3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||23.95 g/mol (anhydrous)
41.96 g/mol (monohydrate)
|Appearance||hygroscopic white solid
|Density||1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
|Melting point||462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)|
|Boiling point||924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) decomposes|
12.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
12.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
17.5 g/100 mL (100 °C)
22.3 g/100 mL (10 °C)
26.8 g/100 mL (80 °C)
|Solubility in methanol||anhydrous:
9.76 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
13.69 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
|Solubility in ethanol||anhydrous:
2.36 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
2.18 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
|Solubility in isopropanol||anhydrous:
0 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
0.11 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
|Basicity (pKb)||−0.04(LiOH(aq) = Li+ + OH–)|
Refractive index (nD)
|2.071 J/g K|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 0913
ICSC 0914 (monohydrate)
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|210 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol, and is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH.H2O), both of which are strong bases. It is the weakest base among the alkali metal hydroxides.
Production and reactions
- Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3
The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.
- 2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2
- Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH
Typically, these reactions are avoided.
Although lithium carbonate is more widely used, the hydroxide is an effective precursor to lithium salts, e.g.
- LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.
Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed for the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease is lithium stearate, which is a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at both high and low temperatures.
Carbon dioxide scrubbing
- 2 LiOH•H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O
- 2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100–110 °C.
It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.
In 2012, the price of lithium hydroxide was about $5,000 to $6,000 per tonne.
- Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
- Khosravi, Javad (2007). "9: Results". PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM PEROXIDE AND LITHIUM OXIDE IN AN ALCOHOL MEDIUM. ISBN 978-0-494-38597-5.
- Popov, K.; et al. (2002). "7Li, 23Na, 39K and 133Cs NMR comparative equilibrium study of alkali metal cation hydroxide complexes in aqueous solutions. First numerical value for CsOH formation". Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 5 (3): 223–225. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
- Wietelmann, U; Bauer, RJ (2000). "Lithium and Lithium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_393. ISBN 3-527-30673-0.
- Jaunsen, JR (1989). "The Behavior and Capabilities of Lithium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers in a Deep Sea Environment". US Naval Academy Technical Report. USNA-TSPR-157. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
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