Tropical cyclone naming

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This article is about the current and future tropical cyclone lists. For the history of naming, see History of tropical cyclone naming. For previously named storms, see Historic tropical cyclone names.

Tropical cyclones and Subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. Since the systems can last a week or longer and more than one can be occurring in the same basin at the same time, the names are thought to reduce the confusion about what storm is being described. The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back many years, with systems named after places or things they hit before the formal start of naming. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean. Names are assigned in order from predetermined lists with one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph) depending on which basin it originates. However, standards vary from basin to basin with some tropical depressions named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones have to have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named within the Southern Hemisphere.

History[edit]

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
Basin Naming institution Area of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center
United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center
Equator northward, African Coast-140°W
Equator northward, 140°W-180
[1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator-60°N, 180-100°E
5°N-20°N, 115°E-135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E-45°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Equator-40°S, 55°E-90°E
Equator-40°S, African Coast-55°E
[5]
Australian region Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator-10°S, 90°E-141°E
Equator-10°S, 141°E-160°E
10°S-36°S, 90°E-160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator-25°S, 160°E-120°W
25°S-40°S, 160°E-120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial) Equator-35°S, Brazilian Coast-20°W [7]

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back many years, with systems named after places or things they hit before the formal start of naming. The system currently used provides positive identification of severe weather systems in a brief form, that is readily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

At present tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings.[8] Since the systems can last a week or longer and more than one can be occurring in the same basin at the same time, the names are thought to reduce the confusion about what storm is being described.[8] Names are assigned in order from predetermined lists with one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph) depending on which basin it originates.[1][4][5] However, standards vary from basin to basin with some tropical depressions named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones have to have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named within the Southern Hemisphere.[citation needed][5][6]

Any member of the World Meteorological Organisation's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees, can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists.[1][2][6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the tropical cyclone has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large amount of deaths, damages, impacts or for other special reasons.[1] Any tropical cyclone names assigned by the Papua New Guinea National weather Service are automatically retired regardless of any damage caused.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons.[1][2] These reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media.[1][9] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones, when they have caused at least ₱1 billion in damage and/or have caused at least 300 deaths.[10] There are no names retired within the South-West Indian Ocean, as names are generally not used more than once and fresh naming lists are developed each year.[5][11] Tropical cyclone formation is rare within the Mediterranean Sea and to the east of 120W in the Southern Pacific, as a result there are no naming lists for these areas.

North Atlantic[edit]

Within the North Atlantic ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) on behalf of the World Meteorological Organisation, when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storms with winds of at least 34 knots (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A — W used, skipping Q and U, with each name being either a male or a female name.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee meeting.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1] The next name to be used within the basin is Grace.

Image of Hurricane Gonzalo shortly after peak strength on October 2014
2015 Ana Bill Claudette Danny Erika Fred Grace Henri Ida Joaquin Kate
Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda
2016 Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl
Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie Walter
2017 Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irma Jose Katia
Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney
2018 Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk
Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sara Tony Valerie William
2019 Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Imelda Jerry Karen
Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy
2020 Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle
Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1]

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Marie in 2014, the sixth most intense system in the East Pacific Basin

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organisation, when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 knots (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu).[1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee.[1]

North Pacific east of 140°W[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W then it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A — Z used, with each name being either a male or a female name.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named using the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1] The next name to be used within the basin is Kevin.

2015 Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda
Marty Nora Olaf Patricia Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda
2016 Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Ivette Javier Kay Lester
Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2017 Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia
Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda
2018 Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane
Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2019 Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena
Mario Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda
2020 Amanda Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell
Marie Norbert Odalys Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1]
Pewa and Unala near the International Dateline in August 2013

Central North Pacific (140°W to 180°)[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180° it is named by the CPHC. Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. The next name to be used within the area is Malia.[1]

List 1 Akoni Ema Hone Iona Keli Lala Moke Nolo Olana Pena Ulana Wale
List 2 Aka Ekeka Hene Iolana Keoni Lino Mele Nona Oliwa Pama Upana Wene
List 3 Alika Ele Huko Iopa Kika Lana Maka Neki Omeka Pewa Unala Wali
List 4 Ana Ela Halola Iune Kilo Loke Malia Niala Oho Pali Ulika Walaka
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° to 100°E)[edit]

Typhoon Damrey in 2000, the first name ever to be used by the WMO

Within the Northwestern Pacific Ocean there are two separate agencies who assign names to tropical cyclones which often results in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency names tropical cyclones should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h, (40 mph), to the north of the equator between the 180° and 100°E. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N even if the cyclone has had a name assigned to it by the Japan Meteorological Agency.[citation needed] The next name to be used within the basin is Etau.

