|By mouth, parenteral|
|Drug class||Mood stabilizer|
|Bioavailability||Depends on formulation|
|Elimination half-life||24 h, 36 h (elderly)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||6.94 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Certain lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are used as psychiatric medication, primarily for bipolar disorder and for major depressive disorder. In lower doses, other salts such as lithium citrate are known as nutritional lithium and have occasionally been used to treat ADHD. Lithium is taken orally.
Common side effects include increased urination, shakiness of the hands, and increased thirst. Serious side effects include hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and lithium toxicity. Blood level monitoring is recommended to decrease the risk of potential toxicity. If levels become too high, diarrhea, vomiting, poor coordination, sleepiness, and ringing in the ears may occur. Lithium is teratogenic at high doses, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. The use of lithium while breastfeeding is controversial; however, many international health authorities advise against it, and the long-term outcomes of perinatal lithium exposure have not been studied. The American Academy of Pediatrics lists lithium as contraindicated for pregnancy and lactation. The United States Food and Drug Administration categorizes lithium as having positive evidence of risk for pregnancy and possible hazardous risk for lactation.
In the nineteenth century, lithium was used in people who had gout, epilepsy, and cancer. Its use in the treatment of mental disorders began with Carl Lange in Denmark and William Alexander Hammond in New York City, who used lithium to treat mania from the 1870s onwards, based on now-discredited theories involving its effect on uric acid. Use of lithium for mental disorders was re-established (on a different theoretical basis) in 1948 by John Cade in Australia. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, and is available as a generic medication. In 2020, it was the 197th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 2 million prescriptions. It appears to be under-utilised in older people, though the reason for that is unclear.
In 1970, lithium was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of bipolar disorder, which remains its primary use in the United States. It is sometimes used when other treatments are not effective in a number of other conditions, including major depression, schizophrenia, disorders of impulse control, and some psychiatric disorders in children. Because the FDA has not approved lithium for the treatment of other disorders, such use is off-label.
Lithium is primarily used as a maintenance drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder to stabilize mood and prevent manic episodes, but it may also be helpful in the acute treatment of manic episodes. Although recommended by treatment guidelines for the treatment of depression in bipolar disorder, the evidence that lithium is superior to placebo for acute depression is low-quality; atypical antipsychotics are considered more effective for treating acute depressive episodes. Lithium carbonate treatment was previously considered to be unsuitable for children; however, more recent studies show its effectiveness for treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder in children as young as eight. The required dosage is slightly less than the toxic level (representing a low therapeutic index), requiring close monitoring of blood levels of lithium carbonate during treatment. Within the therapeutic range there is a dose response relationship. A limited amount of evidence suggests lithium carbonate may contribute to treatment of substance use disorders for some people with bipolar disorder. Although it is believed that lithium prevents suicide in people with bipolar disorder, a 2022 systematic review found that "Evidence from randomised trials is inconclusive and does not support the idea that lithium prevents suicide or suicidal behaviour."
Lithium is recommended for the treatment of schizophrenic disorders only after other antipsychotics have failed; it has limited effectiveness when used alone. The results of different clinical studies of the efficacy of combining lithium with antipsychotic therapy for treating schizophrenic disorders have varied.
Major depressive disorder
Lithium is widely prescribed as a treatment for depression.
If therapy with antidepressants does not fully treat the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) then a second augmentation agent is sometimes added to the therapy. Lithium is one of the few augmentation agents for antidepressants to demonstrate efficacy in treating MDD in multiple randomized controlled trials and it has been prescribed (off-label) for this purpose since the 1980s.
There are a few old studies indicating efficacy of lithium for acute depression with lithium having the same efficacy as tricyclic antidepressants. A recent study concluded that lithium works best on chronic and recurrent depression when compared to modern antidepressant (i.e. citalopram) but not for patients with no history of depression.
Prevention of suicide
Lithium is widely believed to prevent suicide, and often used in clinical practice towards that end. However, meta-analyses, faced with evidence-base limitations, have yielded differing results, and it therefore remains unclear whether or not lithium is efficacious in the prevention of suicide.
Alzheimer's disease affects forty-five million people and is the fifth leading cause of death in the 65 plus population.[failed verification] There is no complete cure for the disease, currently. However, lithium is being evaluated for its effectiveness as a potential therapeutic measure. One of the leading causes of Alzheimer's is the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein by the enzyme GSK-3, which leads to the overproduction of amyloid peptides that cause cell death. To combat this toxic amyloid aggregation, lithium upregulates the production of neuroprotectors and neurotrophic factors, as well as it inhibits the GSK-3 enzyme. Lithium also stimulates neurogenesis within the hippocampus, making it thicker. Yet another cause of Alzheimer's disease is the dysregulation of calcium ions within the brain. Too much or too little calcium within the brain can lead to cell death. Lithium is able to restore the intracellular calcium homeostasis through inhibiting the wrongful influx of calcium upstream. It also promotes the redirection of the influx of the calcium ions into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of the cells to reduce the oxidative stress within the mitochondria.
In 2009, a study was performed by Hampel and colleagues that asked patients with Alzheimer's to take a low dose of lithium daily for three months; it resulted in a significant slowing of cognitive decline, benefitting patients being in the prodromal stage the most. Upon a secondary analysis, the brains of the Alzheimer's patients were studied and shown to have an increase in BDNF markers, meaning they had actually shown cognitive improvement. Another study, a population study this time by Kessing et al., showed a negative correlation between Alzheimer's disease deaths and the presence of lithium in drinking water. Areas with increased lithium in their drinking water showed less dementia overall in their population.
Those who use lithium should receive regular serum level tests and should monitor thyroid and kidney function for abnormalities, as it interferes with the regulation of sodium and water levels in the body, and can cause dehydration. Dehydration, which is compounded by heat, can result in increasing lithium levels. The dehydration is due to lithium inhibition of the action of antidiuretic hormone, which normally enables the kidney to reabsorb water from urine. This causes an inability to concentrate urine, leading to consequent loss of body water and thirst.
Lithium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum or urine may be measured using instrumental techniques as a guide to therapy, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage. Serum lithium concentrations are usually in the range of 0.5–1.3 mmol/L (0.5–1.3 mEq/L) in well-controlled people, but may increase to 1.8–2.5 mmol/L in those who accumulate the drug over time and to 3–10 mmol/L in acute overdose.
Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic/toxic ratio, so should not be prescribed unless facilities for monitoring plasma concentrations are available. Doses are adjusted to achieve plasma concentrations of 0.4 to 1.2 mmol Li+
/L  on samples taken 12 hours after the preceding dose.
Given the rates of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid parameters should be checked before lithium is instituted and monitored after 3–6 months and then every 6–12 months.
