Although some Serbian and Croatian unltranationalists continue deny the existence of a Bosniak ethnicity, the vast majority of ethnologists view that the Bosniaks have existed as separate ethnic group since the 10th century that only recently been allowed to identify themselves as such (see Muslimani).
  42. ^ "Brahui". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  43. ^ Due to France's long history of promoting the French language at the expense of others, the vast majority of Bretons only speak French. Gallo, a language spoken by Bretons near the Brittany-Normandy border, has also suffered from this policy.
  44. ^ Including all population with Catalan heritage, language, and culture.
  45. ^ Due to the United States's long history of forced assimilation, the vast majority only speak English.
  46. ^ Due to the forced relocation of the Cherokee, the majority now reside in Oklahoma.
  47. ^ Number of enrolled tribal members. About 0.8 million claim to have Cherokee ancestry.
  48. ^ The Cornish language first went extinct in the late eighteenth century. While the language was revived during the early twentieth century, the vast majority of the Cornish only speak English.
  49. ^ In the 1950s (the peak of traditional emigration) about 350,000 people left the Netherlands, mainly to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, Argentina and South Africa. About one-fifth returned. The maximum Dutch-born emigrant stock for the 1950s is about 300,000 (some have died since). The maximum emigrant stock (Dutch-born) for the period after 1960 is 1.6 million. Discounting pre-1950 emigrants (who would be about 85 or older), at most around 2 million people born in the Netherlands are now living outside the country. Combined with the 13.1 million ethnically Dutch inhabitants of the Netherlands, there are about 16 million people who are Dutch, in a minimally accepted sense. Autochtone population at 1 January 2006, Central Statistics Bureau, Integratiekaart 2006', (external link) Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (in Dutch)
  50. ^ a b The Mennonites has seen dramatic increase of non-Dutch/German members.
  51. ^ Although many Egyptians since the 1950s see themselves as part of the Arab world (see Nasserism), this is not an universal position as other Egyptians, largely the Copts, reject the notion that they are an Arab subgroup (see Pharaonism and Coptic identity). In any case, it is acknowledged, even among the Egyptians who identify themselves as Arab, that modern Egyptians largely descended from the ancient Egyptian population.
  52. ^ The original ancient Egyptian language, which around the 1st century AD became the Coptic language, died out as a spoken language around the 17th century and now survives as a sacred language. Today, the Egyptians (including the Copts) speak Arabic.
  53. ^ a b In addition to being an English-, and Igbo-descendant community, many Kriols have at least one of the major ethnic groups residing in Belize (with the exception of the Garifuna).
  54. ^ Estimates range from anywhere between 66 and 106 million. The French language has an estimated 75 million native speakers. The CIA Factbook does not report any French ethnicity (considering it a nationality), giving the ethnic composition of France as "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic". [1]
  55. ^ Because the Pieds-Noirs (a French diaspora that had resided in Algeria) have been forced to flee back to France, they are not listed as one of the diaspora population.
  56. ^ As one of the largest nomadic people in the world whose settlements are rather disperse, it's impossible to claim any specific area in West Africa as a primary homeland of the Fula. The countries listed here are the present-day locations of famous Fula states: Futa Jallon, Futa Toro, Great Fulo, and Massina. (The Sokoto Caliphate was founded on traditionally Hausa land, which is why Nigeria is not listed.)
  57. ^ Unlike most Jewish populations, the Abayudaya are acknowledged to be entirely made up of Ganda converts to Judaism. The Abayudaya themselves do not claim to possess any ancient Israelite ancestry.
  58. ^ Although the Garifuna emphasize their multi-ethnic ancestry and would normally be listed as a sub-group, they are listed here because they are the only remnants of the Island Caribs.
  59. ^ Due to large-scale deportations of the Garifuna only a few live in Saint Vincent; the vast majority now reside in Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, and Nicaragua.
  60. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined..."
  61. ^ The term applies to the autochthonous Cyprus nationals with Greek ancestry, who are not considered part of the Greek diaspora and have a diaspora of their own .
