List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted. Multiracial groups (such as Canadian Métis and South African Coloureds) should be listed as subgroups of the ethnic groups they are descended from.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups (i.e. less than 100,000) are often indigenous peoples.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (millions; estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abazins Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbaza Abazinia (Russia) 0.1 million[1] IslamSunni Islam
Abkhazians Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Abkhazia 0.2 million[2] Bzyb, Abzhui, Zamurzakan ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Acehnese AustronesianChamicAcehnese Aceh (Indonesia) 3.5[3]–4.2 million[4] IslamSunni Islam
Acoli Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAcoli Acoliland (Uganda, South Sudan) 2 million[5] Christianity
Adjoukrou Niger–CongoKwaAdjukru Dabou (Ivory Coast) 0.5 million[6] Christianity
Afemai Niger–CongoVolta-NigerEdoidAfenmai Edo State (Nigeria) 0.5 million[7] Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticAfar Afaria (Ethiopia), Djibouti, Eritrea 2.1 million[8] Islam
African Americans Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishAfrican-American English[note 1] American South (United States) 40.9 million[9] Gullah (including Black Seminoles) ChristianityProtestantism
Afrikaners Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutchAfrikaans South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape), Namibia 3.5 million[10] Boers, White Namibians, White Botswanans, Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) ChristianityProtestantism
Agaw AfroasiaticCushiticAgaw[note 2] Ethiopia, Eritrea[note 3] 1.5 million[11] Bilen, Xamtanga, Awi, Qemant ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Ahom Kra–DaiTaiAhom[note 4] Assam (India) 3 million[citation needed] Hinduism
Aimaq Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianAimaq Afghanistan 0.7 million[12] Aimaq Hazara, Firozkohi, Jamshidi, Kipchak, Timuri, Taymani IslamSunni Islam
Akan Niger–CongoPotou-TanoCentral TanoAkan[note 5] Ghana, Ivory Coast 20.9 million[13] Asante, Akuapem, Akyem, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé, Chakosi, Abidji, along with numerous slave descendants such as Antiguans and Barbudans, Barbadians (including Saint Lucians and Vincentians), Jamaicans (including Cocolos, Cayman Islanders, Jamaican Maroons, and Rastafaris), American Virgin Islanders, and Montserratians Christianity
Akha Sino-TibetanLoloishHanoidHani Yunnan (China)[note 6] 0.6 million[14] Animism
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia 4.2 million[15] Ghegs, Tosks, Kosovars, Cham Albanians, Arbëreshë, Arvanites, along with other significant populations in Turkey, Germany, Switzerland and the United States Islam
Ambundu Niger–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 7.6 million[16][note 7] numerous slave descendants Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Amharia (Ethiopia) 30 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Amis AustronesianEast FormosanAmis Taiwan (Taitung and Hualien Counties) 0.2 million[17] Christianity
Anuak Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAnuak Anuakia (Ethiopia), Boma (South Sudan) 0.3 million[citation needed] Christianity
Apache Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApachean[note 8] Apacheria (United States)[note 9] 0.1 million[18] Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains Apache, Western Apache Native American religionNative American Church
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arabia (Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) 450 million[19] Bedouins, Druze, Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, Sahrawis, and Tunisians), Bahrainis, Shirazi (including Zanzibaris), Iraqis (including Marsh Arabs), Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Lebanese (including Maronites), Omanis (including Dhofaris), Qataris, Saudis (including Hejazis), Syrians (including Alawites), Emiratis, Yemenis (including Hadhrami and Ta'izzis-Adenis), along with significant poulations in Brazil, Indonesia, Sudan, Chad, Iran, Turkey, India, Venezuela, Afghanistan, and the United States Islam
Argobba AfroasiaticSemiticArgobba[note 10] Ethiopia (Afar, Harari, Amhara, and Oromia Regions)[note 11] 0.1 million[20] IslamSunni Islam
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Armenia, Republic of Artsakh, Western Armenia (Turkey)[note 12] 6[21]–8 million[22] Hemshin, Cherkesogai, Karabakhis, along with significant populations in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia (including the Javakheti Armenians), Lebanon, and Germany Christianity
Aromanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceAromanian Balkans (Greece, Albania, Republic of Macedonia)[note 13] 0.3 million[23][note 14] significant populations in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Asmat Trans-New GuineaAsmat[note 2] Asmatia (Indonesia) 0.1 million[citation needed] Melanesian mythology
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticAssyrian Neo-Aramaic[note 15] Assyria (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey)[note 16] 2[24]–4 million[25] Mandaeans, Iraqis (including Marsh Arabs), Syrians (including Alawites), Rûm, along with significant populations in the United States and Sweden Christianity
Atoni AustronesianTimoricUab Meto West Timor (Indonesia), Oecusse (East Timor) 0.9 million[26] Amarasi Christianity
Austrians Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanAustrian German[note 17] Austria 8–8.5 million[citation needed] South Tyroleans, along with significant populations in United States, Canada, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar–AndicAvar Avaristan (Russia) 1.5 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 1.7 million[27][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan province (Iran) 30–35 million[28] Qarapapaqs, Bayat, Shahsevan, Karadaghis, Ayrums, along with significant populations in Georgia and Russia IslamShia Islam
Balanta Niger–CongoBakBalanta Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, The Gambia 0.5 million[29] Traditional African religions
Balinese AustronesianBali–Sasak–SumbawaBalinese Bali (Indonesia) 4.2 million[30] Betawis HinduismBalinese Hinduism
Balkars TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar[note 19] Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIranianBalochi Balochistan (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) 8.7 million[31] Significant populations in the United Arab Emirates and Turkmenistan IslamSunni Islam
Balti Sino-TibetanTibeticLadakhi-BaltiBalti Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.3 million[32] IslamShia Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese Myanmar 32.9 million[33] Anglo-Burmese BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger–CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 4.1 million[34] Haratin[note 20] Islam
Banda Niger–CongoUbangianBanda[note 2] Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million[35] Christianity
Banjarese AustronesianMalayanBanjarese Indonesia (Banjar Regency, Banjarbaru, Banjarmasin) 3.5 million[36][note 21] IslamSunni Islam
Bari Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicNiloticBari South Sudan, Uganda 1 million[citation needed] Pojulu, Kakwa, Nyangwara, Mandari, Kuku Christianity
Bariba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSavannasBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.4 million[citation needed] Islam
Bassa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoKruBassa Bassaland (Liberia) 0.6 million[37] ChristianityProtestantism
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 1.6 million[38] Islam
Basques Basque[note 22] Basque Country (Spain, France) 5.1 million[39][note 23] Significant populations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Uruguay ChristianityCatholicism
Batak AustronesianNorthwest SumatranBatak[note 2] North Sumatra (Indonesia) 8.5 million[40] Karo, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Angkola, Mandailing ChristianityProtestantism
Beja AfroasiaticCushiticBeja Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea 3.4 million[41] Bishari, Ababda, Hadendoa, Hedareb, Amarar, Beni-Amer IslamSunni Islam
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBelarusian[note 24] Belarus 9.5–10 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Bembe Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaBembe Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania 0.3[42]–0.5 million[43][note 25] Christianity
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBengali Bengal (Bangladesh, India) 242.7 million[44] Bangladeshis, along with significant populations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States Islam
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber[note 2] Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Mauritania, Western Sahara) 25[45]–50 million[46] Tuaregs, Kabyle, Chaoui, Rifians, Shilha, Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, Sahrawis, and Tunisians), along with significant populations in France (including Arabs in France), Belgium (including Moroccans in Belgium), and the Netherlands (including Moroccan-Dutch) IslamSunni Islam
Berta Nilo-SaharanBerta Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia), South Sudan 0.4 million[47] Islam
Beti Niger–CongoBantuBeti[note 26] Cameroon 1 million[48] Ewondo, Eton Christianity
Bhils Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBhil[note 2] India (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharastra) 17.1 million[49] Barda, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Gametia, Garasia (including Dungri Garasia), Kataria, Mama, Mavchi, Dholi, Dungri, Damor, Mewasi, Nirdhi, Rawal, Tadvi, Vasava Hinduism
Bissa Niger–CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.7 million[citation needed] Islam
Boa Niger–CongoBantuBati–AngbaBwa Bas-Uele (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.2 million[50] Christianity
Bodo Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroBodo Bodoland (India) 1.5 million[51] Bathouism
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak (Serbia, Montenegro) 3–4.5 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Serbia, Turkey, Austria, Germany and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Bouyei Kra–DaiTaiBouyei China 3 million[52] Giáy Moism
Brahuis DravidianBrahui Pakistan 2.4 million[53] IslamSunni Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicBreton[note 27] Brittany (France) 6–8 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Bubi Niger–CongoBantuBube Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) 0.1 million[citation needed] Fernandino Christianity
Budu Niger–CongoBantuNyaliBudu Wamba Territory (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.4 million[54] Christianity
