List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups.

There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect, the term culture specifically including aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, etc. By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups are often indigenous peoples.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Acholi Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoAcholi Uganda, South Sudan 1.2 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Akan Niger-CongoKwaPotou-TanoAkan Ghana, Ivory Coast 20 million Asante, Akuapem, Akyem, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé Christianity, Akan religion, Sunni Islam
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Preševo Valley (Serbia) 6.8–8 million Ghegs, Tosks, Arbëreshë Sunni Islam, Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticAfar Afar Region (Ethiopia), Djibouti, Eritrea 2.3–4.2 million Sunni Islam
Afrikaners Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAfrikaans South Africa 3.5 million Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Ethiopia 30 million ChristianityEthiopian Orthodoxy
Islam
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arab world 430–450 million[1] Bedouins IslamSunni Islam (93%)
Christianity (7%)
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Armenia 12 million Hemshin peoples ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Assamese Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanAssamese India 15 million[2] Hinduism
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticAssyrian Neo-Aramaic Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey 2–3.3 million ChristianitySyriac Christianity
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Iran, Azerbaijan 28–35 million Karapapaks, Afshar, Bayat, Baharlu, Shahsevan, Qaradaghis, Ayrums, Qizilbash IslamShia Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianBalochi Balochistan
(Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan)
8.8 million IslamSunni Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese Myanmar 30 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger-CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 2.7 million Islam
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 2 million Islam
Basques Basque Basque Country 2.4 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicBelarusian Belarus 9.5–10 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Bemba Niger–CongoBantuSabiBemba Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 0.74[3]–3.3 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Bengali Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanBengali Bangladesh, India 300 million[4] Chittagonians, Sylhetis Islam, Hinduism
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber North Africa 25–30 million[5]–50 million[6][7][8][9] Maghrebis IslamSunni Islam
Beti-Pahuin Niger–CongoBantuBeti Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea 8.3 million Fang, Ewondo, Eton, Bulu, Bebil, Bebele Christianity, traditional African religions (including Bwiti)
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina 3–4.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Brahui DravidianBrahui Pakistan 2.4 million[10] Islam
British Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicEnglish United Kingdom, Ireland 210–247 million Cornish, English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh ChristianityProtestantism
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicBulgarian Bulgaria 7–8 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries 8–10 million[11] Valencians, Balearics ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian Russia (see also; Circassia) 4–8 million Adyghe, Cherkess, Kabarday, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 12 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticCornish

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicEnglishAnglo-Cornish

Cornwall 6–11 million Christianity
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicCroatian Croatia 7.5–8.5 million Italian Croats (Molise Croats) ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million (ChristianityRoman Catholicism)
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicDanish Denmark 6.9 million ChristianityLutheranism
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticDinka South Sudan 5 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicDutch Netherlands 29 million[12] (ChristianityCalvinism)
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicEnglish England 100 million[13] ChristianityAnglicanism
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1 million (ChristianityLutheranism)
Faroese Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicFaroese Faroe Islands 0.08–0.09 million ChristianityLutheranism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 6.5 million ChristianityLutheranism
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrench France 100 million[14] Walloons ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicFrisian Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 1.5 million ChristianityAnglicanism
Fula Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoSenegambianFula West Africa 20 million Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa-Dangme Greater Accra (Ghana) 2 million Ga, Adangbe Christianity, traditional African religions (including Bwiti)
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia 0.2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galician Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia 3 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Ganda Niger-CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.2 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicGerman Germany 100-150 million[15] Austrians, Bavarians, Franconians, Saxons, Swabians, Thuringii, Prussians, Hessians, Pomeranians ChristianityRoman Catholicism, Lutheranism
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece,