Given the risks of kidney malfunction, serum creatinine and eGFR should be checked before lithium is instituted and monitored after 3–6 months at regular interval. Patients who have a rise in creatinine on three or more occasions, even if their eGFR is > 60 ml/min/ 1.73m2 require further evaluation, including a urinalysis for haematuria, proteinuria, a review of their medical history with attention paid to cardiovascular, urological and medication history, and blood pressure control and management. Overt proteinuria should be further quantified with a urine protein to creatinine ratio.
Discontinuation symptoms may occur in patients stopping the medication including irritability, restlessness and somatic symptoms like vertigo, dizziness or lightheadedness. Symptoms occur within the first week and are generally mild and self-limiting within weeks. 
Cluster headaches, migraine and hypnic headache
- Very Common (> 10% incidence) adverse effects of lithium include
- Constipation (usually transient, but can persist in some)
- Decreased memory
- Diarrhea (usually transient, but can persist in some)
- Dry mouth
- EKG changes — usually benign changes in T waves
- Hand tremor (usually transient, but can persist in some) with an incidence of 27%. If severe, psychiatrist may lower lithium dosage, change lithium salt type or modify lithium preparation from long to short acting (despite lacking evidence for these procedures) or use pharmacological help
- Hyperreflexia — overresponsive reflexes
- Leukocytosis — elevated white blood cell count
- Muscle weakness (usually transient, but can persist in some)
- Myoclonus — muscle twitching
- Nausea (usually transient)
- Polydipsia — increased thirst
- Polyuria — increased urination
- Renal (kidney) toxicity which may lead to chronic kidney failure
- Vomiting (usually transient, but can persist in some)
- Weight gain
- Common (1–10%) adverse effects include
- Extrapyramidal side effects — movement-related problems such as muscle rigidity, parkinsonism, dystonia, etc.
- Euthyroid goitre — i.e. the formation of a goitre despite normal thyroid functioning
- Hypothyroidism — a deficiency of thyroid hormone.
- Hair loss/hair thinning
Lithium carbonate can induce a 1–2 kg of weight gain.
Most side effects of lithium are dose-dependent. The lowest effective dose is used to limit the risk of side effects.
In a systematic literature review, the authors found 250 reports containing 1100 individuals who developed lithium-related movement disorders. The abnormal movements encountered were parkinsonism, dyskinesia, myoclonus, dystonia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob-like syndrome, akathisia, restless legs syndrome symptoms, tics, cerebellar syndromes, and stuttering.
The rate of hypothyroidism is around six times higher in people who take lithium. Low thyroid hormone levels in turn increase the likelihood of developing depression. People taking lithium thus should routinely be assessed for hypothyroidism and treated with synthetic thyroxine if necessary.
Because lithium competes with the antidiuretic hormone in the kidney, it increases water output into the urine, a condition called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Clearance of lithium by the kidneys is usually successful with certain diuretic medications, including amiloride and triamterene. It increases the appetite and thirst ("polydypsia") and reduces the activity of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). The latter can be corrected by treatment with thyroxine and does not require the lithium dose to be adjusted. Lithium is also believed to permanently affect renal function[how?], although this does not appear to be common.
Pregnancy and breast feeding
Lithium is a teratogen, causing birth defects in a small number of newborn babies. Case reports and several retrospective studies have demonstrated possible increases in the rate of a congenital heart defect known as Ebstein's anomaly, if taken during a woman's pregnancy. As a consequence, fetal echocardiography is routinely performed in pregnant women taking lithium to exclude the possibility of cardiac anomalies. Lamotrigine seems to be a possible alternative to lithium in pregnant women for the treatment of acute bipolar depression or for the management of bipolar patients with normal mood. Gabapentin and clonazepam are also indicated as antipanic medications during the childbearing years and during pregnancy. Valproic acid and carbamazepine also tend to be associated with teratogenicity.
Lithium has been associated with several forms of kidney injury. It is estimated that impaired urinary concentrating ability is present in at least half of individuals on chronic lithium therapy, a condition called lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Continued use of lithium can lead to more serious kidney damage in an aggravated form of diabetes insipidus. Chronic kidney disease caused by lithium has not been proven with various contradicting results presented by a 2018 review. In rare cases, some forms of lithium-caused kidney damage may be progressive and lead to end-stage kidney failure with a reported incidence of 0.2% to 0.7%.
Lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of hypercalcemia in lithium-treated patients. Lithium may lead to exacerbation of pre-existing primary hyperparathyroidism or cause an increased set-point of calcium for parathyroid hormone suppression, leading to parathyroid hyperplasia.
Lithium plasma concentrations are known to be increased with concurrent use of diuretics—especially loop diuretics (such as furosemide) and thiazides—and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen. Lithium concentrations can also be increased with concurrent use of ACE inhibitors such as captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
Lithium is primarily cleared from the body through glomerular filtration, but some is then reabsorbed together with sodium through the proximal tubule. Its levels are therefore sensitive to water and electrolyte balance. Diuretics act by lowering water and sodium levels; this causes more reabsorption of lithium in the proximal tubules so that the removal of lithium from the body is less, leading to increased blood levels of lithium. ACE inhibitors have also been shown in a retrospective case-control study to increase lithium concentrations. This is likely due to constriction of the afferent arteriole of the glomerulus, resulting in decreased glomerular filtration rate and clearance. Another possible mechanism is that ACE inhibitors can lead to a decrease in sodium and water. This will increase lithium reabsorption and its concentrations in the body.
There are also drugs that can increase the clearance of lithium from the body, which can result in decreased lithium levels in the blood. These drugs include theophylline, caffeine, and acetazolamide. Additionally, increasing dietary sodium intake may also reduce lithium levels by prompting the kidneys to excrete more lithium.
Lithium is known to be a potential precipitant of serotonin syndrome in people concurrently on serotonergic medications such as antidepressants, buspirone and certain opioids such as pethidine (meperidine), tramadol, oxycodone, fentanyl and others. Lithium co-treatment is also a risk factor for neuroleptic malignant syndrome in people on antipsychotics and other antidopaminergic medications.
High doses of haloperidol, fluphenazine, or flupenthixol may be hazardous when used with lithium; irreversible toxic encephalopathy has been reported. Indeed, these and other antipsychotics have been associated with increased risk of lithium neurotoxicity, even with low therapeutic lithium doses.
Lithium toxicity, which is also called lithium overdose and lithium poisoning, is the condition of having too much lithium in the blood. This condition also happens in persons that are taking lithium in which the lithium levels are affected by drug interactions in the body.
In acute toxicity, people have primarily gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, which may result in volume depletion. During acute toxicity, lithium distributes later into the central nervous system resulting in mild neurological symptoms, such as dizziness.