Bugis AustronesianSouth SulawesiBuginese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 6.4 million[40][note 28] Islam
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBulgarian Bulgaria 9–10 million[55] Pomaks, along with significant populations in Turkey, Ukraine and Moldova, Romania and Serbia, Germany, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Burusho Burushaski Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.1 million[56] IslamShia Islam
Butonese AustronesianCelebicButonese[note 2] Buton (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries (Spain, France) 8.4 million[citation needed] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans ChristianityCatholicism
Chamorro AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianChamorro Mariana Islands (United States) 0.2 million[57] ChristianityCatholicism
Chams AustronesianChamicCham Champa (Cambodia, Vietnam) 0.3[58]–0.4 million[59] IslamSunni Islam
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 2 million[60] Kists IslamSunni Islam
Cherokee IroquoianCherokee[note 29] United States (North Carolina, Tennessee)[note 30] 0.3 million[61][note 31] Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band, United Keetoowah Band Christianity
Chin Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaKuki-Chin[note 2] Chin State (Myanmar) 10 million[62]. Kukis, Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom, Lushai, Hmar, Koireng, Zomi, Mizo, Aimol Christianity
Choctaw MuskogeanChoctaw[note 29] Choctaw Nation (United States) 0.2 million[63] Native American religion
Chokwe Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million[64] Christianity
Chutiya Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroDeori[note 32] Assam (India) 2.5 million[65] Deori Hinduism
Chuukese AustronesianMicronesianChuukicChuukese Chuuk Lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia) 0.1 million[66] ChristianityCatholicism
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 1.5 million[citation needed] Virjal, Anatri ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian[note 2] Circassia (Russia)[note 33] 2.3 million[67] Adygeans, Kabardians, Cherkess, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 9.7 million[68] Christianity
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicCornish[note 34] Cornwall (United Kingdom) 11 million[69] Significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican[note 27] Corsica (France) 0.1 million[70] Christianity
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree[note 35] Creeland (Canada), Montana (United States) 0.4 million[citation needed] Métis (including Métis in Canada), Oji-Cree, Innu, Atikamekw Christianity
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7–9 million[citation needed] Bunjevci, Krashovani, Janjevci, Sokci, along with significant populations in Italy (including Molise Croats), Austria, United States, Chile, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million[citation needed] Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, along with significant populations in United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Dagaaba Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1.1 million[71] Christianity
Dagombas Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagbani Kingdom of Dagbon (Ghana) 1.2 million[72] IslamSunni Islam
Damara KhoeKhoekhoe Damaraland (Namibia) 0.2 million[73][note 36] Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicDanish Denmark 7 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Germany. ChristianityProtestantism
Dargins Northeast CaucasianDargin[note 2] Darginstan in Dagestan (Russia) 0.7 million[citation needed] Kajtak, Kubachi, Itsari, Chirag Islam
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticDinka Dinkaland (South Sudan) 3.7 million[74][note 37] Christianity
Duala Niger–CongoBantuSawabantuDuala[note 38] Littoral Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million[citation needed] Kole, Mboko, Kwe, Wovea, Subu, Mungo, Limba[note 39] Christianity
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutch Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) 29 million[75] Flemings, Arubans, Sabans, St. Maarteners, St. Eustatians, Surinamese, Mennonites, Indos, Dutch Burghers, along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Christianity
Dyula Niger–CongoMandeMandingDyula Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali 2.2 million[76] IslamSunni Islam
Ebira Niger–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidEbira Kogi State (Nigeria) 1.8 million[77] Islam
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.7 million[78] Christianity
Egyptians AfroasiaticEgyptianCoptic[note 40] Egypt 104.2 million[79] Sa'idis, Copts IslamSunni Islam
Ekoi Niger–CongoBantoidEkoidJagham[note 38] Nigeria, Cameroon 0.2 million[80] Christianity
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicAnglicEnglish England (United Kingdom) 139 million[81][note 41] numerous colonial descendants[note 42] such as Americans, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, White Bahamians, White Barbadians, Kriols, Cayman Islanders, White Dominiquais, White Jamaicans, White Botswanans, White Kenyans, British South Africans, White Saint Helenians, White Zambians, White Zimbabweans, Anglo-Burmese, British Hongkongers, Anglo-Indians, [note 43] and White Pakistanis ChristianityProtestantism
Esan Niger–CongoVolta-NigerEdoidEsan Esanland (Nigeria) 0.7 million[82][note 44] Christianity
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million[83] Võros, Setos ChristianityProtestantism
Evenks TungusicEvenki[note 45] Evenkia (Russia) 0.1 million[84] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ewe Niger–CongoGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million[85] Christianity
Fang Niger–CongoBantuBetiFang Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon 1 million[48] Christianity
Fijians AustronesianOceanicCentral PacificFijian Fiji 0.5 million[86] ChristianityProtestantism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 7 million[citation needed] Kvens, Forest Finns, along with significant populations in Sweden (including Tornedalians), Russia, United States, and Canada. ChristianityProtestantism
Fon Niger–CongoGbeFon Dahomey (Benin) 4.3 million[87][note 46] numerous slave descendants Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceoïlFrench[note 38][note 47] France, Romandy (Switzerland), Wallonia-Brussels (Belgium), Aosta Valley (Italy) 76.8 million[88] Walloons, Romands, Arpitans, Pieds-Noirs, Waldensians, Quebecers, Acadians (including Cajuns), Saint-Pierrais,[note 48] Métis (including Métis in Canada),Burgundians, Champenois, Free Countians, Gallo, Lorrainers, Normans, Picards, Poitevins (including Saintongeais), Barthélemoise, Saint-Martinois, French Guianese, along with significant populations in the United States, Madagascar, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicFrisian[note 2] Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 0.8 million[citation needed] West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityProtestantism
Friulians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRhaeto-RomanceFriulian Friuli (Italy) 0.6 million[89][note 49] ChristianityCatholicism
Fula Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoSenegambianFula West Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Mali)[note 50] 20[90]–25 million[91] Wodaabe, Haratin,[note 20] Toucouleur Islam
Fur Nilo-SaharanDarfuranFur Darfur (Sudan) 0.7 million[92] IslamSunni Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa-Dangme[note 2] Greater Accra (Ghana) 2.1 million[93] Ga, Adangbe Christianity
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova), Budjak (Ukraine) 0.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galicians Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia (Spain) 3.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Ganda Niger–CongoBantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.7 million[94][note 51] Abayudaya[note 52] Christianity
Garifuna ArawakanIgneriGarifuna Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[note 53] 0.1 million[95] Black Caribs[note 54] ChristianityCatholicism
Garos Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroGaro Garo Hills (India) 1.1 million[51] Christianity
Gbagyi Niger–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidGwari Nigeria 1.2 million[96] Traditional African religions
Gedeo AfroasiaticCushiticGedeo Gedeo Zone (Ethiopia) 1 million[20] ChristianityProtestantism
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 5–7 million[citation needed] Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans, Bats, Meskhetians[note 55] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanGerman[note 38] Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein 100–150 million[97][note 56] Bavarians,[note 57] Franconians, Hessians, Swabians, Alsatians, German Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Pomeranians, Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Silesian Germans, Carpathian Germans, Danube Swabians, North Schleswig Germans, Eastern Belgians, Transylvanian Saxons, Amish, Hutterites, Mennonites, along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Kazakhstan, Australia, and New Zealand. Christianity
Gola Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGola Liberia, Sierra Leone 0.2 million[98] Islam
Gonds DravidianGondi[note 2][note 58] India (Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh)[note 59] 13.3 million[99] Godha Hinduism
Gorontaloans AustronesianGorontalo-MongondowGorontaloan Gorontalo (Indonesia) 1.8 million[40] IslamSunni Islam
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece, Cyprus 17 million[100] Greek Cypriots, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks, Sarakatsani, Urums, Griko, along with significant populations in Albania (including Northern Epirotes), Ukraine, Georgia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guan Niger–CongoPotou-TanoGuang[note 2] Ghana 1 million[101] Gonja, Kyode, Cherepon, Efutu Christianity
Guaraní TupianTupi-GuaraniGuarani Paraguay, Misiones (Argentina), Bolivia (Gran Chaco, Luis Calvo, Cordillera, Germán Busch), Brazil 6.2 million[102][note 60] Paraguayans, Chiriguanos ChristianityCatholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanGujarati Gujarat (India) 60 million[51] Gujarati Americans, Zarabes, Luso-Indians Hinduism
Gumuz Nilo-SaharanKomuzGumuz Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[20] Traditional African religion
Gurage AfroasiaticSemiticGurage[note 2] Guragia (Ethiopia) 3.6 million[20] Christianity
Gurma Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaGurma[note 2] Gurmaland (Burkina Faso), Niger 3.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoGurGurunsi[note 2] Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 1.6 million[103][note 61] Lukpa, Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Delo, Bago-Kusuntu, Chala, Lyélé, Nuna, Kalamsé, Pana, Kassena, Winye, Deg, Puguli, Paasaal, Sisaala, Chakali, Siti, Tamprusi, Vagla Traditional African religions
