Lithium-titanate battery

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lithium-titanate battery
Specific energy60–110 Wh/kg[1]
Energy density177 Wh/L[1]
Cycle durability6000–+10000 cycles[1]
Nominal cell voltage2.3 V[1]

The lithium-titanate or lithium-titanium-oxide (LTO) battery is a type of rechargeable battery which has the advantage of being faster to charge[2] than other lithium-ion batteries but the disadvantage of having a much lower energy density.

Uses[edit]

Titanate batteries are used in certain Japanese-only versions of Mitsubishi's i-MiEV[3] electric vehicle as well as Honda's EV-neo electric bike and Fit EV.[4][5] They are also used in the Tosa concept electric bus.[6] Because of the battery's high level of safety and recharge capabilities, LTO batteries are used in car audio applications as well as mobile medical devices.[7]

An LTO battery is also used in the S-Pen that comes with the Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra 5G.[8]

According to a Weatherflow Co. article,[9] the Tempest weather-station device contains a 1300mAh LTO battery, charged via four solar panels, requiring "at least 4 hours of adequate sunlight every two weeks."

Chemistry[edit]

A lithium-titanate battery is a modified lithium-ion battery that uses lithium-titanate nanocrystals, instead of carbon, on the surface of its anode. This gives the anode a surface area of about 100 square meters per gram, compared with 3 square meters per gram for carbon, allowing electrons to enter and leave the anode quickly. Also, the redox potential of Li+ intercalation into titanium oxides is more positive than that of Li+ intercalation into graphite. This leads to fast charging (higher charging current) being much safer in the case of the titanate, than in the case of carbon, since lithium dendrites are less likely to form in the former case.[10] Lithium-titanate cells last for 3000 to 7000 charge cycles;[11] a life cycle of ~1000 cycles before reaching 80% capacity is possible when charged and discharged at 55 °C (131 °F), rather than the standard 25 °C (77 °F).[12]

A disadvantage of lithium-titanate batteries is their lower inherent voltage (2.4 V), which leads to a lower specific energy (about 30–110 Wh/kg[1]) than conventional lithium-ion battery technologies, which have an inherent voltage of 3.7 V.[13] Some lithium-titanate batteries, however, have an energy density of up to 177 Wh/L.[1]

Brands and uses[edit]


Log9 Materials[edit]

Log9 is launching its tropicalised-ion battery (TiB) backed by lithium Ferro-phosphate (LFP) and lithium-titanium-oxide (LTO) battery chemistries. Unlike LFP and LTO, the more popular NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt) chemistry does not have the requisite temperature resilience to survive in Indian conditions. LTO is not only temperature resilient, but also has a very long life and is robust. [14]

Altairnano[edit]

Altairnano produces lithium-titanate batteries under the "Nanosafe" line, mainly for battery electric vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers that have announced plans to use Altairnano batteries include Lightning Car Company, which plans to use them for the Lightning GT, an all-electric sports car;[15][16] Phoenix Motorcars, for use in its electric sport-utility vehicles;[17] and in Proterra, its all-electric EcoRide BE35 lightweight 35-foot bus.[18]

Altairnano has also deployed their lithium-titanate energy storage systems for electric grid ancillary services[19] as well as various military applications.[20]

Leclanché[edit]

Leclanché is a Swiss battery manufacturer founded in 1909. In 2006, it acquired Bullith AG (Germany) to establish a Li-Ion manufacturing line in Germany. In 2014, their product, "TiBox", was launched in the market. The energy content of the TiBox is 3.2 kWh, with an expected 15,000 cycle life span.[21]

Microvast[edit]

Microvast, based in Houston, Texas, makes a lithium-titanate battery that it calls "LpTO". In 2011, the world's first ultrafast charge bus fleet was launched in Chongqing, China. An 80 kWh LpTO battery system was installed in 37 twelve-meter electric buses, which can be fully charged within 10 minutes with a 400 kW charger.[22]

As of 2014, a British bus OEM, Wrightbus, started to use Microvast LpTO batteries for 1,000 units of double-decker New Routemaster buses.[citation needed] An 18 kWh LpTO battery system is used to replace the initial Lithium Iron Phosphate battery because the LFP battery encountered performance failure.

As of 2015, the European ZeEUS (zero emission urban transport system) was launched. Its VDL bus uses a 62.5 kWh LpTO battery system from Microvast[23] for this demonstration project.