In chronic toxicity, people have primarily neurological symptoms which include nystagmus, tremor, hyperreflexia, ataxia, and change in mental status. During chronic toxicity, the gastrointestinal symptoms seen in acute toxicity are less prominent. The symptoms are often vague and nonspecific.
If the lithium toxicity is mild or moderate, lithium dosage is reduced or stopped entirely. If the toxicity is severe, lithium may need to be removed from the body.
Mechanism of action
The specific biochemical mechanism of lithium action in stabilizing mood is unknown.
Upon ingestion, lithium becomes widely distributed in the central nervous system and interacts with a number of neurotransmitters and receptors, decreasing norepinephrine release and increasing serotonin synthesis.
Unlike many other psychoactive drugs, Li+
typically produces no obvious psychotropic effects (such as euphoria) in normal individuals at therapeutic concentrations. Lithium may also increase the release of serotonin by neurons in the brain. In vitro studies performed on serotonergic neurons from rat raphe nuclei have shown that when these neurons are treated with lithium, serotonin release is enhanced during a depolarization compared to no lithium treatment and the same depolarization.
Lithium both directly and indirectly inhibits GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) which results in the activation of mTOR. This leads to an increase in neuroprotective mechanisms by facilitating the Akt signaling pathway. GSK-3β is a downstream target of monoamine systems. As such, it is directly implicated in cognition and mood regulation. During mania, GSK-3β is activated via dopamine overactivity. GSK-3β inhibits the transcription factors β-catenin and cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), by phosphorylation. This results in a decrease in the transcription of important genes encoding for neurotrophins. In addition, several authors proposed that pAp-phosphatase could be one of the therapeutic targets of lithium. This hypothesis was supported by the low Ki of lithium for human pAp-phosphatase compatible within the range of therapeutic concentrations of lithium in the plasma of people (0.8–1 mM). The Ki of human pAp-phosphatase is ten times lower than that of GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). Inhibition of pAp-phosphatase by lithium leads to increased levels of pAp (3′-5′ phosphoadenosine phosphate), which was shown to inhibit PARP-1.
Another mechanism proposed in 2007 is that lithium may interact with nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathway in the central nervous system, which plays a crucial role in neural plasticity. The NO system could be involved in the antidepressant effect of lithium in the Porsolt forced swimming test in mice. It was also reported that NMDA receptor blockage augments antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the mouse forced swimming test, indicating the possible involvement of NMDA receptor/NO signaling in the action of lithium in this animal model of learned helplessness.
Although the search for a novel lithium-specific receptor is ongoing, the high concentration of lithium compounds required to elicit a significant pharmacological effect leads mainstream researchers to believe that the existence of such a receptor is unlikely.
Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in patients with bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress and reduced levels of anti-oxidants (such as glutathione) lead to cell death. Lithium may protect against oxidative stress by up-regulating complex I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
Dopamine and G-protein coupling
During mania, there is an increase in neurotransmission of dopamine that causes a secondary homeostatic down-regulation, resulting in decreased neurotransmission of dopamine, which can cause depression. Additionally, the post-synaptic actions of dopamine are mediated through G-protein coupled receptors. Once dopamine is coupled to the G-protein receptors, it stimulates other secondary messenger systems that modulate neurotransmission. Studies found that in autopsies (which do not necessarily reflect living people), people with bipolar disorder had increased G-protein coupling compared to people without bipolar disorder. Lithium treatment alters the function of certain subunits of the dopamine associated G-protein, which may be part of its mechanism of action.
Glutamate and NMDA receptors
Glutamate levels are observed to be elevated during mania. Lithium is thought to provide long-term mood stabilization and have anti-manic properties by modulating glutamate levels. It is proposed that lithium competes with magnesium for binding to NMDA glutamate receptor, increasing the availability of glutamate in post-synaptic neurons, leading to a homeostatic increase in glutamate re-uptake which reduces glutamatergic transmission. The NMDA receptor is also affected by other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Effects observed appear exclusive to lithium and have not been observed by other monovalent ions such as rubidium and caesium.
GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. It was found that patients with bipolar disorder had lower GABA levels, which results in excitotoxicity and can cause apoptosis (cell loss). Lithium has been shown to increase the level of GABA in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid. Lithium counteracts these degrading processes by decreasing pro-apoptotic proteins and stimulating release of neuroprotective proteins. Lithium's regulation of both excitatory dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems through GABA may play a role in its mood stabilizing effects.
Cyclic AMP secondary messengers
Lithium's therapeutic effects are thought to be partially attributable to its interactions with several signal transduction mechanisms. The cyclic AMP secondary messenger system is shown to be modulated by lithium. Lithium was found to increase the basal levels of cyclic AMP but impair receptor coupled stimulation of cyclic AMP production. It is hypothesized that the dual effects of lithium are due to the inhibition of G-proteins that mediate cyclic AMP production. Over a long period of lithium treatment, cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase levels are further changed by gene transcription factors.
Inositol depletion hypothesis
Lithium treatment has been found to inhibit the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, involved in degrading inositol monophosphate to inositol required in PIP2 synthesis. This leads to lower levels of inositol triphosphate, created by decomposition of PIP2. This effect has been suggested to be further enhanced with an inositol triphosphate reuptake inhibitor. Inositol disruptions have been linked to memory impairment and depression. It is known with good certainty that signals from the receptors coupled to the phosphoinositide signal transduction are affected by lithium. myo-inositol is also regulated by the high affinity sodium mI transport system (SMIT). Lithium is hypothesized to inhibit mI entering the cells and mitigating the function of SMIT. Reductions of cellular levels of myo-inositol results in the inhibition of the phosphoinositide cycle.
Various neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor have been shown to be modulated by various mood stabilizers.
Lithium was first used in the 19th century as a treatment for gout after scientists discovered that, at least in the laboratory, lithium could dissolve uric acid crystals isolated from the kidneys. The levels of lithium needed to dissolve urate in the body, however, were toxic. Because of prevalent theories linking excess uric acid to a range of disorders, including depressive and manic disorders, Carl Lange in Denmark and William Alexander Hammond in New York City used lithium to treat mania from the 1870s onwards.
By the turn of the 20th century, as theory regarding mood disorders evolved and so-called "brain gout" disappeared as a medical entity, the use of lithium in psychiatry was largely abandoned; however, a number of lithium preparations were still produced for the control of renal calculi and uric acid diathesis. As accumulating knowledge indicated a role for excess sodium intake in hypertension and heart disease, lithium salts were prescribed to patients for use as a replacement for dietary table salt (sodium chloride). This practice and the sale of lithium itself were both banned in the United States in February 1949, following publication of reports detailing side effects and deaths.