  62. ^ a b Because the Pontic and Cappadocian Greeks (two former Greek diasporas that had resided in Turkey) have been deported back to Greece, they are not listed as being a part of the diaspora population.
  63. ^ Turkish-speaking ethnic Greeks in Georgia and Ukraine
  64. ^ CIA Factbook (2014) estimates 55 million in India. SIL Ethnologue cites 46 million native speakers of Gujarati. About 1 million in Pakistan and 1 million in the USA.
  65. ^ 1.24 billion (92% of total population) in the China (CIA Factbook 2014 est.), about 22 million in Taiwan, and an estimated 50 million Overseas Chinese
  66. ^ Because of their Islamic faith, the Hui tend to be seen as a separate ethnic group (particularly by the Chinese government).
  67. ^ Due to frequent intermarriages, many of the Thai Chinese have significant amount of Thai ancestry.
  68. ^ As a group numbering more than a billion people with a diaspora population in almost every country, whose own native country is officially atheist, and has a long history of religious syncretism as well as two schools of thoughts that may or may not constitute as a religion, it is extremely difficult to determine the majority religion of the Han.
  69. ^ Since Hawaii's annexation into the United States, English has almost completely supplanted Hawaiian.
  70. ^ a b c Many Bahamians also have high amounts of African American ancestry.
  71. ^ The Irish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 17th century, but significantly anglicized during the early modern period. Since the mid-19th century, the large majority of Irish have been native speakers of English.
  72. ^ a b ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (29 May 2009). "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  73. ^ An unknown number of them are actually Scottish. Until the arrival of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine, the descendants of the Ulster Scots referred to themselves as Irish.
  74. ^ Not including the Northern Irish.
  75. ^ Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon. Department of Political Science, Stanford University
  76. ^ Figures cited range anywhere between some 60 and 140 million, the latter figure including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. The Italian language has some 60 million native speakers.[2]
  77. ^ This entry is specifically about the Yamato. As the term is mostly used by the Yamato to distinguish themselves from groups like the Ryukyuans who were later incorporated into Japan, this entry will be listed under Japanese and will use the corresponding article.
  78. ^ 102 million in Indonesia (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate); small numbers in Malaysia, Suriname and elsewhere.
  79. ^ As Jewish identity is almost completely intertwined with their religious faith, the Jews have frequently been referred to as an ethnoreligious group, and the term can mean any follower of Judaism (see also: Who is a Jew?). Nevertheless, the concept of a Jewish ethnicity does exist within the community, while genetic studies have shown that most of the Jewish populations (particularly the Ashkenazi, the Mizrahi, and the Sephardi) are genetically closer to each other than they are to their non-Jewish neighbors, and that they are the descendants of the ancient Israelites (although many of these groups do possess some non-Jewish ancestry of their area, with the Cochin Jews and the Bene and Beta Israels in particular being largely descended from those who converted to Judaism by ethnically Jewish immigrants who later intermarried with the local inhabits). For the purpose of this article, this entry will not list the various denominations within Judaism as subgroups, and will limit to those who have been proven to at least have some Middle Eastern ancestry (even if they do not practice Judaism).
  80. ^ Despite the successfully revival of the Hebrew language, many Jews continue to speak the various languages that have developed by the diaspora populations, including Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
  81. ^ Although genetic studies have backed the Lemba's claim that they are the descendants of Jewish migrants who intermarried with local Bantu women (or at the very least definitively show them possessing Middle Eastern ancestry from the male side), because the Lemba do not practice Judaism, they are not recognized by those who follow Jewish law. (Jewish law states that only children of Jewish mothers can claim to be Jewish by birth.)
  82. ^ Unlike most Jewish populations, the Crimean Karaites do not claim to possess any ancient Israelite ancestry and see themselves as a Turkic group who had converted to Judaism. It is believed, however, that this view was only developed to hide from racial antisemitism, and a genetic study has shown that did partly originated from the Middle East.