Hajongs Sino-TibetanSalBodo–GaroHajong[note 62] India (Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Bangladesh 0.2 million[citation needed] Hinduism
Han Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China 1,300 million[104] Cantonese (including Taishanese, Hongkongers, and Macanese),[note 63] Chuanqing, Fujianese (including Fuzhounese, Hainanese, Hoklo, Hui'an maidens, Putianese, and Teochew), Gaoshan Han, Gan, Hakka (including Ngái), Hebei, Hunanese, Jianghuai, Shandong, Sichuanese, Wu (including Shanghainese, Ningbonese, and Wenzhou), Han Taiwanese, Hui[note 64] (including Dungan), along with significant populations[note 65] in the United States, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand,[note 66] Indonesia, Myanmar (including Panthays), Canada, the Philippines (including Sangley), Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France (including Chinois), the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, Panama, and New Zealand Chinese folk religion
Hani Sino-TibetanLoloishHanoidHani[note 38] Yunnan (China) 1.4 million[105] Animism
Harari AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopianHarari Hararia (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[106] IslamSunni Islam
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Hausaland (Niger, Nigeria) 43.7 million[107] IslamSunni Islam
Hawaiians AustronesianPolynesianHawaiian[note 67] Hawaii (United States) 0.5 million[57] Christianity
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianHazaragi Hazarajat (Afghanistan) 7–8 million[108] Aimaq Hazara, Hazara Australians IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuHerero Hereroland (Namibia), Angola 0.3 million[citation needed] OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongic[note 2] China (Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei), Vietnam, Laos, Thailand 14–15 million[109] A-Hmao, Gha-Mu, Xong, Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion
Huli Trans–New GuineaEnganHuli Southern Highlands Province (Papua New Guinea) 0.3 million[110] Christianity
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary, Székely Land (Romania), Felvidék (Slovakia) 12.6 million[111] Jasz, Palóc, along with significant populations in Romania (including Székelys and Csangos), Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, the United States, and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 68] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 18.5 million[citation needed] Christianity
Ibibio Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 4.5 million[112] Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.4 million[113] ChristianityProtestantism
Igbo Niger–CongoIgboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 28.7 million[112] numerous slave descendants such as Antiguans and Barbudans, Barbadians (including Saint Lucians and Vincentians), Dominiquais, Grenadians, and Kittians and Nevisians (including Anguillans) Christianity
Ijaw Niger–CongoIjaw[note 2] Nigeria (Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta States) 14 million[114] Izon Christianity
Ingush Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhIngush Ingushetia (Russia) 0.7 million[115] IslamSunni Islam
Inuit Eskimo–AleutInuit[note 2] Greenland (Denmark), Canada (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, NunatuKavut), Alaska (United States) 0.2 million[116] Greenlandics (including Kalaallit and Greenlandic Danes), Iñupiat, Inuktitut Christianity
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicIrish[note 34] Ireland (Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom) 80 million[117] Irish Travellers and significant populations in the United States,[note 69] the United Kingdom,[note 70] Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityCatholicism
Iroquois Iroquoian[note 71][note 29][note 35] Haudenosauneega (United States, Canada) 0.2 million[citation needed] Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora Longhouse Religion
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalo-DalmatianItalian[note 38][note 72] Italy, Ticino (Switzerland) 69[118]–140 million[119][note 73] Sicilians, Waldensians, Lazians, Marchigianos, Tuscans, Umbrians, Emilian, Romagnol (including Sanmarinese), Trentinis, Ligurians (including Monégasque), Lombards (including Swiss Italians), Piedmontese, Apulians, Calabrians, Neapolitans (including Abruzzans, Molisans, Basilicatans, and Campanians), Venetians along with significant populations in Argentina, Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityCatholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 128.2 million[120] Kantō, Kansai, Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Hōnichi, Satsugū, Chūgoku, Echigo, Tōkai, Shinshuu, Hokuriku, Hachijō, along with significant populations in Brazil, the United States and the Philippines. Shinto
Javanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianJavanese Java (Indonesia) 95.6 million[121][note 74] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, Betawis along with significant populations in Malaysia,[note 75] Suriname, China,[note 76] and Saudi Arabia[note 76] IslamSunni Islam
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticCanaaniteHebrew[note 77] Israel[note 78] 17.6 million[122] Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Teimanim, Beta Israel, Italkim, Romaniotes, Juhurim, Krymchaks, Bene Israel, Cochin, Israelis, along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Jingpo Sino-TibetanSalJingpho Kachin State (Myanmar), Yunnan (China) 1 million[123][note 79] Animism
Jola Niger–CongoAtlantic-CongoBak-BijagoJola[note 2] Jolaland (Senegal) 0.5 million[124] Traditional African religions
Kadazan-Dusun AustronesianDusunic languages[note 2] Sabah (Malaysia) 0.6 million[125] Kadazan, Dusun, Dumpas, Ida'an, Kwijau, Lotud, Mangka'ak, Maragang, Minokok, Orang Sungai, Rumanau, Rungus, Tambanuo Christianity
Kalanga Niger–CongoBantuShonaKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.3[126]–0.7 million[127][note 80] Nambya Christianity
Kalenjin Nilo-SaharanNiloticNandi–Markweta[note 81] Rift Valley Province (Kenya) 4.9 million[128][note 82] Keiyo, Tugen, Marakwet, Nandi, Kipsigis, Sabaot, Pökoot,[note 83] Sebei,[note 83] Okiek[note 83] Christianity
Kamba Niger–CongoBantuKamba Ukambani (Kenya) 3.9 million[129][note 84] Afro-Paraguayans[note 85] Christianity
Kanaks AustronesianOceanicKanak[note 2] Kanakia (France) 0.1 million[130] ChristianityCatholicism
Kannadigas DravidianKannada Karnataka (India) 43.7 million[51] Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Kanuriland (Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon) 7.9 million[131] Kanembu Islam
Karachays TurkicKipchakKarachay-Balkar[note 86] Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia) 0.2 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.7 million[132] IslamSunni Islam
Karelians UralicFinnicKarelian Karelia (Finland, Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Karen Sino-TibetanKaren[note 2] Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 9 million[133][note 87] S'gaw Karen, Pwo Karen, Karenni (including Kayan) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDardicKashmiri Kashmir (India, Pakistan) 6.8 million[51] Kashmiri Pandits, Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam
Kashubians Indo-EuropeanSlavicPomeranianKashubian Kashubia (Poland) 0.5[134]–0.6 million[135][note 88] ChristianityCatholicism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 18 million[136] Significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanNepali Nepal 10.4[137]–15.4 million[138][note 89] Chhetri, Bahun, Gurkha, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Jumli, Palpa, Thakuri, Badi, Lhotshampa
Khakas TurkicSiberian TurkicKhakas Khakassia (Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Khamti Kra–DaiTaiKhamti Myanmar, India 0.2 million[citation needed] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 17 million[139] Significant populations in the United States and Vietnam BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kikuyu Niger–CongoBantuKikuyu Kenya 6.6 million[140] Christianity
Kissi Niger–CongoMelKissi Guinea, Sierra Leone 0.6 million[141] Christianity
Komi UralicPermicKomi Komi Republic, Permyakia (Russia) 0.6 million[142] Komi-Zyrians, Komi-Permyaks, Izhma Komi ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKonkani Goa (India) 6.1 million[143] Luso-Indians Hinduism
Kongo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKongo Kongoland (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola) 5.7 million[144][note 90] Lari, Vili, Mayombe, along with numerous slave descendants such as Dominicans,[note 91] Christianity
Konjo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKonjo Rwenzori Mountains (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda) 1.5 million[citation needed] Nande Christianity
Konso AfroasiaticCushiticKonso Konso special woreda (Ethiopia) 0.4 million[20] Traditional African religions
Koreans KoreanicKorean[note 38] Korea (North Korea, South Korea) 77.2 million[145][note 92] Jeju Islanders, along with significant populations in the United States, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Irreligion
Kru Niger–CongoKruKlao Liberia (Grand Kru and Maryland Counties) 0.3 million[37] Aizi Christianity
Kumyks TurkicKypchakKumyk Kumykia (Russia) 0.5 million[115] IslamSunni Islam
Kunama Nilo-SaharanKunama Eritrea, Ethiopia 0.3 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIranianKurdish[note 2] Kurdistan (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria) 45.6 million[146][note 93] Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Feylis, Laks,[note 94] Yazidis, Shabak, along with significant populations in France and Germany. IslamSunni Islam
Kurukh DravidianKurukh Chota Nagpur Plateau (India) 3.5 million[147][note 95] Hinduism
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.1 million[148][note 96] IslamSunni Islam
Laks Northeast CaucasianLak Lakia in Dagestan (Russia) 0.2 million[115] IslamSunni Islam
Lampungs AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianLampung Lampung (Indonesia) 1.4 million[40] Islam
Lao Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiLao Laos, Isan (Thailand) 4[149]–30 million[150][note 97] Isan[note 98] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.8 million[151] Latgalians, Kursenieki, Selonians ChristianityProtestantism
Laz KartvelianZanLaz[note 99] Lazistan (Turkey, Georgia) 0.2–1 million[152] IslamSunni Islam
Lega Niger–CongoBantuLega–BinjaLega Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[153] Traditional African religions
Lezgins Northeast CaucasianLezgicLezgian Lezgistan (Russia, Azerbaijan) 0.8 million[154] IslamSunni Islam
Li Kra–DaiHlai[note 2] Hainan (China) 1.2 million[155] Animism
Limba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoLimba Sierra Leone (Bombali and Koinadugu Districts) 0.4 million[156][note 100] Christianity
Lisu Sino-TibetanLoloishLisoishLisu China, Myanmar 0.9 million[157] ChristianityProtestantism