Cyprus

14–17 million Griko people, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 5–7 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanGujarati India 50–60 million[16] Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism
Han Chinese Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese Greater China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia 1,300 million[17] Mandarin, Cantonese, Min-Taiwanese, Gan, Hakka, Xiang, Wu, Jin Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Niger, Nigeria 50 million Islam
Hindustani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanHindustani India 422 million[18] Hinduism, Islam
Hui Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China 10 million IslamSunni Islam
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary 13.1–14.7 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Ibibio Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoVolta-NigerYoruboidIgbo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 5 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.45 million ChristianityLutheranism
Igbo Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoVolta-NigerYoruboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 34 million Christianity, Odinani
Ijaw Niger-CongoIjaw Niger Delta – Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta states of Nigeria 10 million Christianity
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticIrish
(Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicHiberno-English)[19]
Ireland 70–80 million[20] Irish Travellers ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalian Italy[21] 55-135 million[22] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 129 million[23] Buddhism, Shinto
Javanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianJavanese Java 105 million[24] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan IslamSunni Islam, Hinduism
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticNorthwest SemiticCanaaniteHebrew Israel 14–14.5 million Ashkenazim, Mizrahim, Sephardim, Teimanim, Kochinim, Etiopim, and more. Judaism
Kannada DravidianKannada India 37–55 million Hinduism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 14 million IslamSunni Islam
Kikuyu Niger-CongoBantuNortheast BantuKikuyu Kenya 9.9 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Kongo Niger-CongoBantuKongo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola, Gabon 10 million Christianity
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanKonkani India 7.4 million[2] Hinduism
Koreans KoreanicKorean Korea 82.5 million[25] Buddhism, Christianity
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianKurdish Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria (see also; Kurdistan) 30–38 million Kurmanjis
Sorans
Zazas
Gorans
Southern Kurds
Sunni Islam, Shia Islam -> Alevism, Judaism, Christianity, Yazidism
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Lango Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLango Uganda 1.8 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.5–1.6 million ChristianityLutheranism
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7–4.1 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Laz KartvelianLaz Turkey, Georgia 0.2–1 million IslamSunni Islam, Christianity
Luba Niger-CongoBantuLubanLuba Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLuo Kenya, Tanzania 7 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian Macedonia, Greece (Greek Macedonia), Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad Province), Albania (Mala Prespa and Golloborda), Serbia (Prohor Pcinjski) and Kosovo (Gora region). 2.5–5 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Malays AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalay Malay world 30 million Bruneians, Kedahans, Pattani, Kelantanese, Terengganuans, Pahang, Perakians, Berau IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianMalayalam India 40–60 million Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Jainism
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicSiculo-ArabicMaltese Malta 0.7 million Gozitans ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Manchu AltaicTungusicManchu (Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese) China 10.4 million Manchu shamanismBuddhism
Mandinka Niger-CongoMandeMandingMandinka (Mandingo), Maninka, Kassonke, Kita Maninka Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Ivory Coast 13 million Islam
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMarathi India 87 million[26] Hinduism
Moldovans Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Moldova, Ukraine, Russia[27] 2.7 million[28][29] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mongo Niger-CongoBantuBangi-NtombaMongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 12 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Mongols AltaicMongolian Inner Mongolia (China), Mongolia 10 million BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Nepali Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanNepali Nepal 30 million
[30][31][32][33]
Hinduism, Buddhism
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million ChristianityLutheranism
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer South Sudan 5 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPashto Pakistan, Afghanistan 40–60 million[34] IslamSunni Islam
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanOdia India 32 million[35] Hinduism
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Ethiopia, Kenya 35–45 million[36] WaqafennaTraditional Oromo religion IslamSunni Islam ChristianCoptic Orthodox and Protestant
Persians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersian Iran 53 million[37] IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[38][39] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 42 million[40] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Punjabi Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanPunjabi Pakistan, India 121 million[41] Islam, Sikhism, Hinduism
Pedi Niger–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaPedi South Africa 4.7 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania 24 million[42] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Romani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRomani Europe, The Middle East 12 million Dom people, Lom people Christianity, Islam[43]
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[44] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Sara Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicSara Chad, Central African Republic 3–4 million Christianity, traditional African religions, Islam
Sardinians[45][46][47][48][49][50] Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia 1.7 million[51] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Scottish Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicScots

