Lithium-titanate battery

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lithium-titanate battery
Specific energy60–110 Wh/kg[1]
Energy density177 Wh/L[1]
Cycle durability6000–20000 cycles[1]
Nominal cell voltage2.3 V[1]

The lithium-titanate battery is a type of rechargeable battery which has the advantage of being faster to charge than other lithium-ion batteries.

Current usage[edit]

Titanate batteries are used in certain Japanese-only versions of Mitsubishi's i-MiEV[2] electric vehicle, and Honda uses them in its EV-neo electric bike and Fit EV.[3][4] They are also used in the Tosa concept electric bus.[5] Due to their high level of safety, lithium-titanate batteries are used in mobile medical devices[6]

Chemistry[edit]

A lithium-titanate battery is a modified lithium-ion battery that uses lithium-titanate nanocrystals, instead of carbon, on the surface of its anode. This gives the anode a surface area of about 100 square meters per gram, compared with 3 square meters per gram for carbon, allowing electrons to enter and leave the anode quickly. This makes fast recharging possible and provides high currents when needed.[7] Lithium-titanate cells also last for 3000 to 7000 charge cycles, far longer than other battery chemistries[8], although other source states it lasts a little more than 1000 cycles before reaching 80% capacity.[9]

A disadvantage of lithium-titanate batteries is that they have a lower inherent voltage (2.4 V), which leads to a lower specific energy (about 30–110 Wh/kg[1]) than conventional lithium-ion battery technologies, which have an inherent voltage of 3.7 V[10], although some lithium-titanate batteries are reported to have an energy density of up to 177 Wh/L.[1]

Brands and uses[edit]

Altairnano[edit]

Altairnano produces lithium-titanate batteries under the "Nanosafe" line, mainly for battery electric vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers that have announced plans to use Altairnano batteries include Lightning Car Company, which plans to use them for the Lightning GT, an all-electric sports car;[11][12] Phoenix Motorcars, for use in its electric sport-utility vehicles;[13] and Proterra, in its all-electric EcoRide BE35 lightweight 35-foot bus.[14]

Altairnano has also deployed their lithium-titanate energy storage systems for electric grid ancillary services[15] and in various military applications.[16]

Leclanché[edit]

Leclanché is a Swiss battery manufacturer founded in 1909. In 2006, it acquired Bullith AG (Germany) to establish a Li-Ion manufacturing line in Germany. In 2014, their product, "TiBox", was launched in the market. The energy content of the TiBox is 3.2 kWh, with 20,000 cycles.[17]

Microvast[edit]

Microvast, based in Houston, Texas, makes a lithium-titanate battery that it calls "LpTO". In 2011, the world's first ultrafast charge bus fleet was launched in Chongqing, China. An 80 kW LpTO battery system was installed in 37 twelve-meter electric buses, which can be fully charged within 10 minutes with a 400 kW charger.[18]

As of 2014, a British bus OEM, Wrightbus, started to use Microvast LpTO batteries for 1,000 units of double-decker New Routemaster buses.[citation needed] An 18 kWh LpTO battery system is used to replace the initial Lithium Iron Phosphate battery due to that the LFP battery encountered performance failure.

As of 2015, the European ZeEUS (zero emission urban transport system) was launched. Its VDL bus uses a 62.5 kWh LpTO battery system from Microvast[19] for this demonstration project.

As of 2016, the world's largest automated port, PSA TUAS, started to use the Microvast LpTO for 22 electric AGVs as a first phase of a project for horizontal container transportation.[20]

Toshiba[edit]

An example of a SCiB battery

Toshiba released a lithium-titanate battery, dubbed "Super Charge Ion Battery" (SCiB).[21][22] The battery is designed to offer 90% charge capacity in just 10 minutes.[23]

SCiB batteries are used in the Schwinn Tailwind electric bike.[24] Toshiba has also demonstrated its use as a prototype laptop battery.[25] Toshiba SCiB batteries are used in a Japan-only version of Mitsubishi's i-MiEV and Minicab MiEV[2] electric vehicles, and Honda uses them in its EV-neo electric bike and Fit EV, which launched in the summer of 2012.[3][4]