Also in 1949, the Australian psychiatrist John Cade and Australian biochemist Shirley Andrews rediscovered the usefulness of lithium salts in treating mania while working at the Royal Park Psychiatric Hospital in Victoria. They were injecting rodents with urine extracts taken from manic patients in an attempt to isolate a metabolic compound which might be causing mental symptoms. Since uric acid in gout was known to be psychoactive, (adenosine receptors on neurons are stimulated by it; caffeine blocks them), they needed soluble urate for a control. They used lithium urate, already known to be the most soluble urate compound, and observed that it caused the rodents to become tranquil. Cade and Andrews traced the effect to the lithium ion itself, and after Cade ingested lithium himself to ensure its safety in humans, he proposed lithium salts as tranquilizers. He soon succeeded in controlling mania in chronically hospitalized patients with them. This was one of the first successful applications of a drug to treat mental illness, and it opened the door for the development of medicines for other mental problems in the next decades.
The rest of the world was slow to adopt this treatment, largely because of deaths which resulted from even relatively minor overdosing, including those reported from use of lithium chloride as a substitute for table salt. Largely through the research and other efforts of Denmark's Mogens Schou and Paul Baastrup in Europe, and Samuel Gershon and Baron Shopsin in the U.S., this resistance was slowly overcome. Following the recommendation of the APA Lithium Task Force (William Bunney, Irvin Cohen (Chair), Jonathan Cole, Ronald R. Fieve, Samuel Gershon, Robert Prien, and Joseph Tupin), the application of lithium in manic illness was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1970, becoming the 50th nation to do so. In 1974, this application was extended to its use as a preventive agent for manic-depressive illness.
Fieve, who had opened the first lithium clinic in North America in 1966, helped popularize the psychiatric use of lithium through his national TV appearances and his bestselling book, Moodswing. In addition, Fieve and David L. Dunner developed the concept of "rapid cycling" bipolar disorder based on non-response to lithium.
Lithium has now become a part of Western popular culture. Characters in Pi, Premonition, Stardust Memories, American Psycho, Garden State, and An Unmarried Woman all take lithium. It's the chief constituent of the calming drug in Ira Levin's dystopian This Perfect Day. Sirius XM Satellite Radio in North America has a 1990s alternative rock station called Lithium, and several songs refer to the use of lithium as a mood stabilizer. These include: "Equilibrium met Lithium" by South African artist Koos Kombuis, "Lithium" by Evanescence, "Lithium" by Nirvana, "Lithium and a Lover" by Sirenia, "Lithium Sunset", from the album Mercury Falling by Sting, and "Lithium" by Thin White Rope.
As with cocaine in Coca-Cola, lithium was widely marketed as one of a number of patent medicine products popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries, and was the medicinal ingredient of a refreshment beverage. Charles Leiper Grigg, who launched his St. Louis-based company The Howdy Corporation, invented a formula for a lemon-lime soft drink in 1920. The product, originally named "Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda", was launched two weeks before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. It contained the mood stabilizer lithium citrate, and was one of a number of patent medicine products popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Its name was soon changed to 7 Up. All American beverage makers were forced to remove lithium in 1948. Despite the 1948 ban, in 1950 the Painesville Telegraph still carried an advertisement for a lithiated lemon beverage.
Salts and product names
Lithium carbonate (Li
3), sold under several trade names, is the most commonly prescribed, while lithium citrate (Li
7) is also used in conventional pharmacological treatments. Lithium orotate (C
4), has been presented as an alternative. Lithium bromide and lithium chloride have been used in the past as table salt; however, they fell out of use in the 1940s, when it was discovered they were toxic in those large doses. Many other lithium salts and compounds exist, such as lithium fluoride and lithium iodide, but they are presumed to be as toxic or more so than the chloride and have never been evaluated for pharmacological effects.
As of 2017 lithium was marketed under many brand names worldwide, including Cade, Calith, Camcolit, Carbolim, Carbolit, Carbolith, Carbolithium, Carbolitium, Carbonato de Litio, Carboron, Ceglution, Contemnol, D-Gluconsäure, Lithiumsalz, Efadermin (Lithium and Zinc Sulfate), Efalith (Lithium and Zinc Sulfate), Elcab, Eskalit, Eskalith, Frimania, Hypnorex, Kalitium, Karlit, Lalithium, Li-Liquid, Licarb, Licarbium, Lidin, Ligilin, Lilipin, Lilitin, Limas, Limed, Liskonum, Litarex, Lithane, Litheum, Lithicarb, Lithii carbonas, Lithii citras, Lithioderm, Lithiofor, Lithionit, Lithium, Lithium aceticum, Lithium asparagicum, Lithium Carbonate, Lithium Carbonicum, Lithium Citrate, Lithium DL-asparaginat-1-Wasser, Lithium gluconicum, Lithium-D-gluconat, Lithiumcarbonaat, Lithiumcarbonat, Lithiumcitrat, Lithiun, Lithobid, Lithocent, Lithotabs, Lithuril, Litiam, Liticarb, Litijum, Litio, Litiomal, Lito, Litocarb, Litocip, Maniprex, Milithin, Neurolepsin, Plenur, Priadel, Prianil, Prolix, Psicolit, Quilonium, Quilonorm, Quilonum, Téralithe, and Theralite.
Tentative evidence in Alzheimer's disease showed that lithium may slow progression. It has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but a study showed lithium had no effect on ALS outcomes.
- "Lithium brands". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Anvisa (31 March 2023). "RDC Nº 784 – Listas de Substâncias Entorpecentes, Psicotrópicas, Precursoras e Outras sob Controle Especial" [Collegiate Board Resolution No. 784 – Lists of Narcotic, Psychotropic, Precursor, and Other Substances under Special Control] (in Brazilian Portuguese). Diário Oficial da União (published 4 April 2023). Archived from the original on 3 August 2023. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
- "Lithium Salts". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Greenblatt J (9 May 2017). Finally Focused: The Breakthrough Natural Treatment Plan for ADHD That Restores Attention, Minimizes Hyperactivity, and Helps Eliminate Drug Side Effects. Harmony Books. ISBN 9780451496591.
- Poels EM, Bijma HH, Galbally M, Bergink V (December 2018). "Lithium during pregnancy and after delivery: a review". International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. 6 (1): 26. doi:10.1186/s40345-018-0135-7. PMC 6274637. PMID 30506447.
- Armstrong C (15 September 2008). "ACOG Guidelines on Psychiatric Medication Use During Pregnancy and Lactation". American Family Physician. 78 (6): 772. ISSN 0002-838X.