Indo-EuropeanCelticScottish Gaelic

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicScottish English

Scotland 28–40 million[52] ChristianityChurch of Scotland
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 10–12 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Shona Niger-CongoBantuShona Zimbabwe, Mozambique 10.7–11.7 million Manyika, Ndau, Kalanga Christianity, traditional African religions
Sicilians[53][54][55][56][57] Indo-EuropeanRomanceSicilian

Indo-EuropeanRomanceGallo-Italic of Sicily

Sicily 5.08 million Sicilian Americans,[58][59][60][61] Sicilian Canadians,[62] Sicilian Argentines, Sicilian Australians[63][64] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSindhi Pakistan 40 million[citation needed] IslamSunni Islam (66%)
Hinduism (32%)
Buddhism (1%)
Christianity (0.1%)
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 16 million[65] BuddhismTheravada
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Soga Niger-CongoBantuNortheast BantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticSomaliSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16–20 million Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger-CongoMandeSoninke Mali 1 million Islam
Sotho Niger-CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaSotho South Africa, Lesotho 5.3–6.4 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain 47[66]–500 million Andalusians, Aragoneses, Asturians, Castillians, Leonese ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Sundanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSundanese Java 40 million IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger-CongoBantuNortheast BantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Swazi Niger-CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniSwazi South Africa, Swaziland 2.4 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 13.2 million ChristianityLutheranism
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianTajik
Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianDari
Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 16.7 million[67] Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil India, Sri Lanka 78 million[68] Hinduism
Telugu DravidianTelugu India 90 million[69] Hinduism
Tais Tai–KadaiThais Thailand 70 million Laotian, Siamese (Southern, Khorat), Lanna, Isans, Shans, Tai Lü Buddhism, Hinduism
Tibetans Sino–TibetanTibeto-KanauriBodishTibetan Tibet (China) 6.2 million BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tswana Niger–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Africa, Botswana 6 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Tuaregs AfroasiaticBerberTuareg Sahara 1.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey 66–83 million Manavs, Yörüks IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 8 million IslamSunni Islam
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicUkrainian Ukraine; Kuban, Belgorod, Kursk, Voronezh, Rostov, (Russia); Prešov (Slovakia); Zakerzonia (Poland); Brest (Belarus) 38–59 million[70] Boyko, Hutsul, Kozak, Lemko, Pannonian Rusyn, Poleshuks, Rusyn ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy, Ukrainian Catholic
Uyghur TurkicKarlukUyghur Xinjiang (China) 10 million IslamSunni Islam
Uzbek TurkicKarlukUzbek Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 28 million IslamSunni Islam
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 84 million[71] BuddhismMahayana
Vietnamese folk religion
Volga Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 6.8 million IslamSunni Islam
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticWelsh

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicWelsh English

Wales 6–16.3 million ChristianityChurch in Wales, Presbyterian Church of Wales
Xhosa Niger–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniXhosa South Africa 8 million Christianity, traditional African religions
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million ChristianityRussian Orthodox Christianity
Yoruba Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoVolta-NigerYoruboidEdekiriYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin, Togo) 43 million Christianity, Islam, Yoruba religion
Zhuang Tai KadaiTaiZhuang Guangxi (China) 16.9 million Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 10–11 million Christianity, traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
  2. ^ a b Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  3. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Bemba.aspx
  4. ^ roughly 170 million in Bangladesh and 130 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
  5. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  6. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "Berber people". Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  8. ^ Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Steven, L. Danver, M.E. Sharpe/Mesa Verde Publishing, 2013, p.23
  9. ^ https://www.temehu.com/imazighen/berbers.htm
  10. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/BRH
  11. ^ Including all population with Catalan heritage, language, culture
  12. ^ 37.6 million in the UK, between 25 and 49 million reporting "English ancestry" in the United States, 6.6 million reporting English "ethnic origin" in Canada, and between 7 million in Australia.
  13. ^ Estimates range from anywhere between 66 to 106 million. The French language has an estimated 75 million native speakers. The CIA Factbook does not report any French ethnicity (considering it a nationality), giving the ethnic composition of France as "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic". [1]
  14. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined, ..."
  15. ^ CIA Factbook (2014) estimates 55 million in India. SIL Ethnologue cites 46 million native speakers of Gujarati. About 1 million in Pakistan and 1 million in the USA.
  16. ^ 1.24 billion (92% of total population) in the PRC (CIA Factbook 2014 est.), about 22 million in Taiwan, and an estimated 50 million Overseas Chinese
  17. ^ The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (21 January 2014). "Hindi language". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  18. ^ The Irish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 17th century, but significantly anglicized during the early modern period. Since the mid-19th century, the large majority of Irish have been native speakers of English.
  19. ^ The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland
  20. ^ Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon. Department of Political Science, Stanford University
  21. ^ Figures cited range anywhere between some 55 and 135 million, the latter figure including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. The Italian language has some 60 million native speakers.[2]
  22. ^ 127 million in Japan, about 2.5 million abroad.
  23. ^ 102 million in Indonesia (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate); small numbers in Malaysia, Suriname and elsewhere.
  24. ^ 50 million in South Korea, 25 million in North Korea, roughly 7 million in diaspora.
  25. ^ 87 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  26. ^ "Ethnicities of the World". Ethnicities of the World. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  27. ^ "Moldovan". Census. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  28. ^ "Распределение населения регионов Украины по родному языку". Распределение населения регионов Украины по родному языку. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  29. ^ Total population: 30 million. Population of Nepal: 26,494,504 (2011), number of Nepali speakers in India: 2,871,749 (2011), number of Nepalis speakers in Bhutan: 265,000.
  30. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/wphc/Nepal/Nepal-Census-2011-Vol1.pdf
  31. ^ Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues–2000, Census of India, 2001
  32. ^ http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_language.asp?code=nep
  33. ^ About 30 million in Pakistan and 12 million in Afghanistan; Penzl and Sloan, Pashto Grammar (2009) estimated a total number of Pashto speakers between 40 and 60 million. SIL Ethnologue in 2011 estimated an ethnic population of 49 million.
  34. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/ory
  35. ^ About 38 million in Ethiopia, ~2 million in Kenya, roughly half a million in diaspora. Afan Oromo language has an estimated 45 million native speakers.
  36. ^ 50 million in Iran, roughly 3 million in diaspora.
  37. ^ 37.5–38 million in Poland and 21–22 million ethnic Poles or people of ethnic Polish extraction elsewhere. "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)"
  38. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. pp. 89–101. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  39. ^ Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses (2009)
  40. ^ Lahnda/Western Punjabi 90,512,900 Pakistan and other countries (2014). Eastern: 28,200,000 India (2001), other countries: 1,314,770. Ethnologue 19.
