Tropical cyclone naming

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Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

History[edit]

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
Basin Institution Area of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center Equator northward, African Coast – 140°W [1]
Central Pacific United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center Equator northward, 140°W - 180° [1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator – 60°N, 180 – 100°E
5°N – 21°N, 115°E – 135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E – 45°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Equator – 40°S, 55°E – 90°E
Equator – 40°S, African Coast – 55°E
[5]
Australian region Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator – 10°S, 90°E – 141°E
Equator – 10°S, 141°E – 160°E
10°S – 36°S, 90°E – 160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator – 25°S, 160°E – 120°W
25°S – 40°S, 160°E – 120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial) Equator – 35°S, Brazilian Coast – 20°W [7]

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred.[8] The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907.[8] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific.[8] Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.[8]

At present, tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public.[9] This is especially important when multiple storms are occurring simultaneously in the same ocean basin.[9] Names are generally assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph).[1][4][5] However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility.[3] Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named.[5][6]

Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists.[1][2][6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons.[1] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons:[1][2] these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media.[1][10] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least 1 billion in damage or have caused at least 300 deaths.[11]

North Atlantic Ocean[edit]

Image of Hurricane Nicole nearing peak strength in October 2016

Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storms with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A—W used, skipping Q and U, and alternating between male and female names.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee meeting.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1]

The current naming scheme began with the 1979 season. It uses alternating women's and men's names, and also includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before then, only women's names were used.

List of Atlantic tropical cyclone names
2017
Names Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irma Jose Katia
Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney
2018
Names Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk
Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sara Tony Valerie William
2019
Names Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Imelda Jerry Karen
Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy
2020
Names Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle
Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred
2021
Names Ana Bill Claudette Danny Elsa Fred Grace Henri Ida Julian Kate
Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda
2022
Names Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl
Lisa Martin Nicole Owen Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie Walter
References:[1]

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Seymour at peak intensity in October 2016

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu).[1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee.[1]

The current naming scheme began with the 1978 season, one year before the Atlantic basin (and which anomalously used the list that will be used next in 2018, rather than the one for 2020). As with the Atlantic basin, it uses alternating women's and men's names, and also includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before then, only women's names were used. Because Eastern Pacific hurricanes mainly threaten western Mexico and Central America, the lists contain more Spanish names than the Atlantic lists.

North Pacific east of 140°W[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W, it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A—Z used, skipping Q and U, with each name alternating between a male or a female name.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named using the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1]

List of Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone names
2017
Names Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia
Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda
2018
Names Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane
Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2019
Names Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena
Mario Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda
2020
Names Amanda Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell
Marie Norbert Odalys Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2021
Names Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda
Marty Nora Olaf Pamela Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda
2022
Names Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Ivette Javier Kay Lester
Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke
References:[1]

Central North Pacific Ocean (140°W to 180°)[edit]

Hurricane Pali in January 2016, the earliest named system in the basin

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180°, it is named by the CPHC.[1] Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year.[1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next Hurricane Committee meeting.[1]

List of Central Pacific tropical cyclone names
List Names
1 Akoni Ema Hone Iona Keli Lala Moke Nolo Olana Pena Ulana Wale
2 Aka Ekeka Hene Iolana Keoni Lino Mele Nona Oliwa Pama Upana Wene
3 Alika Ele Huko Iopa Kika Lana Maka Neki Omeka Pewa Unala Wali
4 Ana Ela Halola Iune Kilo Loke Malia Niala Oho Pali Ulika Walaka
References:[1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° – 100°E)[edit]

Typhoon Meranti off the Philippines at peak intensity in September 2016

Tropical cyclones that occur within the Northern Hemisphere between the anti-meridian and 100°E are officially named by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become tropical storms.[2] However, PAGASA also names tropical cyclones that occur or develop into tropical depressions within their self-defined area of responsibility between 5°N–25°N and 115°E-135°E.[3] This often results in tropical cyclones in the region having two names.[3]

International names[edit]

Tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific are assigned international names by the JMA when they become a tropical storm with 10-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[2] The names are used sequentially without regard to year and are taken from five lists of names that were prepared by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, after each of the 14 members submitted 10 names in 1998.[2] The order of the names to be used was determined by placing the English name of the members in alphabetical order.[2] Members of the committee are allowed to request the retirement or replacement of a system's name if it causes extensive destruction or for other reasons such as number of deaths.[2] Unlike other basins, storms are also named after plants, animals, objects, and mythological beings.

