List of contemporary ethnic groups
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups.
There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect, the term culture specifically including aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, etc. By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.
Lists of ethnic groups
- by status
- regional lists
- List of ethnic groups in Russia
- Asian people
- African people
- European people
- Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- List of Indigenous Australian group names
- Uncontacted peoples
- Ethnic flag
- List of language families
- Lists of people by nationality
- Lists of active separatist movements
- Race (human categorization)
- Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world
- List of indigenous peoples
- Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
- Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
- roughly 170 million in Bangladesh and 130 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
- "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Berber people". Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Steven, L. Danver, M.E. Sharpe/Mesa Verde Publishing, 2013, p.23
- Including all population with Catalan heritage, language, culture
- 37.6 million in the UK, between 25 and 49 million reporting "English ancestry" in the United States, 6.6 million reporting English "ethnic origin" in Canada, and between 7 million in Australia.
- Estimates range from anywhere between 66 to 106 million. The French language has an estimated 75 million native speakers. The CIA Factbook does not report any French ethnicity (considering it a nationality), giving the ethnic composition of France as "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic". 
- "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined, ..."
- CIA Factbook (2014) estimates 55 million in India. SIL Ethnologue cites 46 million native speakers of Gujarati. About 1 million in Pakistan and 1 million in the USA.
- 1.24 billion (92% of total population) in the PRC (CIA Factbook 2014 est.), about 22 million in Taiwan, and an estimated 50 million Overseas Chinese
- The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (21 January 2014). "Hindi language". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- The Irish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 17th century, but significantly anglicized during the early modern period. Since the mid-19th century, the large majority of Irish have been native speakers of English.
- The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland
- Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon. Department of Political Science, Stanford University
- Figures cited range anywhere between some 55 and 135 million, the latter figure including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. The Italian language has some 60 million native speakers.
- 127 million in Japan, about 2.5 million abroad.
- 102 million in Indonesia (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate); small numbers in Malaysia, Suriname and elsewhere.
- 50 million in South Korea, 25 million in North Korea, roughly 7 million in diaspora.
- 87 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
- "Ethnicities of the World". Ethnicities of the World. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "Moldovan". Census. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "Распределение населения регионов Украины по родному языку". Распределение населения регионов Украины по родному языку. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Total population: 30 million. Population of Nepal: 26,494,504 (2011), number of Nepali speakers in India: 2,871,749 (2011), number of Nepalis speakers in Bhutan: 265,000.
- Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues–2000, Census of India, 2001
- About 30 million in Pakistan and 12 million in Afghanistan; Penzl and Sloan, Pashto Grammar (2009) estimated a total number of Pashto speakers between 40 and 60 million. SIL Ethnologue in 2011 estimated an ethnic population of 49 million.
- About 38 million in Ethiopia, ~2 million in Kenya, roughly half a million in diaspora. Afan Oromo language has an estimated 45 million native speakers.
- 50 million in Iran, roughly 3 million in diaspora.
- 37.5–38 million in Poland and 21–22 million ethnic Poles or people of ethnic Polish extraction elsewhere. "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)"
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. pp. 89–101. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses (2009)
- Lahnda/Western Punjabi 90,512,900 Pakistan and other countries (2014). Eastern: 28,200,000 India (2001), other countries: 1,314,770. Ethnologue 19.
- "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318,
‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort...
- Estimates range between 130 and 150 million. 111 million in the Russian Federation (2010 census), about 16 million ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states (8 M in Ukraine, 4.5 M in Kazakhstan, 1 M in Belarus, 0.6 M Latvia, 0.6 M in Uzbekistan, 0.6 M in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 10 million Russian diaspora elsewhere (mostly Americas and Western Europe).
- Sardinians–World Directory of Minorities
- Edelsward, Lisa-Marlene; Salzman, Philip (1996). Sardinians - Encyclopedia of World Cultures
- Cole, Jeffrey. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, pp. 321–325
- Minahan, James. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z, pp. 1661–1665
- Danver, Steven L. Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, pp. 370–371
- Lang, Peter; Petricioli, Marta. L’Europe Méditerranéenne, pp. 201–254,
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT
- The Scottish Diaspora
- STERGIOS, PARDALIS (2009). "TERRONI AND POLENTONI: WHERE DOES THE TRUTH LIE? AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF SOCIAL NETWORKS AND ETHNICITY IN PALERMO (SICILY), ITALY.". Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
Sicilians ‘pass’ Narroll’s ‘test’ and can be considered to form a distinctive ethnic group within the Italian nation-state. Palermitans’ sense of simultaneity is expressed on both local and regional levels, but not on the national one. The imagined boundary between Sicily and the rest of Italy is strengthened as Sicilians distance themselves mentally or physically from their homeland, and by opposition to the inner ‘other’. This opposition is constructed (or at the very least manipulated) by Italian elites for specific political and economic purposes. However, the Palermitan response implies an antithesis that diffuses a possible national crisis; on the one hand, Palermitans admit their economic inferiority, on the other, they perceive their culture as more complex and rich, especially compared to the North. Despite this discursive superiority, 18
- User, Human, Flux. "Demopolis". www.fatti.it. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- Baldassar, Loretta (2011-01-01). Intimacy and Italian Migration: Gender and Domestic Lives in a Mobile World. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823231843.
- Bain, Barbara J. (2014-11-11). Blood Cells: A Practical Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118817292.
- Wasniewska, M.; Di Pasquale, G.; Rulli, I.; Salzano, G.; Caruso, M.; Indovina, S.; Di Pasquale, L.; Zirilli, G.; De Luca, F. (2007-03-01). "In Sicilian ethnic group non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia is frequently associated with a very mild genotype". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 30 (3): 181–185. doi:10.1007/BF03347422. ISSN 1720-8386. PMID 17505149.
- Rudolph, Laura C. "Sicilian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Ed. Thomas Riggs. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2014. 151–163. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Oct. 2016.
- "SAGE Reference - Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society". sk.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
- "2000 US Census".
- Naylor, Larry L. (1997-01-01). Cultural Diversity in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780897894784.
- Migliore, S (1988). "RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: A SICILIAN-CANADIAN EXAMPLE". Canadian Ethnic Studies. 20 (1): 78–94.
- Hogg, Michael A.; Rigoli, Ninetta (1996-03-01). "Effects of Ethnolinguistic Vitality, Ethnic Identification, and Linguistic Contacts on Minority Language Use". Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 15 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1177/0261927X960151005. ISSN 0261-927X.
- "Language Dynamics of an Ethnic Minority Group: Some Methodological Concerns on Data Collection" (PDF). The Linguistics Journal. 1 (3).
- There is no clear definition of Spanish ethnicity. In Spain, ethnic identity is divided into regional groups, and internationally, Spanish ethnicity is not clearly delineated from "Spanish ancestry" in the territories of the former colonial empire. There are 41 million Spanish nationals in Spain, and some 2 million living abroad. The total worldwide rounds to more than 47 million.
- Roughly 9,450,000–11,550,000 in Afghanistan, 6,787,000 (2014) in Tajikistan, and 1,420,000 (2012, official) in Uzbekistan
- 73 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate, subject to rapid population growth), 2 million in Sri Lanka (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 3 million in diaspora.
- 89 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
- Ukrainians at the Joshua Project
- 80 million in Vietnam (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 4 million in diaspora.
- Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.