- "Lithium Carbonate Medication Guide" (PDF). U.S. FDA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
- Sneader W (2005). Drug discovery : a history (Rev. and updated ed.). Chichester: Wiley. p. 63. ISBN 9780471899792. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
- Lenox RH, Watson DG (February 1994). "Lithium and the brain: a psychopharmacological strategy to a molecular basis for manic depressive illness". Clinical Chemistry. 40 (2): 309–314. doi:10.1093/clinchem/40.2.309. PMID 8313612.
- Mitchell PB, Hadzi-Pavlovic D (2000). "Lithium treatment for bipolar disorder" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (4): 515–517. PMC 2560742. PMID 10885179. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2012.
- World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
- "The Top 300 of 2020". ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
- "Lithium – Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
- Almeida OP, Etherton-Beer C, Kelty E, Sanfilippo F, Preen DB, Page A (27 March 2023). "Lithium dispensed for adults aged ≥ 50 years between 2012 and 2021: Analyses of a 10% sample of the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 31 (9): 716–725. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2023.03.012. ISSN 1064-7481. PMID 37080815. S2CID 257824414.
- Fieve RR (1984). "Lithium: its clinical uses and biological mechanisms of action". In Habig RL (ed.). The Brain, Biochemistry, and Behavior: Proceedings of the Sixth Arnold O. Beckman Conference in Clinical Chemistry. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-915274-22-2.
- Bauer M, Adli M, Ricken R, Severus E, Pilhatsch M (April 2014). "Role of lithium augmentation in the management of major depressive disorder". CNS Drugs. 28 (4): 331–342. doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0152-8. PMID 24590663. S2CID 256840.
- Shorter E (June 2009). "The history of lithium therapy". Bipolar Disorders. 11 (Suppl 2): 4–9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00706.x. PMC 3712976. PMID 19538681.
- McKnight RF, de La Motte de Broöns de Vauvert SJ, Chesney E, Amit BH, Geddes J, Cipriani A (June 2019). "Lithium for acute mania". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6 (6): CD004048. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004048.pub4. PMC 6544558. PMID 31152444.
- Rakofsky JJ, Lucido MJ, Dunlop BW (July 2022). "Lithium in the treatment of acute bipolar depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 308: 268–280. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.058. PMID 35429528.
- Riedinger MA, van der Wee NJ, Giltay EJ, de Leeuw M (September 2023). "Lithium in bipolar depression: A review of the evidence". Human Psychopharmacology. 38 (5): e2881. doi:10.1002/hup.2881. PMID 37789577.
- Cai L, Chen G, Yang H, Bai Y (July 2023). "Efficacy and safety profiles of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics for bipolar depression: a systematic review". International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 38 (4): 249–260. doi:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000449. PMID 36947416.
- Semple, David "Oxford Hand Book of Psychiatry" Oxford Press. 2005.[page needed]
- Hsu CW, Tsai SY, Tseng PT, Liang CS, Vieta E, Carvalho AF, et al. (May 2022). "Differences in the prophylactic effect of serum lithium levels on depression and mania in bipolar disorder: A dose-response meta-analysis". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 58: 20–29. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2022.01.112. PMID 35158229.
- Rosenberg JM, Salzman C (November 2007). "Update: new uses for lithium and anticonvulsants". CNS Spectrums. 12 (11): 831–841. doi:10.1017/S1092852900015571. PMID 17984856. S2CID 26227696.
- Frye MA, Salloum IM (December 2006). "Bipolar disorder and comorbid alcoholism: prevalence rate and treatment considerations". Bipolar Disorders. 8 (6): 677–685. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2006.00370.x. PMID 17156154.
- Vornik LA, Brown ES (2006). "Management of comorbid bipolar disorder and substance abuse". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 67 (Suppl 7): 24–30. PMID 16961421.
- Nabi Z, Stansfeld J, Plöderl M, Wood L, Moncrieff J (September 2022). "Effects of lithium on suicide and suicidal behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials". Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 31: e65. doi:10.1017/S204579602200049X. PMID 36111461.
- Bauer M, Grof P, Muller-Oerlinghausen B (2006). Lithium in Neuropsychiatry: The Comprehensive Guide. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-84184-515-9. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Bauer M, Gitlin M (2016). "Treatment of Depression with Lithium". The Essential Guide to Lithium Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 71–80. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31214-9_7. ISBN 978-3-319-31212-5.
- Nabi Z, Stansfeld J, Plöderl M, Wood L, Moncrieff J (September 2022). "Effects of lithium on suicide and suicidal behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials". Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 31: e65. doi:10.1017/S204579602200049X. PMC 9533115. PMID 36111461.
- Del Matto L, Muscas M, Murru A, Verdolini N, Anmella G, Fico G, et al. (September 2020). "Lithium and suicide prevention in mood disorders and in the general population: A systematic review". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 116: 142–153. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.017. PMID 32561344. S2CID 219942979.
- Börjesson J, Gøtzsche PC (September 2019). "Effect of lithium on suicide and mortality in mood disorders: a systematic review". The International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine. 30 (3): 155–166. doi:10.3233/JRS-190058. PMID 31381531. S2CID 199451710.
- Riblet NV, Shiner B, Young-Xu Y, Watts BV (November 2022). "Lithium in the prevention of suicide in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". BJPsych Open. 8 (6): e199. doi:10.1192/bjo.2022.605. PMC 9707499. PMID 36384820.
- Cipriani A, Hawton K, Stockton S, Geddes JR (June 2013). "Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 346: f3646. doi:10.1136/bmj.f3646. PMID 23814104.
- Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Davis P, Pompili M, Goodwin FK, Hennen J (October 2006). "Decreased risk of suicides and attempts during long-term lithium treatment: a meta-analytic review". Bipolar Disorders. 8 (5p2): 625–639. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2006.00344.x. PMID 17042835.
- Scheltens P, De Strooper B, Kivipelto M, Holstege H, Chételat G, Teunissen CE, et al. (April 2021). "Alzheimer's disease". Lancet. 397 (10284): 1577–1590. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32205-4. PMC 8354300. PMID 33667416.
- Haussmann R, Noppes F, Brandt MD, Bauer M, Donix M (August 2021). "Lithium: A therapeutic option in Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stages?". Neuroscience Letters. 760: 136044. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136044. PMID 34119602. S2CID 235385875.
- Wei HF, Anchipolovsky S, Vera R, Liang G, Chuang DM (March 2022). "Potential mechanisms underlying lithium treatment for Alzheimer's disease and COVID-19". European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 26 (6): 2201–2214. doi:10.26355/eurrev_202203_28369. PMC 9173589. PMID 35363371.