List of Western Pacific tropical cyclone names
List Contributing nation
Cambodia China North Korea
(DPRK)
Hong Kong Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Micronesia Philippines South Korea
(ROK)
Thailand United States Vietnam
1 Damrey Haikui Kirogi Kai-tak Tembin Bolaven Sanba Jelawat Ewiniar Maliksi Gaemi Prapiroon Maria Son-Tinh
Ampil Wukong Jongdari Shanshan Yagi Leepi Bebinca Rumbia Soulik Cimaron Jebi Mangkhut Barijat Trami
2 Kong-rey Yutu Toraji Man-yi Usagi Pabuk Wutip Sepat Mun Danas Nari Wipha Francisco Lekima
Krosa Bailu Podul Lingling Kajiki Faxai Peipah Tapah Mitag Hagibis Neoguri Bualoi Matmo Halong
3 Nakri Fengshen Kalmaegi Fung-wong Kammuri Phanfone Vongfong Nuri Sinlaku Hagupit Jangmi Mekkhala Higos Bavi
Maysak Haishen Noul Dolphin Kujira Chan-hom Linfa Nangka Saudel Molave Goni Atsani Etau Vamco
4 Krovanh Dujuan Surigae Choi-wan Koguma Champi In-fa Cempaka Nepartak Lupit Mirinae Nida Omais Conson
Chanthu Dianmu Mindulle Lionrock Kompasu Namtheun Malou Meranti[nb 1] Rai Malakas Megi Chaba Aere Songda
5 Sarika[nb 2] Haima[nb 3] Meari Ma-on Tokage Nock-ten
[nb 4]
Muifa Merbok Nanmadol Talas Noru Kulap Roke Sonca
Nesat Haitang Nalgae Banyan Hato Pakhar Sanvu Mawar Guchol Talim Doksuri Khanun Lan Saola
References:[2][13]

Philippines[edit]

Typhoon Butchoy (Nepartak) at peak strength in July 2016

Since 1963, PAGASA has independently operated its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that occur within its own self-defined Philippine Area of Responsibility.[3][14] The names are taken from four different lists of 25 names and are assigned when a system moves into or develops into a tropical depression within PAGASA's jurisdiction.[3][14] The four lists of names are rotated every four years, with the names of significant tropical cyclones retired should they have caused at least 1 billion in damage and or at least 300 deaths within the Philippines.[14][15] Should the list of names for a given year be exhausted, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first ten of which are published every year.[14]

List of Philippine region tropical cyclone names
2017
Main Auring Bising Crising Dante Emong Fabian Gorio Huaning Isang Jolina Kiko Lannie Maring
Nando Odette Paolo Quedan Ramil Salome Tino Urduja Vinta Wilma Yasmin Zoraida
Auxiliary Alamid Bruno Conching Dolor Ernie Florante Gerardo Hernan Isko Jerome
2018
Main Agaton Basyang Caloy Domeng Ester Florita Gardo Henry Inday Josie Karding Luis Maymay
Neneng Ompong Paeng Queenie Rosita Samuel Tomas Usman Venus Waldo Yayang Zeny
Auxiliary Agila Bagwis Chito Diego Elena Felino Gunding Harriet Indang Jessa
2019
Main Amang Betty Chedeng Dodong Egay Falcon Goring Hanna Ineng Jenny Kabayan Liwayway Marilyn
Nimfa Onyok Perla Quiel Ramon Sarah Tisoy Ursula Viring Weng Yoyoy Zigzag
Auxiliary Abe Berto Charo Dado Estoy Felion Gening Herman Irma Jaime
2020
Main Ambo Butchoy Carina Dindo Enteng Ferdie Gener Helen Igme Julian Kristine Leon Marce
Nika Ofel Pepito Quinta Rolly Siony Tonyo Ulysses Vicky Warren Yoyong Zosimo
Auxiliary Alakdan Baldo Clara Dencio Estong Felipe Gomer Heling Ismael Julio
References:[14]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)[edit]