As of 2016, the world's largest automated port, PSA TUAS, started to use the Microvast LpTO for 22 electric AGVs as a first phase of a project for horizontal container transportation.[24]

Samsung[edit]

The Bluetooth-enabled S-Pen in the Samsung Galaxy Note 10 and 10+ contains a lithium-titanate battery which has a stand-by time of 10 hours.[25]

Seiko[edit]

Seiko uses lithium-titanate batteries in its Kinetic (automatic quartz) wristwatches. Earlier Kinetic watches used a capacitor to store energy, but the battery provides a larger capacity and a longer service life. A technician can easily replace the battery when its capacity eventually deteriorates to an unacceptable level.[26]

Toshiba[edit]

An example of a SCiB battery

Toshiba released a lithium-titanate battery, dubbed "Super Charge Ion Battery" (SCiB).[27][28] The battery is designed to offer 90% charge capacity in just 10 minutes.[29]

SCiB batteries are used in the Schwinn Tailwind electric bike.[30] Toshiba has also demonstrated its use as a prototype laptop battery.[31] Toshiba SCiB batteries are used in a Japan-only version of Mitsubishi's i-MiEV and Minicab MiEV[3] electric vehicles, and Honda uses them in its EV-neo electric bike and Fit EV, which launched in the summer of 2012.[4][5] JR Central's N700S Shinkansen uses SCiB batteries to operate at low speed in the event of a disruption to overhead power.[32]

Their lithium-titanate battery is low voltage (2.3 nominal voltage), with low energy density (between the lead-acid and lithium ion phosphate), but has extreme longevity, charge/discharge capabilities and a wide amount of operating temperatures.

YABO[edit]

YABO Power Technology released a lithium-titanate battery in 2012. The standard model YB-LITE2344 2.4V/15Ah battery cell has been used in electric vehicle and energy storage systems.[33]

Yinlong Energy[edit]

Gree introduces its Yinlong Battery Technology, a type of fast-charging LTO (lithium-titanate) batteries which can operate in extreme temperature conditions. The batteries have an operational life-span that goes up to 30 years. Yinlong Energy is committed to supporting the global energy reforms with emphasis on innovation in the fields of new materials, batteries, automobiles and energy storage.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "All About Batteries, Part 12: Lithium Titanate (LTO)". EETimes.
  2. ^ Yang, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Wang, Chao-Yang (10 July 2018). "Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (28): 7266–7271. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.7266Y. doi:10.1073/pnas.1807115115. PMC 6048525. PMID 29941558.
  3. ^ a b "Mitsubishi Chooses Super-Efficient Toshiba SCiB Battery For EVs". Integrity Exports. 2011-06-18. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  4. ^ a b "Toshiba's SCiB battery for the Fit EV". Green Car Congress. Nov 17, 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Honda begins European demonstration program of EV-neo electric scooter". Green Car Congress. Jun 15, 2011.
  6. ^ TOSA2013 Archived 2014-05-25 at the Wayback Machine: The project aims to introduce a new system of mass transport with electric "flash" recharging of the buses at selected stops.
  7. ^ "All About Batteries, Part 12: Lithium Titanate (LTO)".
  8. ^ "Specs | Samsung Galaxy Note20 & Note20 Ultra". The Official Samsung Galaxy Site. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
  9. ^ "Solar Power for Tempest". help.weatherflow.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  10. ^ Graham-Rowe, Duncan (7 March 2005). "Charge a battery in just six minutes". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
  11. ^ "LTO Batteries".
  12. ^ Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu (30 July 2014). "Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles". Energies. 7 (8): 4895–4909. doi:10.3390/en7084895.
  13. ^ "Green Car Congress: Toshiba Developing 3.0 Ah High Power SCiB Li-Ion Cell for HEV Applications". 21 May 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  14. ^ Startup’s ‘Made-in-India’ Li-Ion Battery Cells for EVs Can End Foreign Imports
  15. ^ Page, Lewis (2008-07-22). "Blighty's electro-supercar 2.0 uncloaked today". The Register. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  16. ^ "Welcome to Lightning Car Company". Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  17. ^ "The All-New Phoenix SUV". Phoenix Motorcars. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  18. ^ "Proterra – Cost effective solutions for clean transportation". Proterraonline.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
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  20. ^ "Altair Nanotechnologies Power Partner – The Military" (Press release). Altair Nanotechnologies. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
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  23. ^ Munster Germany, VDL Bus Coach. "VDL: 5 VDL Citeas Electric for Stadtwerke Münster to deliver 5 ultrafast charge buses to Germany". vdlbuscoach.com. Archived from the original on 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
  24. ^ Singapore, PSA Singapore. "PSA Singapore buys 22 AGVs". www.container-mag.com. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
  25. ^ Samsung Galaxy Note10 and Note10+ hands-on review - GSMArena.com tests
  26. ^ "The Seiko Kinetic: Boon or Bane? - Quartzimodo's Time Journal". Quartzimodo's Time Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  27. ^ Kouji Kariatsumari (Dec 12, 2007). "Toshiba's New Secondary Battery Squashed ... No Explosion, Fire ... Why?". Nikkei Electronics. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  28. ^ "TOSHIBA – Rechargeable battery SCiB". Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  29. ^ Aharon Etengoff (Oct 2, 2008). "Toshiba unveils new battery prototype". PC Authority. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  30. ^ "Schwinn Electric Bikes". Schwinn Tailwind electric. Archived from the original on 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
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  32. ^ Nick Kingsley (2019-10-30). "'Earthquake mode' battery packs to be fitted to N700S Shinkansen fleet". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  33. ^ "Advantages of the Lithium Titanate Battery". Knowledge Base. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  34. ^ "Yinlong Energy | Clean Energy & Transportation Solutions". www.yinlong.energy. Retrieved 2022-11-19.