  83. ^ The Samaritans see their religion as being separate from Judaism.
  84. ^ Although the Messianic Jews see their faith as part of Judaism, almost all non-Messianic Jews do not.
  85. ^ Although genetic studies have shown that the Palestinians, regardless of religious affiliation, have largely descended from the same ancient Israelite population as the rest of the Jews, due to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict the Palestinians are almost exclusively considered to be Arab, of which the Palestinians possess notable ancestry.
  86. ^ ORGI. "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues −2001". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-04-30. 
  87. ^ Shakil, Mohsin. "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)". 
  88. ^ 50 million in South Korea, 25 million in North Korea, roughly 7 million in diaspora.
  89. ^ The idea that the group known as Macedonians are an unique ethnic group is contentious. Until the early 20th century, the Macedonians identify themselves as being Bulgarians and were seen as such. Because this ethnogenesis occurred recently, many Bulgarian nationalists continue to view the Macedonians as a Bulgarian subgroup. Not helping the Macedonians is the fact that many Greeks, including the Greek government itself, outright deny their existence as an ethnic group. Their main contention stems from what they view as cultural appropriation of an ancient Greek population by a group largely descended from Slavic migrants who entered the region long after the ancient Macedonians went extinct as an unique culture. Most ethnologists tend to side with the Macedonians' claims of being an separate ethnic group.
  90. ^ As a group that historically have been seen as part of the Coloured community, the Cape Malays also have significant amount of non-Malayan ancestry, particularly the major ethnic groups residing in South Africa that were traditionally Muslim.
  91. ^ Manchu is a critically endangered language; the vast majority of Manchu speak Chinese.
  92. ^ The Manx language is almost extinct due to the language shift to English, although there are current efforts to revive the language.
  93. ^ Although the Māori have been able halt the extinction of their language, the majority still only speak English fluently.
  94. ^ 87 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  95. ^ This entry serves as a representation of a larger group known as the Khoikhoi; the Nama should be seen on par with those listed on the sub-group column. Until recently, the Khoikhoi themselves were seen as part of a larger group known as the Khoisan; since then, the Khoikhoi and the San are believed to have little connection with each other, and the Khoisan now mostly serves a term of convenience to describe the non-Bantu southern Africans who originally inhabitated the region.
  96. ^ "Odia". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  97. ^ About 38 million in Ethiopia, ~2 million in Kenya, roughly half a million in diaspora. Afan Oromo language has an estimated 45 million native speakers.
  98. ^ South Ossetia is currently a de facto independent state.
  99. ^ About 30 million in Pakistan and 12 million in Afghanistan; Penzl and Sloan, Pashto Grammar (2009) estimated a total number of Pashto speakers between 40 and 60 million. SIL Ethnologue in 2011 estimated an ethnic population of 49 million.
  100. ^ 37.5–38 million in Poland and 21–22 million ethnic Poles or people of ethnic Polish extraction elsewhere. "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)" Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  101. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. pp. 89–101. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  102. ^ Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Warsaw: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. November 2015. pp. 129–136. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6. 
  103. ^ Central Statistical Office (January 2013). "The national-ethnic affiliation in the population – The results of the census of population and housing in 2011" (PDF) (in Polish). p. 1. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  104. ^ Estimated over 20,000,000 Polish Diaspora Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: "Polacy za granicą" Archived 8 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (Polish people abroad as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association Wspólnota Polska)
  105. ^ Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (2009)
  106. ^ Lahnda/Western Punjabi 90,512,900 Pakistan and other countries (2014). Eastern: 28,200,000 India (2001), other countries: 1,314,770. Ethnologue 19.
  107. ^ Although the Myanmarese government have repeatedly deny the existence of a Rohingya ethnicity and see them as a subgroup of the Bengalis who have recently migrated into the Rakhine State, many ethnologists have rejected this view and have supported the Rohingya's claim that they are native to the Rakhine State since the eighth century.
  108. ^ David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856. 