Cyclone Vardah nearing landfall over South India in December 2016

Within the North Indian Ocean between 45°E – 100°E, tropical cyclones are named by the India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) when they are judged to have intensified into a cyclonic storm with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[16] There are eight lists of names which are used in sequence and are not rotated every few years; however, the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired.[17]

List of Northern Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
List Contributing nation
Bangladesh India Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Sri Lanka Thailand
1 Onil Agni Hibaru Pyarr Baaz Fanoos Mala Mukda
2 Ogni Akash Gonu Yemyin Sidr Nargis Rashmi Khai-Muk
3 Nisha Bijli Aila Phyan Ward Laila Bandu Phet
4 Giri Jal Keila Thane Murjan Nilam Viyaru Phailin
5 Helen Lehar Madi Nanauk Hudhud Nilofar Ashobaa Komen
6 Chapala Megh Roanu Kyant Nada Vardah Maarutha Mora
7 Ockhi Sagar Mekunu Daye Luban Titli Gaja Phethai
8 Fani Vayu Hikaa Kyarr Maha Bulbul Pawan Amphan
References:[16]

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa – 90°E)[edit]

Cyclone Enawo nearing landfall in Madagascar in March 2017

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it is judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[5][18] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the system's center.[5] Systems are named in conjunction with Météo-France Reunion by either Météo Madagascar or the Mauritius Meteorological Service.[5] If a disturbance reaches the naming stage between Africa and 55°E, then Météo Madagascar names it; if it reaches the naming stage between 55°E and 90°E, then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it.[5] The names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed.[5] The names that are going to be used during a season are selected in advance by the World Meteorological Organization's RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee from names submitted by member countries.[5]

List of South–West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
2017–18
Names Ava Berguitta Cebile Dumazile Eliakim Fakir Guambe Habana Iman Jobo Kanga Ludzi Melina
Nathan Onias Pelagie Quamar Rita Solani Tarik Urilia Vuyane Wagner Xusa Yarona Zacarias
2018–19
Names Alcide Bouchra Cilida Desmond Eketsang Funani Gelena Haleh Idai Joaninha Kenneth Lorna Maipelo
Njazi Oscar Pamela Quentin Rajab Savana Themba Uyapo Viviane Walter Xangy Yemurai Zanele
2019–20
Names Ambali Belna Calvinia Diane Esami Francisco Gabekile Herold Irondro Jeruto Kundai Lisebo Michel
Nousra Olivier Pokera Quincy Rebaone Salama Tristan Ursula Violet Wilson Xila Yekela Zania
References:[18][19]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)[edit]

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E – 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E.[6] Outside of these areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones.[6] If a name is assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that storm is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6][10]

Indonesia[edit]

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator-10°S and 90°E-141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Indonesian tropical cyclone names
List A
Anggrek Bakung Cempaka Dahlia Flamboyan Kenanga Lili Mangga Seroja Teratai
List B
Anggur Belimbing Duku Jambu Lengkeng Melati Nangka Pisang Rambutan Sawo
References:[6][20]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 141°E – 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused.[6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Papua New Guinea tropical cyclone names
List A
Alu Buri Dodo Emau Fere Hibu Ila Kama Lobu Maila
List B
Nou Obaha Paia Ranu Sabi Tau Ume Vali Wau Auram
References:[6]

Australia[edit]

Cyclone Debbie making landfall over Queensland in March 2017

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) which operates three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane.[6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[6][10]

List of Australian tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Anika Billy Charlotte Dominic Ellie Freddy Gabrielle Herman Ilsa Jasper Kirrily
Lincoln Megan Neville Olga Paul Robyn Sean Tasha Vince Zelia ------
List B
Names Anthony Bianca Courtney Dianne Errol Fina Grant Hayley Iggy Jenna Koji
Luana Mitchell Narelle Oran Peta Riordan Sandra Tim Victoria Zane ------
List C
Names Alessia Bruce Catherine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Ivana Jack Kate
Laszlo Mingzhu Nathan Olwyn[nb 5] Quincey Raquel Stan Tatiana Uriah Yvette ------
List D
Names Alfred Blanche Caleb Debbie[nb 6] Ernie Frances Greg Hilda Irving Joyce Kelvin
Linda Marcus Nora Owen Penny Riley Savannah Trevor Veronica Wallace ------
List E
Names Ann Blake Claudia Damien Esther Ferdinand Gretel Harold Imogen Joshua Kimi
Lucas Marian Noah Odette Paddy Ruby Seth Tiffany Vernon ------ -----
References:[6][10]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)[edit]