Samsung[edit]

The Bluetooth-enabled S-Pen in the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 and 10+ contains a lithium-titanate battery which has a stand-by time of 10 hours.[26]

Seiko[edit]

Seiko uses lithium-titanate batteries in its Kinetic (automatic quartz) wristwatches. Earlier Kinetic watches used a capacitor to store energy, but the battery provides a larger capacity and a longer service life. The battery can be replaced easily by a technician when its capacity eventually deteriorates to an unacceptable level.[27]

YABO[edit]

YABO Power Technology released a lithium-titanate battery in 2012. The standard model YB-LITE2344 2.4V/15Ah battery cell has been used in electric vehicle and energy storage systems.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "All About Batteries, Part 12: Lithium Titanate (LTO)". EETimes.
  2. ^ a b "Mitsubishi Chooses Super-Efficient Toshiba SCiB Battery For EVs". Integrity Exports. 2011-06-18. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  3. ^ a b "Toshiba's SCiB battery for the Fit EV". Green Car Congress. Nov 17, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Honda begins European demonstration program of EV-neo electric scooter". Green Car Congress. Jun 15, 2011.
  5. ^ TOSA2013 Archived 2014-05-25 at the Wayback Machine: The project aims to introduce a new system of mass transport with electric "flash" recharging of the buses at selected stops.
  6. ^ "All About Batteries, Part 12: Lithium Titanate (LTO)".
  7. ^ Graham-Rowe, Duncan (7 March 2005). "Charge a battery in just six minutes". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  8. ^ "LTO Batteries".
  9. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272646684_Cycle_Life_of_Commercial_Lithium-Ion_Batteries_with_Lithium_Titanium_Oxide_Anodes_in_Electric_Vehicles
  10. ^ "Green Car Congress: Toshiba Developing 3.0 Ah High Power SCiB Li-Ion Cell for HEV Applications". 21 May 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  11. ^ Page, Lewis (2008-07-22). "Blighty's electro-supercar 2.0 uncloaked today". The Register. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  12. ^ "Welcome to Lightning Car Company". Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  13. ^ "The All-New Phoenix SUV". Phoenix Motorcars. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  14. ^ "Proterra – Cost effective solutions for clean transportation". Proterraonline.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  15. ^ "Altair Nanotechnologies Announces Successful PJM Market Acceptance of the First Grid-Scale, Battery Energy Storage System" (Press release). Altair Nanotechnologies. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  16. ^ "Altair Nanotechnologies Power Partner – The Military" (Press release). Altair Nanotechnologies. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  17. ^ Germany, EQS Group AG, Munich,. "Leclanché SA: Leclanché announces the launch of the Ti-Box - dgap.de". www.dgap.de. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
  18. ^ China, ChargedEVS. "Microvast: World's fastest EV charging station goes into service – in China". www.chargedevs.com. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  19. ^ Munster Germany, VDL Bus Coach. "VDL: 5 VDL Citeas Electric for Stadtwerke Münster to deliver 5 ultrafast charge buses to Germany". vdlbuscoach.com. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
  20. ^ Singapore, PSA Singapore. "PSA Singapore buys 22 AGVs". www.container-mag.com. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
  21. ^ Kouji Kariatsumari (Dec 12, 2007). "Toshiba's New Secondary Battery Squashed ... No Explosion, Fire ... Why?". Nikkei Electronics. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  22. ^ "TOSHIBA – Rechargeable battery SCiB". Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  23. ^ Aharon Etengoff (Oct 2, 2008). "Toshiba unveils new battery prototype". PC Authority. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  24. ^ "Schwinn Electric Bikes". Schwinn Tailwind electric. Archived from the original on 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  25. ^ Sumner Lemo (September 30, 2008). "Toshiba shows prototype fast-charging laptop battery". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  26. ^ https://www.gsmarena.com/samsung_galaxy_note10_note10plus_hands_on-review-1967.php
  27. ^ "The Seiko Kinetic: Boon or Bane? - Quartzimodo's Time Journal". Quartzimodo's Time Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  28. ^ "Advantages of the Lithium Titanate Battery". Knowledge Base. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2018-06-26.