- Hampel H, Ewers M, Bürger K, Annas P, Mörtberg A, Bogstedt A, et al. (June 2009). "Lithium trial in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter 10-week study". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 70 (6): 922–931. doi:10.4088/JCP.08m04606. PMID 19573486.
- Kessing LV, Gerds TA, Knudsen NN, Jørgensen LF, Kristiansen SM, Voutchkova D, et al. (October 2017). "Association of Lithium in Drinking Water With the Incidence of Dementia". JAMA Psychiatry. 74 (10): 1005–1010. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2362. PMC 5710473. PMID 28832877.
- Healy D. 2005. Psychiatric Drugs Explained. 4th ed. Churchhill Livingstone: London.[page needed]
- Amdisen A (1978). "Clinical and serum level monitoring in lithium therapy and lithium intoxication". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 2 (5): 193–202. doi:10.1093/jat/2.5.193.
- Baselt R (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 851–854. ISBN 978-0-9626523-7-0.
- The UK Electronic Medical Compendium recommends 0.4–0.8 mmol/L plasma lithium level in adults for prophylaxis of recurrent affective bipolar manic-depressive illness Camcolit 250 mg Lithium Carbonate Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Revision 2 December 2010, Retrieved 5 May 2011
- One study (Solomon DA, Ristow WR, Keller MB, Kane JM, Gelenberg AJ, Rosenbaum JF, Warshaw MG (October 1996). "Serum lithium levels and psychosocial function in patients with bipolar I disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (10): 1301–1307. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.10.1301. PMID 8831438.) concluded a "low" dose of 0.4–0.6 mmol/L serum lithium treatment for patients with bipolar 1 disorder had less side effects, but a higher rate of relapse, than a "standard" dose of 0.8–1.0 mmol/L. However, a reanalysis of the same experimental data (Perlis RH, Sachs GS, Lafer B, Otto MW, Faraone SV, Kane JM, Rosenbaum JF (July 2002). "Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum levels of lithium: a reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (7): 1155–1159. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1155. PMID 12091193.) concluded the higher rate of relapse for the "low" dose was due to abrupt changes in the lithium serum levels[improper synthesis?]
- Grandjean EM, Aubry JM (2009). "Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach. Part II: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring". CNS Drugs. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 23 (4): 331–349. doi:10.2165/00023210-200923040-00005. PMID 19374461. S2CID 38042857.
- Gitlin M (December 2016). "Lithium side effects and toxicity: prevalence and management strategies". International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. 4 (1): 27. doi:10.1186/s40345-016-0068-y. PMC 5164879. PMID 27900734.
- Davis J, Desmond M, Berk M (November 2018). "Lithium and nephrotoxicity: a literature review of approaches to clinical management and risk stratification". BMC Nephrology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 19 (1): 305. doi:10.1186/s12882-018-1101-4. PMC 6215627. PMID 30390660.
- Yazici O, Kora K, Polat A, Saylan M (June 2004). "Controlled lithium discontinuation in bipolar patients with good response to long-term lithium prophylaxis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 80 (2–3): 269–271. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00133-2. PMID 15207941.
- Gutwinski S, Fierley L, Schreiter S, Bermpohl F, Heinz A, Henssler J (October 2021). "[Lithium Withdrawal Symptoms – A Systematic Review]". Psychiatrische Praxis (in German). Georg Thieme Verlag KG. 48 (7): 341–350. doi:10.1055/a-1481-1953. PMID 34015856. S2CID 243025798.
- DrugPoint® System (Internet). Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomsen Healthcare. 2013.
- Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook Pty. Ltd. 2013. ISBN 9780980579086.
- Joint Formulary Committee (2013). British National Formulary (BNF) 65. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 240–242. ISBN 9780857110848.
- "lithium (Rx) - Eskalith, Lithobid". Medscape. WebMD. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Lithobid (lithium carbonate) tablet, film coated, extended release". National Library of Medicine. Noven Therapeutics, LLC. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013 – via DailyMed.
- "Product Information Lithicarb (Lithium carbonate)". TGA eBusiness Services. Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Aiff H, Attman PO, Aurell M, Bendz H, Ramsauer B, Schön S, Svedlund J (May 2015). "Effects of 10 to 30 years of lithium treatment on kidney function". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29 (5): 608–614. doi:10.1177/0269881115573808. PMID 25735990. S2CID 9496408.
- Baek JH, Kinrys G, Nierenberg AA (January 2014). "Lithium tremor revisited: pathophysiology and treatment". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Wiley. 129 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1111/acps.12171. PMID 23834617. S2CID 33784257.
- Ben Salem C, Fathallah N, Hmouda H, Bouraoui K (January 2011). "Drug-induced hypoglycaemia: an update". Drug Safety. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 34 (1): 21–45. doi:10.2165/11538290-000000000-00000. PMID 20942513. S2CID 33307427.
- Malhi GS, Tanious M, Bargh D, Das P, Berk M (2013). "Safe and effective use of lithium". Australian Prescriber. 36: 18–21. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2013.008.
- Silver M, Factor S (2015). "Chapter 12: VPA, lithium, amiodarone, and other non-DA". In Friedman J (ed.). Medication-Induced Movement Disorders. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–140. ISBN 978-1-107-06600-7.
- Rissardo JP, Caprara AL, Durante Í, Rauber A (2022). "Lithium-associated movement disorder: A literature review". Brain Circulation. 8 (2): 76–86. doi:10.4103/bc.bc_77_21. PMC 9336594. PMID 35909709.
- Wetzels JF, van Bergeijk JD, Hoitsma AJ, Huysmans FT, Koene RA (1989). "Triamterene increases lithium excretion in healthy subjects: evidence for lithium transport in the cortical collecting tubule". Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 4 (11): 939–942. doi:10.1093/ndt/4.11.939. PMID 2516883.
- Keshavan MS, Kennedy JS (2001). Drug-induced dysfunction in psychiatry. Taylor & Francis. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-89116-961-1.
- "Safer lithium therapy". NHS National Patient Safety Agency. 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 30 January 2010.
- Bendz H, Schön S, Attman PO, Aurell M (February 2010). "Renal failure occurs in chronic lithium treatment but is uncommon". Kidney International. 77 (3): 219–224. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.433. PMID 19940841.
- Shepard TH, Brent RL, Friedman JM, Jones KL, Miller RK, Moore CA, Polifka JE (April 2002). "Update on new developments in the study of human teratogens". Teratology. 65 (4): 153–161. doi:10.1002/tera.10032. PMID 11948561.
- Yacobi S, Ornoy A (2008). "Is lithium a real teratogen? What can we conclude from the prospective versus retrospective studies? A review". The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences. 45 (2): 95–106. PMID 18982835.