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7[158]–4.1 million[159] Samogitians, Aukstaitians, Lietuvninkai ChristianityCatholicism
Luba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuLuban[note 2] Lubaland (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 7 million[48] Luba-Kasai, Luba-Katanga, Hemba, Songe Christianity
Lumbee AlgicAlgonquianLumbee[note 29] Robeson County (United States) 0.1 million[160] Christianity
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoLuo[note 101] Kenya, Tanzania 4.2 million[161] Christianity
Luxembourgers Indo-EuropeanGermanicHigh GermanLuxembourgish Luxembourg, Arelerland (Belgium) 0.4 million[162][note 102] Significant populations in Brazil, and United States ChristianityCatholicism
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIranianLuri Iran 5 million[163][note 103] Bakhtiari, Laks[note 94] IslamShia Islam
Maasai Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticMaasai Maasailand (Tanzania, Kenya) 1.5 million[164] Samburu Traditional African religionsMaasai faith
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian Republic of Macedonia 2 million[165] Torbesh, Mijaks, along with significant populations in Australia and Greece ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Madi Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicMoru–MadiMa'di Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda 0.4 million[citation needed] Christianity
Madurese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMadurese Madura (Indonesia)[note 104] 7.2 million[40] IslamSunni Islam
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMafa Cameroon 0.8 million[citation needed] Christianity
Makassarese AustronesianMakassaricMakassarese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 2.7 million[40] IslamSunni Islam
Malays AustronesianMalayanMalay[note 38] Malay world (Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia) 60.7 million[166] Kedahans, Pattani, Kelantanese, Terengganuans, Pahang, Perakians, Berau, Bruneians, Proto-Malay (including Orang Kuala, Jakun, Orang Rimba, Orang Seletar, and Temuan), Lubu, Musi, Cape Malays, Betawis, Kristangs, Ambonese IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianTamil–KannadaMalayalam Kerala (India) 34.8 million[51] Ambalavasi, Dheevara, Nair, Paravar, Saint Thomas Christians (including Knanayas), Mappilas, along with significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.3 million[167] Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicMaltese Malta 0.5 million[168] Gozitans ChristianityCatholicism
Manchu TungusicManchu[note 45] Manchuria (China) 10.4 million[169] Manchu shamanism
Mandinka Niger–CongoMandeManding[note 2] Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania 13[170]–20 million[171] numerous slave descendants such as Montserratians, Cape Verdeans, and Martinicans (including Saint Lucians) Islam
Manx Indo-EuropeanCelticGaelicManx[note 34] Isle of Man 0.1 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Australia, United States, and Canada ChristianityProtestantism
Māori AustronesianPolynesianMāori[note 105] New Zealand 0.9 million[citation needed] Cook Islanders Christianity
Mapuche AraucanianMapudungun Patagonia (Chile, Argentina) 1.7 million[citation needed] Huilliche Christianity
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMarathi Maharashtra (India) 83 million[51] Mahar, Maratha Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Mari El (Russia) 0.6 million[citation needed] Meadow Mari, Hill Mari ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasa[note 2] Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million[172] Christianity, Islam
Masalit Nilo-SaharanMabanMasalit Sudan, Chad 0.4 million[173] IslamSunni Islam
Maya Mayan[note 2] Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), Honduras, El Salvador 6 million[174] Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Xinca, Tektitek, Huastecan, Mopan, Lacandon, Chontal, Akatek, Jakaltek, Q'anjob'al, Tzeltal, Mocho', Tojolab'al, Mam, Ixil, Tzotzil, Poqomam, Yucatecan, Motozintlecos, Awakatek, Kaqchikel, Sakapultek, Sipakapense, Uspantek, Ch'ol, Tz'utujil, along with Mestizos such as Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans) and Mexicans ChristianityCatholicism
Mbaka Niger–CongoUbangianNgbakaMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[48] ChristianityCatholicism
Meitei Sino-TibetanMeitei Manipur (India) 1.5 million[citation needed] Loi HinduismVaishnavism
Mende Niger–CongoMandeMende Sierra Leone (Southern and Eastern Provinces) 1.9 million[citation needed] Islam
Merina AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalagasy Antananarivo Province (Madagascar) 5 million[175] Christianity
Mi'kmaq AlgicAlgonquianMi'kmaq[note 35] Mi'kma'ki (Canada) 0.2 million[176] ChristianityCatholicism
Mien Hmong–MienMienic[note 2] China (Hunan, Guizhou), Vietnam 6.3 million[177] Iu Mien, Kim Mun, Dzao Min, Biao Min TaoismYao folk religion
Mijikenda Niger–CongoBantuSabakiMijikenda Coast Province (Kenya), Tanga Region (Tanzania) 2 million[129] Chonyi, Giriama, Digo, Segeju Christianity
Minahasan AustronesianPhilippineMinahasan[note 2] Minahassa Peninsula (Indonesia) 1.2 million[40] Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tombulu, Tonsea ChristianityProtestantism
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayanMinangkabau Minangkabau Highlands (Indonesia) 8 million[178] IslamSunni Islam
Mising Sino-TibetanTaniMising India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) 0.6 million[51] Donyi-Polo
Miskito MisumalpanMiskito Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua, Honduras) 0.2 million[179] ChristianityProtestantism
Mixe Mixe–ZoqueMixeanMixe[note 2] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.1 million[180][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Mixtec Oto-MangueanMixtecanMixtec La Mixteca (Mexico) 0.5 million[180][note 18] Trique, Cuicatecs ChristianityCatholicism
Mon AustroasiaticMonicMon Mon State (Myanmar) 1.1 million[181][note 106] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Mongo Niger–CongoBantuBangi-NtombaMongo[note 107] Democratic Republic of the Congo (Équateur, Tshuapa, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi, Sud-Ubangi) 12 million[citation needed] Iyaelima, Mbole, Mpama, Nkutu, Dengese, Tetela Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols Mongolic[note 2] China (Inner Mongolia, Dzungaria), Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia) 7.5 million[182][note 108] Buryats, Oirats, Kalmyks, Daur, Moghol, Hamnigan, Monguor, Yugur, Khatso, Santa, Bonan, Sart Kalmyks, Soyot, Sichuan Mongols, Sogwo Arig, Altai Uriankhai, Ordos, Kanja BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Mongondow AustronesianPhilippineMongondowicMongondow Mongondowia (Indonesia) 0.2 million[183] IslamSunni Islam
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Serbia and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinic[note 2] Mordovia (Russia) 0.8 million[citation needed] Erzyas, Mokshas, Qaratays ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mossi Niger–CongoGurOti–VoltaMossi Mossiland (Burkina Faso) 7.6 million[citation needed] Islam
Munanese AustronesianCelebicMunanese[note 2] Muna (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Mundas AustroasiaticMundaMundari India (Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal) 2.2 million[99] Sarnaism
Murut AustronesianSouthwest SabahanMurutic[note 2] Murutia (Malaysia) 0.1 million[citation needed] Okolod, Keningau, Tagal, Paluan, Selungai, Timugon, Serudung, Sembakung, Tidong, Kalabakan, Bulungan, Bookan ChristianityCatholicism
Muscogee MuskogeanMuscogee[note 29] United States (Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia)[note 109] 0.1 million[184] Coushatta, Alibamu, Hitchiti, Natchez, Seminoles (including Black Seminoles), Yuchi, Shawnee, Creoles of color, Miccosukee Native American religionCreek mythology
Naga Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–Naga[note 2] Nagaland (India) 2.3 million[51] Anāl, Ao, Sangtam, Yimchunger, Lotha, Angami, Chakhesang (including Chokri and Khezha), Mao, Pochury, Rengma, Tangkhul, Maring, Zemi, Liangmei, Kabui, Maram, Konyak, Chang, Wancho, Phom, Khiemnungan, Tangsa, Nocte Christianity
Nahuas Uto-AztecanNahuanNahuatl Mexico (Mexico City, State of Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Hidalgo, Guerrero, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz) 1.5[180]–1.7 million[185][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Nama KhoeKhoekhoe Namaland (Namibia), South Africa 0.1 million[73][note 110] Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Christianity
Navajo Dené–YeniseianNa-DenéApacheanNavajo Navajo Nation (United States) 0.3 million[186] ChristianityCatholicism
Ngaju AustronesianWest BaritoNgaju Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) 0.9 million[187][note 111] Bakumpai, Meratus Kaharingan
Ngalop Sino-TibetanTibeticDzongkha Bhutan 0.4 million[188][note 112] Kheng, Bumthang BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Nias AustronesianNorthwest SumatranNias Nias island (Indonesia) 1 million[40] Christianity
Nogais TurkicKipchakNogai Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, Chechnya, Stavropol District, Astrakhan Oblast (Russia) 0.1 million[citation needed] Ak Nogai, Karagash IslamSunni Islam
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityProtestantism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian[note 2] Nubia (Egypt, Sudan) 2.7 million[189] Nobiin, Mattokki, Midob, Hill Nubians Islam
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer Nuerland (South Sudan) 2.9 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianNuristani[note 2] Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million[190] IslamSunni Islam
Occitans Indo-EuropeanRomanceOccitan[note 27] Occitania (France, Italy, Spain) 16 million[citation needed] Aranese Christianity
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanOdia Odisha (India) 32.1[191]–37 million[51] Hinduism
Ojibwe AlgicAlgonquianOjibwe[note 29][note 35] Anishinaabeland (Canada, United States) 0.1 million[192][note 113] Oji-Cree, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississaugas Midewiwin
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Oromia (Ethiopia), Kenya 17.5[193]–25.5 million[20] Boran, Barentoo IslamSunni Islam
Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIranianOssetian South Ossetia, North Ossetia-Alania (Russia) 0.8 million[citation needed] Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ot Danum AustronesianWest BaritoOt Danum[note 114] Indonesia (West and Central Kalimantan) 0.1 million[194][note 115] Deyah,[note 116] Malang,[note 116] Witu,[note 116] Lawangan[note 116] Kaharingan
Otomi Oto-MangueanOtomianOtomi Mexico 0.3 million[180][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Ovambo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuOshiwambo Ovamboland (Namibia), Angola 1.6 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Ovimbundu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 6 million[citation needed] Christianity