International names[edit]

Tropical Cyclones are named from the following lists by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Tokyo, Japan, once they reach tropical storm strength. Names are contributed by members of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. Each of the 14 states or territories submitted 10 names, which are used in alphabetical order, by the English name of the country.[12][13]

Note: Names listed under United States are from Chamorro (language of the Mariana Islands), Palauan, and Marshallese. Names listed under Micronesia are from the four main languages of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The U.S. National Weather Service funds and administers weather offices in the FSM, Palau and the Marshall Islands.

Contributing
nation
Cambodia China North Korea
(DPRK)
Hong Kong Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Micronesia Philippines South Korea
(ROK)
Thailand USA Vietnam
List 1 Damrey Haikui Kirogi Kai-Tak Tembin Bolaven Sanba Jelawat Ewiniar Maliksi Gaemi Prapiroon Maria Son-Tinh
Ampil Wukong Jongdari Shanshan Yagi Leepi Bebinca Rumbia Soulik Cimaron Jebi Mangkhut Barijat Trami
List 2 Kong-rey Yutu Toraji Man-yi Usagi Pabuk Wutip Sepat Mun Danas Nari Wipha Francisco Lekima
Krosa Bailu Podul Lingling Kajiki Faxai Peipah Tapah Mitag Hagibis Neoguri [Note 1] Matmo Halong
List 3 Nakri Fengshen Kalmaegi Fung-wong Kammuri Phanfone Vongfong Nuri Sinlaku Hagupit Jangmi Mekkhala Higos Bavi
Maysak Haishen Noul Dolphin Kujira Chan-hom Linfa Nangka Soudelor Molave Goni Atsani Etau Vamco
List 4 Krovanh Dujuan Mujigae Choi-wan Koppu Champi In-Fa Melor Nepartak Lupit Mirinae Nida Omais Conson
Chanthu Dianmu Mindulle Lionrock Kompasu Namtheun Malou Meranti Rai Malakas Megi Chaba Aere Songda
List 5 Sarika Haima Meari Ma-on Tokage Nock-ten Muifa Merbok Nanmadol Talas Noru Kulap Roke Sonca
Nesat Haitang Nalgae Banyan Hato Pakhar Sanvu Mawar Guchol Talim Doksuri Khanun Lan Saola
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[12][13]

Philippines[edit]

Typhoon Ruby (Hagupit) approaching the Philippines in December 2014

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones within the Philippine Area of Responsibility, regardless of whether it forms within or enters from beyond. These unique identifiers are usually local nicknames for people; should the list of names for a given year be exhausted, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first ten of which (i.e. those beginning in letter A-J) are published every year.[14] There are no names that begin with the Filipino letters Ñ, NG and X. The next name to be used within the area is Jenny.

2015 Amang Betty Chedeng Dodong Egay Falcon Goring Hanna Ineng Jenny Kabayan Lando Marilyn
Nonoy Onyok Perla Quiel Ramon Sarah Tisoy Ursula Viring Weng Yoyoy Zigzag
auxiliary: Abe Berto Charo Dado Estoy Felion Gening Herman Irma Jaime
2016 Ambo Butchoy Carina Dindo Enteng Ferdie Gener Helen Igme Julian Karen Lawin Marce
Nina Ofel Pepito Quinta Rolly Siony Tonyo Ulysses Vicky Warren Yoyong Zosimo
auxiliary: Alakdan Baldo Clara Dencio Estong Felipe Gardo Heling Ismael Julio
2017 Auring Bising Crising Dante Emong Fabian Gorio Huaning Isang Jolina Kiko Lannie Maring
Nando Odette Paolo Quedan Ramil Salome Tino Urduja Vinta Wilma Yasmin Zoraida
auxiliary: Alamid Bruno Conching Dolor Ernie Florante Gerardo Hernan Isko Jerome
2018 Agaton Basyang Caloy Domeng Ester Florita Gardo Henry Inday Josie Karding Luis Maymay
Neneng Ompong Paeng Queenie Rosita Samuel Tomas Usman Venus Waldo Yayang Zeny
auxiliary: Agila Bagwis Chito Diego Elena Felino Gunding Harriet Indang Jessa
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[14][15]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)[edit]