  41. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  42. ^ Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318, ‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort... 
  43. ^ Estimates range between 130 and 150 million. 111 million in the Russian Federation (2010 census), about 16 million ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states (8 M in Ukraine, 4.5 M in Kazakhstan, 1 M in Belarus, 0.6 M Latvia, 0.6 M in Uzbekistan, 0.6 M in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 10 million Russian diaspora elsewhere (mostly Americas and Western Europe).
  44. ^ Sardinians–World Directory of Minorities
  45. ^ Edelsward, Lisa-Marlene; Salzman, Philip (1996). Sardinians - Encyclopedia of World Cultures
  46. ^ Cole, Jeffrey. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, pp. 321–325
  47. ^ Minahan, James. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z, pp. 1661–1665
  48. ^ Danver, Steven L. Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, pp. 370–371
  49. ^ Lang, Peter; Petricioli, Marta. L’Europe Méditerranéenne, pp. 201–254,
  50. ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT
  51. ^ The Scottish Diaspora
  52. ^ STERGIOS, PARDALIS (2009). "TERRONI AND POLENTONI: WHERE DOES THE TRUTH LIE? AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF SOCIAL NETWORKS AND ETHNICITY IN PALERMO (SICILY), ITALY.". Doctoral thesis, Durham University. Sicilians ‘pass’ Narroll’s ‘test’ and can be considered to form a distinctive ethnic group within the Italian nation-state. Palermitans’ sense of simultaneity is expressed on both local and regional levels, but not on the national one. The imagined boundary between Sicily and the rest of Italy is strengthened as Sicilians distance themselves mentally or physically from their homeland, and by opposition to the inner ‘other’. This opposition is constructed (or at the very least manipulated) by Italian elites for specific political and economic purposes. However, the Palermitan response implies an antithesis that diffuses a possible national crisis; on the one hand, Palermitans admit their economic inferiority, on the other, they perceive their culture as more complex and rich, especially compared to the North. Despite this discursive superiority, 18 
  53. ^ User, Human, Flux. "Demopolis". www.fatti.it. Retrieved 2016-10-05. 
  54. ^ Baldassar, Loretta (2011-01-01). Intimacy and Italian Migration: Gender and Domestic Lives in a Mobile World. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823231843. 
  55. ^ Bain, Barbara J. (2014-11-11). Blood Cells: A Practical Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118817292. 
  56. ^ Wasniewska, M.; Di Pasquale, G.; Rulli, I.; Salzano, G.; Caruso, M.; Indovina, S.; Di Pasquale, L.; Zirilli, G.; De Luca, F. (2007-03-01). "In Sicilian ethnic group non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia is frequently associated with a very mild genotype". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 30 (3): 181–185. doi:10.1007/BF03347422. ISSN 1720-8386. PMID 17505149. 
  57. ^ Rudolph, Laura C. "Sicilian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Ed. Thomas Riggs. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2014. 151–163. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Oct. 2016.
  58. ^ "SAGE Reference - Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society". sk.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2016-10-05. 
  59. ^ "2000 US Census". 
  60. ^ Naylor, Larry L. (1997-01-01). Cultural Diversity in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780897894784. 
  61. ^ Migliore, S (1988). "RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: A SICILIAN-CANADIAN EXAMPLE". Canadian Ethnic Studies. 20 (1): 78–94. 
  62. ^ Hogg, Michael A.; Rigoli, Ninetta (1996-03-01). "Effects of Ethnolinguistic Vitality, Ethnic Identification, and Linguistic Contacts on Minority Language Use". Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 15 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1177/0261927X960151005. ISSN 0261-927X. 
  63. ^ "Language Dynamics of an Ethnic Minority Group: Some Methodological Concerns on Data Collection" (PDF). The Linguistics Journal. 1 (3). 
  64. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/language/sin
  65. ^ There is no clear definition of Spanish ethnicity. In Spain, ethnic identity is divided into regional groups, and internationally, Spanish ethnicity is not clearly delineated from "Spanish ancestry" in the territories of the former colonial empire. There are 41 million Spanish nationals in Spain, and some 2 million living abroad. The total worldwide rounds to more than 47 million.
  66. ^ Roughly 9,450,000–11,550,000 in Afghanistan, 6,787,000 (2014) in Tajikistan, and 1,420,000 (2012, official) in Uzbekistan
  67. ^ 73 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate, subject to rapid population growth), 2 million in Sri Lanka (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 3 million in diaspora.
  68. ^ 89 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  69. ^ Ukrainians at the Joshua Project
  70. ^ 80 million in Vietnam (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 4 million in diaspora.
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.