Pa'O Sino-TibetanKarenicPa'O Myanmar 1.8 million[citation needed] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Palestinians AfroasiaticSemiticArabicPalestinian Arabic State of Palestine, Israel[note 117] 12.4 million[195] Arab Israelis IslamSunni Islam
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIranianPamir[note 2] Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China) 0.3 million[citation needed] Shughni, Sarikoli (including Tajiks of Xinjiang),[note 118] Yazghulami, Munji, Yidgha, Sanglechi, Ishkashimi, Wakhi IslamShia Islam
Papel Niger–CongoSenegambianBakPapel Biombo Region (Guinea-Bissau) 0.2 million[196][note 119] ChristianityCatholicism
Pashayi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDardicPashayi[note 2] Afghanistan (Laghman, Kapisa and Nangarhar Provinces) 0.4 million[197] Islam
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 49.6 million[198] Pashtun Americans, Kakar IslamSunni Islam
Pende Niger–CongoBantuPendePende[note 38] Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[199] Christianity
Persians Indo-EuropeanIranianPersian Iran 52.5 million[200] Tat, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Bahrain, Australia, and Sweden IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[201] Significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityCatholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 222.7 million[202][note 120] Azoreans, Madeirans, along with numerous colonial descendants[note 121] such as Brazilians, Portuguese Angolans, Cape Verdeans, Portuguese Mozambicans, Luso-Indians, Macanese,[note 63] Kristangs, and Portuguese Burghers ChristianityCatholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanPunjabi Punjab (Pakistan, India) 122.2 million[203][note 122] Sikhs, along with significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Islam
Purépecha Purépecha Michoacán (Mexico) 0.1 million[180][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Qashqai TurkicOghuzQashqai Iran 1 million[citation needed] IslamShia Islam
Quechua Quechuan[note 2] Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 7.7 million[204][note 18] Peruvians, Ecuadorians ChristianityCatholicism
Rajbongshi Sino-TibetanSalBodo–GaroKoch[note 2][note 123] India (Assam, West Bengal) 3.8 million[citation needed] Rabha Hinduism
Rakhine Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanBurmishRakhinenese Rakhine State (Myanmar) 3.5 million[citation needed] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Rejangese AustronesianBidayuhRejang Rejang Lebong Regency (Indonesia) 2 million[205] IslamSunni Islam
Rohingyas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State (Myanmar) 2.4 million[206] Islam
Roma Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRomani Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Czech Republic)[note 124] 12 million[207][note 125] Roma, Iberian Kale, Finnish Kale, Welsh Kale, Romanichal, Sinti, Manush, Romanisæl, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Boyash, Lom, Dom, along with significant populations[note 126] in Turkey, the United States, and Brazil. Christianity
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova 23.4 million[208] Moldovans, along with significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[citation needed] Cossacks,[note 127] Pomors, Lipovans, along with significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ryukyuans JaponicRyukyuan[note 2] Ryukyu islands (Japan) 1.9 million[citation needed] Amami, Miyako, Yonaguni, Yoron, Ishigaki, Yaeyama, Kikai Ryukyuan religion
Rusyns Indo-EuropeanSlavicRusyn Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland) 0.1[209]–1.2 million[210][note 128] Pannonian Rusyns, Lemkos,[note 129] Hutsuls,[note 129] Boykos[note 129] Christianity
Saho AfroasiaticCushiticSaho Eritrea 0.5 million[citation needed] Islam
Sama-Bajau AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSama–Bajaw[note 2] Maritime Southeast Asia (Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei) 1.1 million[211] Sama (including Banguingui), Bajaw, Yakan, Abaknon IslamSunni Islam
Sambal AustronesianPhilippineSambalic[note 2] Zambales (Philippines) 0.1 million[212][note 130] Bolinao, Botolan (including Banguingui), Bajaw, Yakan, Abaknon IslamSunni Islam
Sami UralicFinno-UgricSami[note 2] Sápmi (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia) 0.1 million[213] Inari Sami, Kildin Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ter Sami, Ume Sami ChristianityProtestantism
Samoans AustronesianPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa) 0.6 million[citation needed] American Samoans Christianity
San Kx'a[note 2][note 131] Southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Angola) 0.1 million[214] ǃKung, Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Traditional African religionsSan religion
Sangirese AustronesianPhilippineSangiricSangirese Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 0.4 million[215] ChristianityProtestantism
Santal AustroasiaticMundaSantali India (Jharkhand, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha), Bangladesh 6.5 million[216][note 132] ChristianityCatholicism
Sara Nilo-SaharanBongo–BagirmiSara[note 2][note 133] Chad, Central African Republic 5.4 million[217][note 134] Ngambay, Doba, Laka, Kabba, Sar, Mbay, Ngam, Dagba, Gulay Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian[note 135] Sardinia (Italy) 1.2 million[218] ChristianityCatholicism
Sasak AustronesianBali–Sasak–SumbawaSasak Lombok (Indonesia) 3.2 million[40] Islam
Scots Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicScottish Gaelic[note 34][note 136] Scotland (United Kingdom) 40 million[117] Ulster Scots,[note 137] Orcadians, Shetlanders, Highlanders, Kriols, along with significant populations in the United States (including Scotch-Irish Americans), Canada, Australia, Argentina, and the Bahamas ChristianityProtestantism
Senufo Niger–CongoSenufo[note 2] Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million[citation needed] Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million[citation needed] Kosovo Serbs, Triestine Serbs, along with significant populations in Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Serer Niger–CongoSenegambianSerer[note 138] Senegal 1.4 million[219] Noon, Laalaa, Ndut, Niominka, Palor, Saafi, Toucouleur Islam
Shan Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 5 million[181][note 139] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Shilluk Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoShilluk South Sudan 1.5 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Shona Niger–CongoBantuShona[note 2] Mashonaland (Zimbabwe) 7.2 million[220] Manyika, Ndau Christianity
Sibe TungusicXibe[note 45] China (Liaoning, Jilin, Xinjiang) 0.2 million[221] Irreligion
Sidama AfroasiaticCushiticSidaama Sidamia (Ethiopia) 8.5 million[citation needed] Christianity
Siddi Niger–CongoBantuSwahiliSidi[note 140] Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sindh), India (Karnataka, Gujarat, Hyderabad) 0.4 million[citation needed] Islam
Silesians Indo-EuropeanSlavicLechiticSilesian Silesia (Poland), Czech Silesia (Czech Republic) 2 million[citation needed] Cieszyn Vlachs, Silesian Gorals ChristianityCatholicism
Silt'e AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopian SemiticSilt'e Siltia (Ethiopia) 1 million[citation needed] Islam
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSindhi Sindh (Pakistan) 34.8 million[222] Indian Sindhis IslamSunni Islam
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 15.2 million[223] British Sri Lankans, Burghers[note 141] (including Portuguese Burghers and Dutch Burghers) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sioux SiouanSioux Lakota (United States) 0.2 million[citation needed] Lakota, Dakota, Nakoda, Assiniboine Native American religion
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million[citation needed] Carinthian Slovenes, Italy Slovenes ChristianityCatholicism
Soga Niger–CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16.1 million[224] Hawiye, Darod (including Majeerteen), Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Canada IslamSunni Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million[225][note 142] Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger–CongoMandeSoninke Mali 2.1 million[226] Haratin[note 20] IslamSunni Islam
Sotho Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaSotho Free State (South Africa), Lesotho 6 million[227][note 143] Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain 442.4 million[228] Castilians, Andalusians, Asturians, Leonese, Cantabrians, Aragonese, Extremadurans, Mirandese, Canary Islanders (including Isleños), along with numerous colonial descendants such as Hispanos (including Californios, Tejanos, and Neomexicanos), Mexicans, Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans), Salvadorans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Panamanians, Colombians, Venezuelans, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Bolivians, Paraguayans, Chileans, Argentines, Uruguayans, Cubans, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Fernandinos, and Spanish Filipinos (including Zamboangueños) ChristianityCatholicism
Sui Kra–DaiKam–SuiSui Sandu Shui Autonomous County (China) 0.4 million[229] Animism
Sundanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSundanese Java (Indonesia) 36.7 million[40] Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger–CongoBantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Surma Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicSurmic[note 144] Ethiopia, South Sudan 0.2 million[citation needed] Me'en, Mursi Traditional African religions
Susu Niger–CongoMandeSusu Guinea, Kambia (Sierra Leone) 1.3[230]–2.4 million[231][note 145] Islam
Swahili Niger–CongoBantuSabakiSwahili Swahili coast (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros) 0.5[232]–1.8 million[233][note 146] Shirazis (including Zanzibaris) Islam
Swazi Niger–CongoBantuNguniSwazi Mpumalanga (South Africa), Eswatini 2.4 million[234] ChristianityAfrican Zionism
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 14.2 million[citation needed] Scanians, Jamtish, Gutnish, along with significant populations in Finland (including Åland Swedes), the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityProtestantism
Sylhetis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSylheti Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya) 11.8 million[235] Islam, Hinduism
Tabasaran Northeast CaucasianSamurTabasaranese Tabasaranstan (Russia) 0.2 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Tagalogs AustronesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 30 million[citation needed] Filipino Americans ChristianityCatholicism
Tahitians AustronesianPolynesianTahitian[note 27] Tahiti (France) 0.2 million[citation needed] Christianity