Cyclone Hudhud nearing landfall at peak strength during mid-October 2014

Within this basin, a tropical cyclone is assigned a name when it is judged to have reached Cyclonic Storm intensity with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph). The names were selected by members of the ESCAP/WMO panel on Tropical Cyclones between 2000 and May 2004, before the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in New Delhi started to assign names in September 2004. There is no retirement of tropical cyclone names in this basin as the list of names is only scheduled to be used once before a new list of names is drawn up. Should a named tropical cyclone move into the basin, from the Western Pacific then it will retain its original name.[citation needed] The next name to be used within the basin is Chapala.

Contributing
Nations
List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4 List 5 List 6 List 7 List 8
Bangladesh Onil Ogni Nisha Giri Helen Chapala Ockhi Fani
India Agni Akash Bijli Jal Lehar Megh Sagar Vayu
Maldives Hibaru Gonu Aila Keila Madi Roanu Mekunu Hikaa
Myanmar Pyarr Yemyin Phyan Thane Nanauk Kyant Daye Kyarr
Oman Baaz Sidr Ward Murjan Hudhud Nada Luban Maha
Pakistan Fanoos Nargis Laila Nilam Nilofar Vardah Titli Bulbul
Sri Lanka Mala Rashmi Bandu Viyaru Ashobaa Maarutha Gaja Pawan
Thailand Mukda Khai Muk Phet Phailin Komen Mora Phethai Amphan
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[16]

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa – 90°E)[edit]

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it develops into a moderate tropical storm using a name from a predetermined list.[5][11] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the systems center.[5] Within this basin it is the Mauritius Meteorological Services and Météo Madagascar who name the systems, in conjunction with Météo-France, Reunion. (MFR, RSMC La Reunion).[5] If the system becomes a moderate tropical storm between Africa and 55°E then Météo Madagascar will name it, while if it becomes a tropical storm between 55°E and 90°E then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it.[5] New naming lists are developed every year while a name is generally only used once, as a result there are no names retired within this basin.[5][11] The list of names for the 2015-16 tropical cyclone season have not been released yet.[17]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)[edit]

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E – 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations and/or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E.[6] Outside of these areas the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones.[6] The name assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life and/or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6][9]

Indonesia[edit]

List A Anggrek Bakung Cempaka Dahlia Flamboyan Kenanga Lili Mangga Seroja Teratai
List B Anggur Belimbing Duku Jambu Lengkeng Melati Nangka Pisang Rambutan Sawo
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[6][18]

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator - 10°S and 90°E - 141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6] The next name to be used within the area is Cempaka.

Papua New Guinea[edit]

List A Alu Buri Dodo Emau Fere Hibu Ila Kama Lobu Maila
List B Nou Obaha Paia Ranu Sabi Tau Ume Vali Wau Auram
Source for tropical cyclone names.[6]

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator - 10°S and 141°E - 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused.[6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

Australia[edit]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Bruce was the first tropical cyclone to retain its name when moving into the South-West Indian Ocean basin

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) which operates three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, or Brisbane.[6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[6][9] The next name that will be used within this basin is Stan.