  109. ^ Although they are believed to have originated from India, the Romani are usually seen as not having a primary homeland.
  110. ^ As the Romani do not possess a primary homeland, this article will only list populations outside of Europe.
  111. ^ Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318, ‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort... 
  112. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  113. ^ Estimates range between 130 and 150 million. 111 million in the Russian Federation (2010 census), about 16 million ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states (8 M in Ukraine, 4.5 M in Kazakhstan, 1 M in Belarus, 0.6 M Latvia, 0.6 M in Uzbekistan, 0.6 M in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 10 million Russian diaspora elsewhere (mostly Americas and Western Europe).
  114. ^ a b The Cossacks also include other members native to Eastern Europe.
  115. ^ Number includes self-identified Rusyns and Lemkos in the national censuses of Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia and Ukraine, although the number of people with Rusyn ancestry is considered to be much larger.
  116. ^ [3]
  117. ^ [4]
  118. ^ The classification of Hutsuls and Boykos under Rusyns is disputed by Ukrainians and some members of their communities.
  119. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". www.demo.istat.it. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  120. ^ The Scottish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 11th century, when it was gradually phased out by the Kingdom of Scotland, which promoted the usage of Middle English. This version, which eventually developed into a separate language called Scots, was also gradually phased out following the complete unification of Scotland and England. Today, the large majority of Scottish have been native speakers of English.
  121. ^ Although they are sometimes referred to as Scotch-Irish, the Ulster Scots have very little Irish ancestry.
  122. ^ While the Siddi do not have a unique language of their own, because they arrive to the Indian subcontinent before the ethnogenesis of any the Bantu groups they are usually treated as their own ethnic group.
  123. ^ The Siddi do not have an unique language and tend to speak the dominant language of their region. Hindustani is listed here because it is the basis of the main languages of Pakistan and India (Urdu and Hindi).
  124. ^ "Sinhala". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  125. ^ There is no clear definition of Spanish ethnicity. In Spain, ethnic identity is divided into regional groups, and internationally, Spanish ethnicity is not clearly delineated from "Spanish ancestry" in the territories of the former colonial empire, meaning that a large portion of Latin Americans who claim to be Spanish are actually either Basque, Catalan, or Galician. There are 41 million Spanish nationals in Spain, and some 2 million living abroad. The total worldwide rounds to more than 47 million.
  126. ^ Although their language is considered to be separate from Spanish, because the marriage between Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon is often seen as the start of the Unification of Spain, the Aragonese tend to be viewed as being part of Spanish ethnicity.
  127. ^ The Canary Islanders also have notable Berber ancestry.
  128. ^ the Dominicans also have significant amounts of African and Taíno ancestry.
  129. ^ "Swahili facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Swahili". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  130. ^ The number of ethnic Swahili is unknown, although most publications tend to stick with 500,000. Either way, it is universally believed that ethnic Swahili population is significantly smaller than the 100 million people who use Swahili in their everyday lives.
  131. ^ As French is the only official language in French Polynesia, the majority of Tahitians only speak French.
  132. ^ 73 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate, subject to rapid population growth), 2 million in Sri Lanka (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 3 million in diaspora.
  133. ^ 89 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  134. ^ The term applies to the autochthonous Cyprus nationals with Turkish ancestry, not to be confused with the more recent Turkish settlers who have migrated after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Turkish Cypriots have a diaspora of their own.
  135. ^ Because the Meskhetian Turks (a former Turkish diaspora that had resided in Georgia and have some Georgian ancestry) have been deported out of Georgia and have been largely unable to return, they are not listed as being a part of the diaspora population.
  136. ^ a b Despite their name, the Syrian and Iraqi Turkmens have little to do the main ethnic group of Turkmenistan.
  137. ^ Project, Joshua. "Ukrainian – Joshua Project". www.joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  138. ^ 80 million in Vietnam (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 4 million in diaspora.
  139. ^ Although Welsh is the only Celtic language in the United Kingdom not to suffer threats of extinction, many of the Welsh speak English.
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.