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianTajik[note 147] Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 16.9 million[236][note 122] Chagatai IslamSunni Islam
Talysh Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianTalysh Azerbaijan, Iran 0.2 million[237] IslamShia Islam
Tama Nilo-SaharanEastern SudanicTamanTama Chad, Sudan 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil–KannadaTamil Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka (Northern and Eastern Provinces) 67.3 million[238][note 148] Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils, Paravar, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France (including Malbars). Hinduism
Tankas Sino-TibetanSiniticChineseYue Chinese China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Hong Kong, Macau) 4.6 million[citation needed] Fuzhou Tankas Chinese folk religion
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 6.8 million[citation needed] Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Dobruja Tatars, Chinese Tatars, Nagaybak, Kryashens IslamSunni Islam
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 81.1 million[51] Hinduism
Temne Niger–CongoMelTemne Sierra Leone 2.2 million[156][note 149] Islam
Thais Kra–DaiTaiSouthwestern TaiThai[note 38] Thailand 31.1 million[239] Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Tai Lü, Thai Americans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Tibetans Sino-TibetanBodishTibetic[note 2] Tibet (China) 5.4[240]–6.2 million[241] Amdolese BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticTigrinya Eritrea, Tigrayia (Ethiopia) 9 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tigre AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicTigre Eritrea 1.8 million[citation needed] Islam
Tiv Niger–CongoTivoidTiv Benue State (Nigeria) 4.5 million[112] Christianity
Tiwa Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroTiwa India (Assam, Meghalaya) 0.2 million[citation needed] Hinduism
Toraja AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianToraja Tana Toraja (Indonesia) 1.1 million[242][note 150] ChristianityProtestantism
Toubou Nilo-SaharanSaharanTebu[note 2] Toubouland (Chad, Niger, Sudan, Libya) 0.7 million[citation needed] Daza, Teda IslamSunni Islam
Tripuri Sino-TibetanSalBodo-GaroKokborok Tripura (India) 1 million[51] Hinduism
Tsonga Niger–CongoBantuTswa-RongaTsonga Mozambique (Maputo City and Maputo Province, Gaza Province), South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga) 5.5 million[243] Traditional African religions
Tswana Niger–CongoBantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Tswanaland (South Africa), Botswana 5.8 million[244] Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Turkana Nilo-SaharanNiloticEastern NiloticTurkana Turkanaland (Kenya) 1 million[129] ChristianityCatholicism
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey 79 million[245] Turkish Cypriots, Meskhetian Turks,[note 151] Yörüks, along with significant populations in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, the United States, Syria,[note 152] and Iraq[note 152] IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6.7 million[246] IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 68] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million[citation needed] Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Tuvans TurkicSiberianTuvan Tuva (Russia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Tozhu Tuvans BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Twa Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 68] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.1 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt Udmurtia (Russia) 0.6 million[citation needed] Besermyan ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Urhobos Niger–CongoVolta-NigerEdoidUrhobo Delta State (Nigeria) 1 million[247] Christianity
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicUkrainian Ukraine 37.3[248]–58.7 million[249] Poleshuks, Cossacks,[note 127] along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Uyghurs TurkicKarlukUyghur Uyghuristan (China) 10.4 million[250] Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Uzbekistan 29.3 million[251] Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Venda Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuTshivenda Vendaland (South Africa) 1.3 million[252] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 73.6 million[253] Significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana
Wa AustroasiaticPalaungicWaicWa Wa State (Myanmar) 1.2 million[citation needed] Buddhism, Animism
Welayta AfroasiaticOmoticOmetoWolayitta Wolayitia (Ethiopia) 1.7 million[20] ChristianityProtestantism
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicWelsh[note 34] Wales (United Kingdom) 16.3 million[254] Significant populations in Argentina, the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityProtestantism
Wolof Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia), Mauritania 5.9 million[255] numerous slave descendants such as Haratins and Martinicans (including Saint Lucians) IslamSunni Islam
Xhosa Niger–CongoBantuNguniXhosa Xhosaland (South Africa) 8.2 million[256] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Yao Niger–CongoBantuRufiji–RuvumaYao Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania (Ruvuma and Mtwara Regions) 2.6 million[257] Islam
Yi Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseLolishNuosu[note 38] China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou) 7.8 million[258] Akeu Bimoism
Yoruba Niger–CongoVolta-NigerYoruboidYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin) 37.7 million[259] Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, Oku, along with numerous slave descendants Christianity
Zaghawa Nilo-SaharanSaharanZaghawa Chad 0.4 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam
Zande Niger–CongoZande[note 2] Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 1.1 million[260][261] Christianity
Zapotec Oto-MangueanZapotecan[note 2] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.5 million[180][note 18] ChristianityCatholicism
Zhuang Kra–DaiTaiZhuang[note 2] Zhuangia (China) 14.9[262]–16.2 million[263] Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoBantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 11.8 million[264] Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Largely used in informal conversations; due to historic racial stigma, the majority of African Americans are bidialectal with general American English.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be Language family; with some exceptions, the speakers of the various languages within this family are typically seen as one singular ethnicity.
  3. ^ The Agaw are scattered throughout Ethiopia and Eritrea and do not have a contiguous homeland; the Agew Awi Zone is home only to the Awi subgroup.
  4. ^ Due to the Ahom gradual assimilation into the native culture of Assam, the vast majority now only speak Assamese.
  5. ^ The Akan ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Central Tano family as well as the Abé and Abidji languages.
  6. ^ Some time around 1860s, many Akha have been migrating to Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand. Today, the majority reside outside of China.
  7. ^ Angola: 7.6 million ("Kimbundu 25%" of a population of 30.4 million). Does not include descendants of those who were sold in the Atlantic slave trade, as many of these people now simply identify as being Black.
  8. ^ With the exception of Navajo, the Apache ethnicity usually incorporates the entire Southern Athabaskan family. However, thanks to a history of forced assimilation by the American government, many Apache can only speak English.
  9. ^ The various noncontiguous Apache reservations only make up a small portion of Apacheria; prior to the Apache Wars, the Apache inhabited most of New Mexico and eastern Arizona.
  10. ^ The Argobba have typically been a merchant community and usually trades with other ethnic groups; recently, these factors have resulted in the majority only speaking Amaharic or Oromo.
  11. ^ The Argobba live in isolated villages and do not have a contiguous homeland; the regions listed have a large Argobba population.
  12. ^ Following a systematic extermination campaign in Western Armenia, many Armenians fled to Russia, France, and the United States. Today, the majority reside outside of Greater Armenia, and only a small number still live in Western Armenia.
  13. ^ The Aromanians are considered to be descendants of the Romanised people of Southern Balkans and they live scattered in many settlements of that region.
  14. ^ The Aromanians tend to either identify their ethnicity as being the same as the dominant group of their area (especially in Greece, where Aromanians played an active role in Greece's war of independence) or Romanian (due to the similarity in their languages); this figure does not include those who do not speak the Aromanian language.
  15. ^ Due to a long history of forced Arabization, the majority of Assyrians can only speak Arabic.
  16. ^ Modern Assyria have seen long periods of violence throughout the region, some of which (such the Assyrian genocide and the Persecution of Christians by ISIL) have been directed against the Assyrians themselves. This has caused many to flee to places such as the United States and Sweden; it is believed that the majority now reside outside of the Middle East.
  17. ^ Largely used in formal conversations; the majority of Austrians actually speak Bavarian as a first language (specifically the central and southern dialects).
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Many Latin Americans have adopted the Mestizo identity, including Hispanicized indigenous members with no Spanish ancestry. As a result, the population figures for indigenous Latin American ethnic groups is usually limited to those who have managed to maintain their language and culture.
  19. ^ Refers specifically to speakers of the Balkar dialect.
  20. ^ a b c The Haratin tend to follow their former master's culture, which sometimes results in them getting classified as being Arab-Berbers.
  21. ^ Within Malaysia, the Banjarese are usually seen as being a Malay subgroup. This figure most likely heavily undercounts the Malaysian population.
  22. ^ Due to the widespread presence of both Spanish and French, the majority of Basques only have a passive knowledge of their language.
  23. ^ Figure taken by adding the ethnic population in France with the number of people in Spain that have a Basque surname. Does not include descendants residing in Latin America.
  24. ^ Unlike the rest of the Soviet Union republics, who were able to maintain their native language despite de facto Russianization, the Russian language has almost completely replaced Belarusian in everyday use.
  25. ^ The latter figure is the more recent estimate. The vast majority of the Tanzanian Bembe population have largely abandoned their culture; as a result, both figures heavily undercounts those residing in Tanzania.
