Literal and figurative language
|Applied and experimental|
- Literal language uses words directly according to their proper meanings (signified).
- Figurative (or non-literal) language uses words in figures of speech.
Literal usage gives words their proper meanings, in the sense of the meaning they have by themselves, outside any figure of speech. It maintains a consistent meaning regardless of the context, with the intended meaning corresponding exactly to the meaning of the individual words. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense or that could [also] be true.
In 1769, Frances Brooke's novel The History of Emily Montague was used in the earliest Oxford English Dictionary citation for the figurative sense of literally; the sentence from the novel used was, "He is a fortunate man to be introduced to such a party of fine women at his arrival; it is literally to feed among the lilies." This citation was also used in the OED's 2011 revision.
Within literary analysis, such terms are still used; but within the fields of cognition and linguistics, the basis for identifying such a distinction is no longer used.
Figurative language in literary analysis
||This section possibly contains original research. (August 2010)|
Figurative language can take multiple forms such as simile or metaphor. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia Of Literature says that figurative language can be classified in five categories: resemblance or relationship, emphasis or understatement, figures of sound, verbal games, and errors.
- Example: "His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry.../And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow." (emph added)—Clement Clark Moore
A metaphor is figure of speech in which two "essentially unlike things" are shown to have a type of resemblance or create a new image. The similarities between the objects being compared may be implied rather than directly stated.
- Example: "The sky steps out of her daywear/Slips into her shot-silk evening dress./An entourage of bats whirr and swing at her hem, ...She's tried on every item in her wardrobe." Dilys Rose
- Example: “Bark! Bark!” went the dog as he chased the car that vroomed past.
- Example: "Because I could not stop for Death,/He kindly stopped for me;/The carriage held but just ourselves/And Immortality."—Emily Dickinson. Dickinson portrays death as a carriage driver.
- Examples: Organized chaos, Same difference, Bittersweet.
- Example: This statement is a lie.
- Example: They had been walking so long that John thought he might drink the entire lake when they came upon it.
Allusion is a reference to a famous character or event.
- Example: A single step can take you through the looking glass if you're not careful.
An idiom is an expression that has a figurative meaning unrelated to the literal meaning of the phrase.
- Example: You should keep your eye out for him.
- To keep an eye out for someone means to watch out for them.
A pun is an expression intended for a humorous or rhetorical effect by exploiting different meanings of words.
- Example: I wondered why the ball was getting bigger. Then it hit me.
- "Then it hit me." has two different meanings
Standard pragmatic model of comprehension
Prior to the 1980s, the "standard pragmatic" model of comprehension was widely believed. In that model, it was thought the recipient would first attempt to comprehend the meaning as if literal, but when an appropriate literal inference could not be made, the recipient would shift to look for a figurative interpretation that would allow comprehension. Since then, research has cast doubt on the model. In tests, figurative language was found to be comprehended at the same speed as literal language; and so premise that the recipient was first attempting to process a literal meaning and discarding it before attempting to process a figurative meaning appears to be a false premise.
Reddy and contemporary views
Beginning with the work of Michael Reddy in his 1979 work "The Conduit Metaphor", many linguists now reject that there is a valid way to distinguish between a "literal" and "figurative" mode of language.
- Jaszczolt, Katarzyna M..; Turner, Ken (2003-03-01). Meaning Through Language Contrast. Volume 2. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 141–. ISBN 9781588112071. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Glucksberg, Sam (2001-07-26). Understanding Figurative Language:From Metaphor to Idioms: From Metaphor to Idioms. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195111095. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Harley, Trevor A. (2001). The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. Taylor & Francis. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-0-863-77867-4. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Montgomery, Mar; Durant, Alan; Fabb, Nigel; Tom Furniss; Sara Mills (2007). Ways of Reading: Advanced Reading Skills for Students of English Literature. Taylor & Francis. pp. 117–. ISBN 9780415346337. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- http://books.google.com/books?id=SUEtEa9nUWQC&pg=PA129&dq=%22figurative+language%22+literary+analysis&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jUXXUOTLF6yA2QXkrYG4Dw&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=figurative&f=false. Missing or empty
- Barber, Alex; Stainton, Robert J (2009-11-20). Concise Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 230–. ISBN 9780080965000. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Merriam-Webster, inc. (1995). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia Of Literature. Merriam-Webster. p. 415. ISBN 9780877790426. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Origin: 1350–1400; Middle English < Latin: image, likeness, comparison, noun use of neuter of similis similar. "Simile". simile, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Kennedy, X. J., and Dana Gioia. An Introduction To Poetry. 13th ed. Longman Pub Group, 2007. Pg 594.
- Terban, Marvin; joi, Giulio Maestro, (1993). It Figures!: Fun Figures of Speech. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 12–. ISBN 9780395665916. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Origin: 1525–35; < Latin metaphora < Greek metaphorá a transfer, akin to metaphérein to transfer. See meta-, -phore"Metaphor". metaphor, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Miller, Carol Rawlings (2001-03-01). Irresistible Shakespeare: 6 Sensational Scenes from Favorite Plays and Dozens of Fun Ideas That Introduce Students to the Wonderful Works of Shakespeare. Scholastic Inc. pp. 25–. ISBN 9780439098441. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Fandel, Jennifer (2005-07-30). Metaphors, Similes, And Other Word Pictures. The Creative Company. pp. 30–. ISBN 9781583413401. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- metaphor "Extended Metaphor". extended metaphor. Dictionary.com.
- Oliver, Mary (1994). Poetry Handbook. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 103–. ISBN 9780156724005. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Liddell, Gordon F.; Gifford, Anne (2001-07-26). New Scottish poetry. Heinemann. pp. 131–. ISBN 9780435150983. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Origin: 1570–80; < Late Latin < Greek onomatopoiía making of words = onomato- (combining form of ónoma name) + poi- (stem of poieîn to make; see poet) + -ia -ia"Onomatopoeia". onomatopoeia, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Origin: 1745–55; personi(fy) + -fication"Personification". personification, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Moustaki, Nikki (2001-04-01). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Poetry. Penguin. pp. 146–. ISBN 9781440695636. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Origin: < post-classical Latin oxymoronfigure of speech in which a pair of opposed or markedly contradictory terms are placed in conjunction for emphasis (5th cent.; also oxymorum) < ancient Greek ὀξυ-oxy- comb. form1+ μωρόςdull, stupid, foolish (see moron n.2)."Oxymoron". oxymoron. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Origin: < Middle French, French paradoxe(1495 as noun; 1372–4 in plural paradoxesas the title of a work by Cicero; paradoxon(noun) philosophical paradox in post-classical Latin also a figure of speech < ancient Greek παράδοξον, especially in plural παράδοξαStoical paradoxes, use as noun of neuter singular of παράδοξος(adjective) contrary to received opinion or expectation < παρα-para- prefix1+ δόξαopinion (see doxology n.), after ancient Greek παρὰ δόξανcontrary to expectation"Paradox". paradox, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Origin: < Greek ὑπερβολήexcess (compare hyperbola n.), exaggeration; the latter sense is first found in Isocrates and Aristotle. Compare French hyperbole(earlier yperbole)."Hyperbole". hyperbol e, n. Oxford English Dictionary.
- Katz, Albert N. (1998). Figurative Language and Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 9780195109634. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Eysenck, Michael William; Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook. Taylor & Francis. pp. 369–. ISBN 9781841693590. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Ortony, Andrew (1993-11-26). Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 204–. ISBN 9780521405614. Retrieved 20 December 2012.