- Epstein RA, Moore KM, Bobo WV (2015). "Treatment of bipolar disorders during pregnancy: maternal and fetal safety and challenges". Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety. 7: 7–29. doi:10.2147/DHPS.S50556. PMC 4284049. PMID 25565896.
- Montouris G (June 2003). "Gabapentin exposure in human pregnancy: results from the Gabapentin Pregnancy Registry". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 310–317. doi:10.1016/S1525-5050(03)00110-0. PMID 12791334. S2CID 902424.
- Weinstock L, Cohen LS, Bailey JW, Blatman R, Rosenbaum JF (2001). "Obstetrical and neonatal outcome following clonazepam use during pregnancy: a case series". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 70 (3): 158–162. doi:10.1159/000056242. PMID 11340418. S2CID 25166015.
- "Lithium use while Breastfeeding". LactMed. 10 March 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- "Lithium carbonate". Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Nielsen J, Kwon TH, Christensen BM, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S (May 2008). "Dysregulation of renal aquaporins and epithelial sodium channel in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus". Seminars in Nephrology. 28 (3): 227–244. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2008.03.002. PMID 18519084.
- Alexander MP, Farag YM, Mittal BV, Rennke HG, Singh AK (January 2008). "Lithium toxicity: a double-edged sword". Kidney International. 73 (2): 233–237. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5002578. PMID 17943083.
- Sands JM, Bichet DG (February 2006). "Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus". Annals of Internal Medicine. 144 (3): 186–194. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-3-200602070-00007. PMID 16461963. S2CID 6732380.
- Garofeanu CG, Weir M, Rosas-Arellano MP, Henson G, Garg AX, Clark WF (April 2005). "Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 45 (4): 626–637. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.01.008. PMID 15806465.
- Davis J, Desmond M, Berk M (October 2018). "Lithium and nephrotoxicity: Unravelling the complex pathophysiological threads of the lightest metal". Nephrology. Wiley. 23 (10): 897–903. doi:10.1111/nep.13263. PMID 29607573. S2CID 4552345.
- Presne C, Fakhouri F, Noël LH, Stengel B, Even C, Kreis H, et al. (August 2003). "Lithium-induced nephropathy: Rate of progression and prognostic factors". Kidney International. 64 (2): 585–592. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00096.x. PMID 12846754.
- "Lithium". WebMD. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Finley PR, O'Brien JG, Coleman RW (February 1996). "Lithium and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: evaluation of a potential interaction". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 16 (1): 68–71. doi:10.1097/00004714-199602000-00011. PMID 8834421.
- Oruch R, Elderbi MA, Khattab HA, Pryme IF, Lund A (October 2014). "Lithium: a review of pharmacology, clinical uses, and toxicity". European Journal of Pharmacology. 740 (740): 464–473. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.06.042. PMID 24991789.
- Alldredge BK, Corelli RL, Ernst ME (1 February 2012). Koda-Kimble and Young's Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs (10th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1991. ISBN 978-1-60913-713-7.
- Boyer EW. "Serotonin syndrome". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Wijdicks EF. "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Case reports: (Sandyk R, Hurwitz MD (November 1983). "Toxic irreversible encephalopathy induced by lithium carbonate and haloperidol. A report of 2 cases". South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Geneeskunde. 64 (22): 875–876. PMID 6415823.)(Gille M, Ghariani S, Piéret F, Delbecq J, Depré A, Saussu F, de Barsy T (May 1997). "[Acute encephalomyopathy and persistent cerebellar syndrome after lithium salt and haloperidol poisoning]". Revue Neurologique. 153 (4): 268–270. PMID 9296146.)
- Emilien G, Maloteaux JM (December 1996). "Lithium neurotoxicity at low therapeutic doses Hypotheses for causes and mechanism of action following a retrospective analysis of published case reports". Acta Neurologica Belgica. 96 (4): 281–293. PMID 9008777.
- Netto I, Phutane VH (2012). "Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 14 (1): PCC.11r01197. doi:10.4088/PCC.11r01197. PMC 3357580. PMID 22690368.
- Nayak SM, Gukasyan N, Barrett FS, Erowid E, Erowid F, Griffiths RR (September 2021). "Classic Psychedelic Coadministration with Lithium, but Not Lamotrigine, is Associated with Seizures: An Analysis of Online Psychedelic Experience Reports". Pharmacopsychiatry. 54 (5): 240–245. doi:10.1055/a-1524-2794. PMID 34348413.
- Netto I, Phutane VH (2012). "Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 14 (1). doi:10.4088/PCC.11r01197. PMC 3357580. PMID 22690368.
- Brunton L, Chabner B, Knollman B (2010). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-162442-8.
- Massot O, Rousselle JC, Fillion MP, Januel D, Plantefol M, Fillion G (October 1999). "5-HT1B receptors: a novel target for lithium. Possible involvement in mood disorders". Neuropsychopharmacology. 21 (4): 530–541. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(99)00042-1. PMID 10481837.
- Scheuch K, Höltje M, Budde H, Lautenschlager M, Heinz A, Ahnert-Hilger G, Priller J (January 2010). "Lithium modulates tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene expression and serotonin release in primary cultures of serotonergic raphe neurons". Brain Research. 1307: 14–21. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.10.027. PMID 19840776. S2CID 6045269.
- Malhi GS, Masson M, Bellivier F (2017). The Science and Practice of Lithium Therapy. Springer International Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 9783319459233. OCLC 979600268.
- Einat H, Manji HK (June 2006). "Cellular plasticity cascades: genes-to-behavior pathways in animal models of bipolar disorder". Biological Psychiatry. 59 (12): 1160–1171. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.11.004. PMID 16457783. S2CID 20669215.
- Gould TD, Picchini AM, Einat H, Manji HK (November 2006). "Targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3 in the CNS: implications for the development of new treatments for mood disorders". Current Drug Targets. 7 (11): 1399–1409. doi:10.2174/1389450110607011399. PMID 17100580.
- Böer U, Cierny I, Krause D, Heinrich A, Lin H, Mayr G, et al. (September 2008). "Chronic lithium salt treatment reduces CRE/CREB-directed gene transcription and reverses its upregulation by chronic psychosocial stress in transgenic reporter gene mice". Neuropsychopharmacology. 33 (10): 2407–2415. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301640. PMID 18046304.
- Berk M, Kapczinski F, Andreazza AC, Dean OM, Giorlando F, Maes M, et al. (January 2011). "Pathways underlying neuroprogression in bipolar disorder: focus on inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (3): 804–817. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.10.001. PMID 20934453. S2CID 11421586.
- York JD, Ponder JW, Majerus PW (May 1995). "Definition of a metal-dependent/Li(+)-inhibited phosphomonoesterase protein family based upon a conserved three-dimensional core structure". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (11): 5149–5153. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.5149Y. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.11.5149. PMC 41866. PMID 7761465.