  26. ^ Refers specifically to the Ewondo and Eton dialects.
  27. ^ a b c d Due to France's long history of promoting the French language at the expense of others, the vast majority only speak French.
  28. ^ In Malaysia, the Bugis are considered a part of the Malay ethnicity; only the Indonesian population is listed.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the American government, the vast majority only speak English.
  30. ^ Due to the forced relocation of most of the Cherokee population, the vast majority now reside in Oklahoma.
  31. ^ Number of enrolled tribal members. About 0.8 million claim to have Cherokee ancestry.
  32. ^ Assamese ethnic group; the vast majority only speak Assamese.
  33. ^ Due to the forceful removal of many Circassians following the Caucasian War, the majority of them now reside in Turkey.
  34. ^ a b c d e Due to a long history of English dominance within Great Britain, the Celtic languages within the islands have seen steady decline in use, with some of them eventually going extinct. Although all of them have since seen major language revival movements, English continues to be main language for the majority of this group.
  35. ^ a b c d Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the Canadian government, the vast majority can only either speak English or French.
  36. ^ Namibia: 0.2 million ("Damara 7%" of a population of 2.5 million).
  37. ^ South Sudan: 3.7 million ("Dinka 35.8%" of a population of 10.2 million).
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Standard language; most, if not all, speakers of the preceding language family are considered to be one singular ethnicity.
  39. ^ Not related to the Sierra Leonean Limba.
  40. ^ The original ancient Egyptian, which around the 1st century AD became Coptic, died out as a spoken language around the 17th century and is now only used for religious ceremonies. Today, the Egyptians, including the Copts, speak Arabic.
  41. ^ United Kingdom: 53.9 million (37.6 million English plus 16.3 million British). United States: 47.9 million (25.9 million English plus 20 million American, 0.1 million Australian, 1.2 million British, and 0.7 million Canadian). Australia: 14.3 million (7.2 million English plus 7.1 Australian). Canada: 18.4 million (6.3 million English plus 11.1 Canadian, 0.4 American, and 0.6 British Isles origins, n.i.e.). South Africa: 1.6 million (number of White South Africans who consider English their first language). New Zealand: 2.9 million (0.1 million British and Irish, 0.1 million New Zealander, 2.7 million New Zealand European). Not including other colonial descendant populations. The English have a tendency to identify their nationality as their ethnicity on census forms. In addition, many English Americans possessing some White ethnic ancestry will not identify themselves as being English. The number of fluent English-speakers who possess little to no English ancestry is too significantly high to use the worldwide English-speaking population, even when limited to first-language speakers.
  42. ^ Because the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand make up the Anglosphere along with the United Kingdom, their nationalities are listed instead of their specific English diaspora populations. All groups listed includes the other three main British ethnic groups (Scots, Irish, and Welsh). In addition, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have seen waves of non-English immigration (with groups such the Germans and the Han having communities in all four of them), and both the United States and New Zealand have large African American and Maori populations respectively.
  43. ^ All Indian ethnic groups contribute to the creation of the Anglo-Indian population, with no group standing out for the Anglo-Indians to be listed under as a sub-group.
  44. ^ Population of Esanland.
  45. ^ a b c The majority of the Tungusic languages are endangered, and many Tungusic ethnic groups now mostly speak only Russian or Chinese depending on the location of their homeland.
  46. ^ Benin: 4.3 million ("Fon and related 38.4%" of a population of 11.3 million). Does not include descendants of those who were sold in the Atlantic slave trade, as many of these people now simply identify as being Black.
  47. ^ The French ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Franco-Provençal language.
  48. ^ Many Saint-Pierrais also have Basque and Breton ancestry.
  49. ^ Number of Friuilian-speakers.
  50. ^ The Fula are a semi-nomadic people with rather dispersed settlements; it's impossible to claim any specific area as a primary homeland of the Fula beyond West Africa. The countries listed here are the present-day locations of former Fula states: Futa Jallon, Futa Toro, Great Fulo, and Massina. (The Sokoto Caliphate was founded on traditionally Hausa land, which is why Nigeria is not listed.)
  51. ^ Uganda: 6.7 million ("Baganda 16.5%" of a population of 40.9 million).
  52. ^ Unlike most Jewish populations, the Abayudaya are acknowledged to be entirely made up of Ganda converts to Judaism. The Abayudaya do not claim to possess any ancient Israelite ancestry.
  53. ^ Due to large-scale deportations of many Garifuna, the vast majority now reside in Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, and Nicaragua.
  54. ^ Refers specifically to the remaining Garifuna population residing in Saint Vincent.
  55. ^ Not including Meskhetian Turks, who for the most part are mostly ethnically Turks.
  56. ^ This number may include Austrians and Luxembourgers, who were originally seen both by themselves and by outsiders as being German subgroups until World War II, which led to significant backlash towards Pan-Germanism.
  57. ^ Many of the German subgroups (including the Austrians and the Luxembourgers) originated as political entities within the Holy Roman Empire. As a result, even though the Bavarians and the Austrians have similar cultures, historical ties, and even the same language, the two have not seen each other as being one group (outside of being part of the German ethnicity) since 1156 when Austria was elevated to a duchy.
  58. ^ The majority of Gonds no longer speak their native language and now mostly speak Hindi.
  59. ^ States that have more than 0.5 million Gonds.
  60. ^ Total number of native speakers of Guaraní. Unlike other Mestizo populations, who have largely abandoned their native languages, the Paraguayans have continued to use Guaraní in their everyday lives, meaning it's entirely possible for a non-ethnic Guaraní to be a native Guaraní speaker.
  61. ^ Burkina Faso: 0.9 million ("Gurunsi 4.6%" of a population of 19.7 million). Ghana: 0.7 million ("Grusi 2.5%" of a population of 28.1 million). The CIA World Factbook does not have figures on the ethnic makeup of the Togolese population.
  62. ^ It is believed that around the late 19th century, the Hajong language shifted from being a Sino-Tibetan language to an Indo-Ayran one.
  63. ^ a b The term Macanese refers specifically to the Macau population with Han and Portuguese ancestry; it is not usually used to describe the general Macau population, who are simply just Han.
  64. ^ Because of their Islamic faith, the Hui tend to be seen as a separate ethnic group (particularly by the Chinese government).
  65. ^ The vast majority of Oversea Chinese are ethnic Han; however, these populations may also include other ethnic groups residing in China.
  66. ^ Due to frequent intermarriages, many of the Thai Chinese have significant amount of Thai ancestry.
  67. ^ Since Hawaii's annexation into the United States, English has almost completely supplanted Hawaiian.
  68. ^ a b c Refers specifically to the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects. The other speakers of the dialects within the Rwanda-Rundi continuum are considered to be separate from the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa peoples.
  69. ^ An unknown number of them are actually Scottish. Until the arrival of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine, the descendants of the Ulster Scots referred to themselves as Scotch-Irish, which is usually shortened to just "Irish".
  70. ^ Not including the Northern Irish.
  71. ^ Refers specifically to the languages of the six nations that made up the Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
  72. ^ The Italian ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Gallo-Italic languages, as well as speakers of the Venetian language (which may or may not belong to either of these groups).
  73. ^ Figures cited range anywhere between some 69 and 140 million, the former figure being the number of native Italian-speakers, the latter including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. These figures may include descendants of groups that tend to be seen, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being Italian subgroups, but are listed here as separate ethnicities.
  74. ^ Figure obtained by adding the ethnic populations of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Due to cultural assimilation, many of the Javanese residing in Malaysia and Singapore are considered to be a part of the Malay ethnicity. In addition, the majority of the diaspora are migrant workers, meaning that their figures in places such as Hong Kong and Saudi Arabia are unknown.
  75. ^ Due to frequent intermarriages, many of the Javanese Malaysians have significant amount of Malay ancestry.
  76. ^ a b It's assumed the majority of this Overseas Indonesian population are ethnically Javanese.
  77. ^ Despite the successful revival of the Hebrew language, many Jews continue to speak the various languages that have developed by the diaspora populations, including Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. In addition, English serves as the lingua franca of Israel.
  78. ^ Since the destruction of the Second Temple, the Jews have mostly been a diaspora community, with the United States and France having large Jewish populations; even with entire Jewish communities migrating back to Israel (especially following the Holocaust), the majority still reside outside their ancestral homeland.
  79. ^ Figure taken by combining the Burmese population with the ethnic population in China.
  80. ^ Both figures exclude the Nambya. The latter figure is taken by combining the Zimbabwean and the Botswanan populations.
  81. ^ Also known as Kalenjin proper. However, the Kalenjin ethnicity is sometimes extended to speakers of the other branches of the larger Kalenjin language family: Elgon, Ogiek, and Pökoot.
  82. ^ This figure may not include the Pokot, the Sebei, the Okiek, who are not part of the Nandi–Markweta language family.
  83. ^ a b c Not part of the Nandi–Markweta language family.
  84. ^ Not including the diaspora population residing in Paraguay.
  85. ^ The majority of Afro-Paraguayans identify as being ethnically Kamba, who arrived shortly after Paraguay's independence; the descendants of original slave population (which was mostly made up of Igbo, Yoruba, and Ambundu) have largely integrated into this Kamba population.
  86. ^ Refers specifically to the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect.