Anika Billy Charlotte Dominic Ellie Freddy Gabrielle Herman Ilsa Jasper Kirrily
Lincoln Megan Neville Olga Paul Robyn Sean Tasha Vince Zelia ------
Anthony Bianca Courtney Dianne Errol Fina Grant Hayley Iggy Jenna Koji
Luana Mitchell Narelle Osamu Peta Rubina Sandra Tim Victoria Zane ------
Alessia Bruce Catherine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Ivana Jack Kate
Lam Marcia Nathan Olwyn Quang Raquel Stan Tatiana Uriah Yvette ------
Alfred Blanche Caleb Debbie Ernie Frances Greg Hilda Isobel Joyce Kelvin
Linda Marcus Nora Owen Penny Riley Savannah Trevor Veronica Wallace ------
Ann Blake Claudia Damien Esther Ferdinand Gretel Harold Imogen Joshua Kimi
Lucas Marian Noah Odette Paddy Ruby Seth Tiffany Vernon ------ -----
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[6][9]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)[edit]

Cyclone Pam on March 2015, the strongest tropical cyclone according to wind speeds

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E – 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations and/or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS/RSMC Nadi) names systems that located between the Equator and 25°S, while the Meteorological Service of New Zealand (MetService, TCWC Wellington) names systems in conjunction with RSMC Nadi that are located to the south of 25°S.[6] The name assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life and/or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A - D in order, without regard to year before restarting with List A.[6] The next name that is scheduled to name a tropical cyclone in this basin is Tuni.

List A Ana Bina Cody Dovi Eva Fili Gina Hagar Irene Judy Kerry Lola Mal
Nat Olo Pita Rae Sheila Tam Urmil Vaianu Wati Xavier Yani Zita
List B Arthur Becky Chip Denia Elisa Fotu Glen Hettie Innis Joni Ken Lin Moses
Nisha Opeti Pearl Rene Sarah Troy ------ Vanessa Wano ------ Yvonne Zaka
List C Alvin Bune Cyril Daphne Eden Florin Garry Haley Isa June Kofi Louise Mike
Niko Ola Pam Reuben Solo Tuni Ula Victor Winston ------ Yalo Zena
List D Amos Bart Colin Donna Ella Frank Gita Hali Iris Jo Kala Leo Mona
Neil Oma Pami Rita Sarai Tino ------ Vicky Wiki ------ Yolande Zazu
List E
(Standby)
Aru Bela Cook Dean Eden Florin Garth Hart Isa Julie Kevin Louise Mia
------ ------ Pili Rex Suki Tasi Uraia Velma Wanita ------ Yates Zidane
Source for tropical cyclone names.[6][19]

South Atlantic[edit]

When a significant tropical or subtropical cyclone exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Serviço Meteorológico Marinho names the system using a predetermined list of names.[7] The next name that will be used within this basin is Deni.[7]

Arani Bapo Cari Deni Eçaí Guará Iba Jaguar Kamby Mani
Source for tropical cyclone names.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Rammasun" was retired after Typhoon Rammasun (2014) but no name has been selected to replace the name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t RA IV Hurricane Committee (March 13, 2015). Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2014 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-30). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 30–31, 101–105. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c WMO/ESCP Typhoon Committee (March 13, 2015). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component 2015 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-23). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 40–41. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  3. ^ http://www.typhoon2000.ph/tcterm.htm#P
  4. ^ a b RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (2010). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2009 (Report). India Meteorological Department. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (November 9, 2012). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean: 2012 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-12). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 13–14. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (5 May 2015). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2014). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B–1 – 2B–4 (23 – 26). Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Normas Da Autoridade Marítima Para As Atividades De Meteorologia Marítima" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  10. ^ "PAGASA replaces names of 2014 destructive typhoons" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 4, 2014). "How are the names chosen?". Météo-France. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Unattributed (2009-01-21). "Tropical Cyclone names". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  13. ^ a b Unattributed (2010). "FAQ: B) Tropical cyclones names". Meteo France. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  14. ^ a b "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Tropical cyclone names". Met Office — UK National Weather Service. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  16. ^ Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2014 (PDF) (2014 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2014. 
  17. ^ http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/webcmrs9.0/anglais/activiteope/liste_noms.html
  18. ^ "Cyclone Names". Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
  19. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (2011). Plan d'operations convernant les cyclones tropicaux dans le pacifique sud et le sudest de l'oc'ean Indien 2010 (PDF) (Report) (in French). World Meteorological Organization. p. 21. Retrieved 2011-06-11. 

External links[edit]