- Yenush L, Bellés JM, López-Coronado JM, Gil-Mascarell R, Serrano R, Rodríguez PL (February 2000). "A novel target of lithium therapy". FEBS Letters. 467 (2–3): 321–325. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(00)01183-2. PMID 10675562. S2CID 43250471.
- Toledano E, Ogryzko V, Danchin A, Ladant D, Mechold U (April 2012). "3'-5' phosphoadenosine phosphate is an inhibitor of PARP-1 and a potential mediator of the lithium-dependent inhibition of PARP-1 in vivo". The Biochemical Journal. 443 (2): 485–490. doi:10.1042/BJ20111057. PMC 3316155. PMID 22240080.
- Ghasemi M, Sadeghipour H, Mosleh A, Sadeghipour HR, Mani AR, Dehpour AR (May 2008). "Nitric oxide involvement in the antidepressant-like effects of acute lithium administration in the mouse forced swimming test". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 18 (5): 323–332. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2007.07.011. PMID 17728109. S2CID 44805917.
- Ghasemi M, Sadeghipour H, Poorheidari G, Dehpour AR (June 2009). "A role for nitrergic system in the antidepressant-like effects of chronic lithium treatment in the mouse forced swimming test". Behavioural Brain Research. 200 (1): 76–82. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.12.032. PMID 19166880. S2CID 22656735.
- Ghasemi M, Raza M, Dehpour AR (April 2010). "NMDA receptor antagonists augment antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the mouse forced swimming test". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 24 (4): 585–594. doi:10.1177/0269881109104845. PMID 19351802. S2CID 41634565.
- Malhi GS, Tanious M, Das P, Coulston CM, Berk M (February 2013). "Potential mechanisms of action of lithium in bipolar disorder. Current understanding". CNS Drugs. 27 (2): 135–153. doi:10.1007/s40263-013-0039-0. hdl:11343/218106. PMID 23371914. S2CID 26907074.
- Birch NJ (2 December 2012). Lithium and the Cell: Pharmacology and Biochemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 9780080984292.
- Brunello N, Tascedda F (June 2003). "Cellular mechanisms and second messengers: relevance to the psychopharmacology of bipolar disorders". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 6 (2): 181–189. doi:10.1017/s1461145703003419. PMID 12890311.
- Malhi GS, Masson M, Bellivier F (2017). The Science and Practice of Lithium Therapy. Springer International Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 9783319459233. OCLC 979600268.
- Alda M (June 2015). "Lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder: pharmacology and pharmacogenetics". Molecular Psychiatry. 20 (6): 661–670. doi:10.1038/mp.2015.4. PMC 5125816. PMID 25687772.
- Einat H, Kofman O, Itkin O, Lewitan RJ, Belmaker RH (1998). "Augmentation of lithium's behavioral effect by inositol uptake inhibitors". Journal of Neural Transmission. 105 (1): 31–38. doi:10.1007/s007020050035. PMID 9588758. S2CID 6707456.
- Jope RS (March 1999). "Anti-bipolar therapy: mechanism of action of lithium". Molecular Psychiatry. 4 (2): 117–128. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000494. PMID 10208444.
- Abu-Hijleh FA, Prashar S, Joshi H, Sharma R, Frey BN, Mishra RK (February 2021). "Novel mechanism of action for the mood stabilizer lithium". Bipolar Disorders. 23 (1): 76–83. doi:10.1111/bdi.13019. PMID 33037686. S2CID 222257563.
- Marmol F (December 2008). "Lithium: bipolar disorder and neurodegenerative diseases Possible cellular mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of lithium". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 32 (8): 1761–1771. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.08.012. PMID 18789369. S2CID 25861243.
- "Lithium: Discovered, Forgotten and Rediscovered". inhn.org. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
- "Obituary – Shirley Aldythea Andrews – Obituaries Australia". oa.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
- Cade JF (September 1949). "Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement" (PDF). The Medical Journal of Australia. 2 (10): 349–352. doi:10.1080/j.1440-1614.1999.06241.x. PMC 2560740. PMID 18142718. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2006.
- Fieve RR (December 1999). "Lithium therapy at the millennium: a revolutionary drug used for 50 years faces competing options and possible demise". Bipolar Disorders. 1 (2): 67–70. doi:10.1034/j.1399-5618.1999.010201.x. PMID 11252660.
- Mitchell PB, Hadzi-Pavlovic D (2000). "Lithium treatment for bipolar disorder" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (4): 515–517. PMC 2560742. PMID 10885179. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2006.
- Agassi T (12 March 1996). "Sting is now older, wiser and duller". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "7 UP: The Making of a Legend". Cadbury Schweppes: America's Beverages.
- "Urban Legends Reference Pages: 7Up". Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- anonymous (13 July 1950). "ISALLY'S (ad)". Painesville Telegraph. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Nieper HA (1973). "The clinical applications of lithium orotate. A two years study". Agressologie. 14 (6): 407–411. PMID 4607169.
- Forlenza OV, de Paula VJ, Machado-Vieira R, Diniz BS, Gattaz WF (May 2012). "Does lithium prevent Alzheimer's disease?". Drugs & Aging. 29 (5): 335–342. doi:10.2165/11599180-000000000-00000. PMID 22500970. S2CID 23864616.
- Wilson EN, Do Carmo S, Welikovitch LA, Hall H, Aguilar LF, Foret MK, et al. (2020). "NP03, a Microdose Lithium Formulation, Blunts Early Amyloid Post-Plaque Neuropathology in McGill-R-Thy1-APP Alzheimer-Like Transgenic Rats". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 73 (2): 723–739. doi:10.3233/JAD-190862. PMID 31868669. S2CID 209448822.
- Ludolph AC, Brettschneider J, Weishaupt JH (October 2012). "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Current Opinion in Neurology. 25 (5): 530–535. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e328356d328. PMID 22918486.
- Mota de Freitas D, Leverson BD, Goossens JL (2016). "Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel R (eds.). Metal ions in Life Sciences. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Vol. 16. Springer. pp. 557–584. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21756-7_15. ISBN 978-3-319-21755-0. PMID 26860311.
- Phelps J (19 September 2014). "Lithium Basics". Psych.
- Phillips ML (16 February 2006). "Exposing lithium's circadian action". The Scientist.
- "Lithium". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- "Mood Stabilizers: An Updated List and Links". PsychEducation.org. April 2004. Archived from the original on 11 August 2004.
- "Lithium Carbonate". PubChem Compound Summary. U.S. National Library of Medicine. CID 11125.
- N05AN01 (WHO)