Cyclone Donna in May 2017, the strongest off-season cyclone in the South Pacific

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E – 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) names systems that are located between the Equator and 25°S, while the New Zealand MetService names systems (in conjunction with the FMS) that develop to the south of 25°S.[6] If a tropical cyclone causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A — D in order, without regard to year before restarting with List A.[6] List E contains names that will replace names on A-D when needed.[6]

List of South Pacific tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Ana Bina Cody Dovi Eva Fili Gina Hagar Irene Judy Kevin Lola Mal
Nat Osai Pita Rae Sheila Tam Urmil Vaianu Wati Xavier Yani Zita
List B
Names Arthur Becky Chip Denia Elisa Fotu Glen Hettie Innis Julie Ken Lin Maciu
Nisha Orea Pearl Rene Sarah Troy Uinita Vanessa Wano ------ Yvonne Zaka
List C
Names Alvin Bune Cyril Daphne Eden Florin Garry Haley Isa June Kofi Louise Mike
Niko Opeti Perry Reuben Solo Tuni Usa Victor Wanita ------ Yalo Zena
List D
Names Amos Bart Cook Donna Ella Fehi Gita Hola Iris Jo Kala Liua Mona
Neil Oma Pola Rita Sarai Tino Uili Vicky Wiki ------ Yolanda Zazu
List E (Standby)
Names Aru Ben Cama Dean Emosi Fanny Garth Hart Ili Josie Keni Lute Mata
Neta Olivia Pana Rex Seru Tasi Uesi Velma Wasa ------ Yasa Zanna
References:[6]

South Atlantic[edit]

When a significant tropical or subtropical cyclone exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Serviço Meteorológico Marinho names the system using a predetermined list of names.[7]

List of South Atlantic tropical cyclone names
Names Arani Bapo Cari Deni Eçaí Guará Iba Jaguar Kamby Mani
References:[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name Meranti was retired after Typhoon Meranti, but no name has been selected to replace the name.[12]
  2. ^ The name Sarika was retired after Typhoon Sarika, but no name has been selected to replace the name.[12]
  3. ^ The name Haima was retired after Typhoon Haima, but no name has been selected to replace the name.[12]
  4. ^ The name Nock-ten was retired after Typhoon Nock-ten, but no name has been selected to replace the name.[12]
  5. ^ The name Olwyn is scheduled to be replaced.[10]
  6. ^ The name Debbie is scheduled to be replaced.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w RA IV Hurricane Committee (June 6, 2016). Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2016 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-30). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 30–31, 101–105. Retrieved March 26, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i WMO/ESCP Typhoon Committee (March 13, 2015). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component 2015 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-23). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 1–7, 33–34. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Why and how storms get their names". GMA News. September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (2010). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2009 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (September 16, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean: 2016 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-12). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (November 18, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2016 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. I–4 – II–9 (9–21). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 20, 2016. Retrieved November 20, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c "Normas Da Autoridade Marítima Para As Atividades De Meteorologia Marítima" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d Dorst, Neal M (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Slides 8–72. 
  9. ^ a b Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  11. ^ "PAGASA replaces names of 2014 destructive typhoons" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Replacement Names of KOPPU, MELOR, SOUDELOR and MUJIGAE in the Tropical Cyclone Name List" (PDF). Retrieved February 15, 2017. 
  13. ^ RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center (March 7, 2016). "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific and the South China Sea (valid as of 2016): Names of tropical cyclones". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved September 4, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  15. ^ "PAGASA replaces Tropical Cyclone "Lando" to "Liwayway"" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2015 (PDF) (2015 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 11–12. Retrieved September 2, 2015. 
  17. ^ "Naming of Cyclones over the North Indian Ocean" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  18. ^ a b La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2015). "How are the names chosen?". Météo-France. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  19. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Naming". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Cyclone Names". Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 

External links[edit]