  87. ^ Karen population. Presumably includes those outside of Burma.
  88. ^ The Kashubians tend to identify themselves as being a Polish subgroup (only 0.2 million consider themselves as being a separate ethnicity); this figure does not include those residing outside of Poland.
  89. ^ The Khas identity has largely been abandoned by its members in favor of their caste and is now only used to describe the dominant ethnic group of Nepal. The former figure is the sum taken by adding the 2011 Nepali census population numbers of the Chhetri, the Bahun, the Kami, the Damai, the Sarki, Nepal's Sanyasi community, and the Badi; the latter is the worldwide population of native Nepalese-speakers.
  90. ^ Does not include descendants of those who were sold in the Atlantic slave trade, as many of these people now simply identify as being Black.
  91. ^ Not including Cocolos and Samaná Americans, who have largely lived separately from the general Afro-Dominican population.
  92. ^ Does not include non-Korean speaking diaspora members.
  93. ^ Current Estimate. May not include the Laks.
  94. ^ a b There is dispute on whether the Laki language is a Kurdish or Luri dialect, or a separate language altogether.
  95. ^ The Kurukh are also referred to as Oraons.
  96. ^ Figure taken by adding the ethnic populations of Kyrgyzstan, China, and Tajikistan.
  97. ^ These numbers depend on whether the Isan are considered a part of the Lao population; the former figure excludes the Isan, while the latter includes them.
  98. ^ There is debate on whether the Isan are Thai, Lao, or their own separate ethnic group. Until the Lao rebellion, the Lao themselves were viewed, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being a Thai subgroup. Linguistically, their language is closer to Lao than it is to Thai (although all three are highly mutually intelligible to each other); however, due to heavy state-sponsored Thaification, many Isan consider themselves as being ethnically Thai.
  99. ^ Due to both Turkification and the tendency among Georgia-residing Laz to see themselves as being a Georgian subgroup, the majority of Laz either speak Turkish or Georgian (mostly Turkish).
  100. ^ Sierra Leone: 2.2 million ("Limba 6.4%" of a population of 6.3 million).
  101. ^ This entry specifically refers to the speakers of the Dholuo dialect. The speakers of the Luo language family are generally not seen as a single ethnicity.
  102. ^ Until the collapse of the German Confederation, the Luxembourgers were considered, both by themselves and by outsiders, as being a German subgroup. By the time of this collapse in 1866 however, many of the Luxembourgish diaspora populations were already decades old; this figure only include those who speak Luxembourgish as their first language.
  103. ^ May not include the Laks.
  104. ^ Due to poor soil condition in Madura, the majority now live on Java.
  105. ^ Although the Māori have been able to halt the extinction of their language, the majority still only speak English fluently.
  106. ^ Burma: 1.1Khmer people million ("Mon 2%" of a population of 55.6 million).
  107. ^ The Lingala language is often used by urban-residing Mongo.
  108. ^ Figure taken by combining all sources, using total worldwide users and ethnic populations.
  109. ^ Due to the forced relocation of most of the Muscogee population, the vast majority now reside in Oklahoma.
  110. ^ Namibia: 0.1 million ("Nama 5%" of a population of 2.5 million). Does not include the South African population or the descendants who now make up the Coloured community.
  111. ^ Not including the Bakumpai.
  112. ^ Bhutan: 0.4 million ("Ngalop (also known as Bhote) 50%" of a population of 0.8 million).
  113. ^ Excludes non Ojibwa-speakers.
  114. ^ The Ot Danum ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the East Barito languages.
  115. ^ Only includes speakers of Ot Danum.
  116. ^ a b c d Although this group has also been referred to as Dusun, they are not related to the ones residing in Sabah.
  117. ^ Due to the Israeli's capture of large amounts of land originally designated for the Palestinians, many have fled to places like Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Today, the majority reside outside of what was once Mandatory Palestine
  118. ^ There is a tendency among outsiders to identify the Pamiris as being a Tajik subgroup.
  119. ^ Guinea-Bissau: 0.2 million ("Papel 9.1%" of a population of 1.8 million).
  120. ^ Number of worldwide first-language Portuguese-speakers, including non-Portuguese diaspora populations residing in Brazil, such as Afro-Brazilians, Japanese Brazilians, and Arab Brazilians. Does not include the Cape Verdeans, whose first-language is Cape Verdean Creole.
  121. ^ Because Brazil is the largest Portuguese-speaking population in the world, and the majority of Cape Verde's population are of Portuguese and Mandinka descent, their nationality are listed instead of their specific Portuguese diaspora population.
  122. ^ a b Figure taken by combining total users of both languages in all countries.
  123. ^ With the exception of the Rabha, the majority of the Rajbongshi now speak an Indo-Aryan language similar to Bengali and Assamese.
  124. ^ Although they are believed to have originated from India, as a nomadic group the Romani are usually seen as not having a primary homeland beyond Europe. These countries are listed due to having a very large Romani population.
  125. ^ Does not include those residing outside of Europe.
  126. ^ This article will only list populations outside of Europe.
  127. ^ a b The Cossacks also include other members native to Eastern Europe.
  128. ^ The former figure includes self-identified Rusyns and Lemkos in the national censuses of Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia and Ukraine, while the latter is an estimate of people with Rusyn ancestry. A major problem with finding the actual Rusyn population is that the Rusyns are usually seen, even by Rusyns residing in Ukraine, as being a Ukrainian subgroup; the Rusyn identity is usually confined to the diaspora population.
  129. ^ a b c There is debate on whether the Lemkos, the Hutsuls, and the Boykos are considered to be Ukrainian subgroups or Rusyn subgroups (which is largely dependent on whether the Rusyns themselves are a separate ethnic group or an Ukrainian subgroup). The majority of all three groups tend to identify as being ethnically Rusyn rather than being ethnically Ukrainian.
  130. ^ Sambal population within Zambales.
  131. ^ The San ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Tuu languages.
  132. ^ Figure taken by combining the worldwide population of first-language Santali-speakers with the ethnic Mahali population.
  133. ^ The Sara ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Kaba languages.
  134. ^ Chad: 4.8 million ("Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%" of a population of 15.8 million). Niger: 0.6 million ("Sara 10%" of a population of 5.7 million)
  135. ^ Due to the promotion and enforcement of the Italian language and culture upon the Sardinian population since the 18th century, the majority no longer speak their native language, which has seen steady decline in use.
  136. ^ Not to be confused with Scots, which is usually seen, even by most Scots-speakers themselves, as being an English-dialect.
  137. ^ Although they are sometimes referred to as Scotch-Irish, the Ulster Scots have very little Irish ancestry.
  138. ^ The Serer ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Cangin languages.
  139. ^ Burma: 5 million ("Shan 9%" of a population of 55.6 million).
  140. ^ The Siddi language has been extinct since the 20th century. The Siddi now speak the dominant language of their region.
  141. ^ Unlike the Portuguese and the Dutch, the English have rarely intermarried with Burghers.
  142. ^ Mali: 0.3 million ("Songhai 1.6%" of a population of 18.4 million). Niger: 4.2 million ("Zarma/Songhai 21.2%" of a population of 19.9 million)
  143. ^ Total number of worldwide first-language Sotho-speakers. Does not include the Pedi, who are either considered a subgroup or a separate ethnic group.
  144. ^ Refers specifically to the three languages that form the Surma language family: Me'en, Mursi, and Suri. The ethnonym Surma is usually applied to the speakers of the Suri language.
  145. ^ The former figure is the total worldwide number of native Susu-speakers, while the latter is the calculated figure based off the Guinean population ("Susu 19.8%" of a population of 11.9 million).
  146. ^ Most publications tend to stick with 500,000. The ethnic Swahili population is believed to be significantly smaller than the millions of people who use Swahili in their everyday lives, even when limited to first language speakers.
  147. ^ The Tajik ethnicity generally also includes speakers of the Dari language.
  148. ^ Figure taken by adding India's first-language Tamil-speakers population, the ethnic populations of Malaysia and South Africa, with the Singaporean and Sri Lankan populations.
  149. ^ Sierra Leone: 2.2 million ("Temne 35.5%" of a population of 6.3 million).
  150. ^ Figure taken by combining both local and diaspora populations.
  151. ^ Although the Meskhetian Turks are mostly made up of ethnic Turks who had once inhabited Meskheti, a significant portion of them are actually Turkified Georgians.
  152. ^ a b Despite their name, the Syrian and Iraqi Turkmens have little to do the main ethnic group of Turkmenistan.

References[edit]

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  219. ^ "Serer-Sine". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  220. ^ "Shona". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total number of worldwide first-language speakers.
  221. ^ "Xibe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
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  226. ^ "Soninke". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
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  235. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
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  238. ^ "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
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  244. ^ "Setswana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total number of worldwide first-language speakers.
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  251. ^ "Uzbek". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  252. ^ "Venda". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total number of worldwide first-language speakers.
  253. ^ "Vietnamese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
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  257. ^ "Yao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  258. ^ "The Yi ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  259. ^ "Yoruba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total number of worldwide first-language Yoruba-speakers. Most estimates exclude the African diaspora caused by the Atlantic slave trade due to centuries worth of separation from the rest of the Yoruba.
  260. ^ "Zande". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  261. ^ Includes only the worldwide population of those who speak Zande proper as a first language.
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