Lithium bromide

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Lithium bromide
Lithium-bromide-3D-ionic.png
Names
IUPAC name
Lithium bromide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.582
EC Number 231-439-8
RTECS number OJ5755000
UNII
Properties
LiBr
Molar mass 86.845(3) g/mol
Appearance White solid
hygroscopic
Density 3.464 g/cm3
Melting point 552 °C (1,026 °F; 825 K)
Boiling point 1,265 °C (2,309 °F; 1,538 K)
143 g/100 mL (0 °C)
166.7 g/100 mL (20 °C)
266 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in methanol, ethanol, ether, acetone
slightly soluble in pyridine
−34.7·10−6 cm3/mol
1.784
Thermochemistry
51.88 J/mol K
66.9 J/mol K
-350.3 kJ/mol
-338.9 kJ/mol
-157 kJ/mol
Hazards
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Warning
H315, H317, H319[1]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
2
0
Flash point Not-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1800 mg/kg (oral, rat)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Lithium fluoride
Lithium chloride
Lithium iodide
Other cations
Sodium bromide
Potassium bromide
Rubidium bromide
Caesium bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Lithium bromide (LiBr) is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine. Its extreme hygroscopic character makes LiBr useful as a desiccant in certain air conditioning systems.[3]

Production and properties[edit]

LiBr is prepared by treatment of lithium carbonate with hydrobromic acid. The salt forms several crystalline hydrates, unlike the other alkali metal bromides.[4] The anhydrous salt forms cubic crystals similar to common salt (sodium chloride).

Lithium hydroxide and hydrobromic acid (aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide) will precipitate lithium bromide in the presence of water.

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H2O

Uses[edit]

Lithium bromide is used in air-conditioning systems as desiccant. Lithium bromide is used as a salt in absorption chilling along with water (see absorption refrigerator). Otherwise the salt is useful as a reagent in organic synthesis. For example, it reversibly forms adducts with some pharmaceuticals.[3]

Medical applications[edit]

Lithium bromide was used as a sedative, beginning in the early 1900s, but it fell into disfavor in the 1940s when some heart patients died after using it as a salt substitute.[5] Like lithium carbonate and lithium chloride, it was used as treatment for bipolar disorder.

Doses as low as 225 mg/day of LiBr can lead to bromism.

Hazards[edit]

Lithium salts are psychoactive and somewhat corrosive. Heat is quickly generated when lithium bromide is dissolved into water because it has a negative enthalpy of solution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/229733?lang=en&region=US
  2. ^ Chambers, Michael. "ChemIDplus - 7550-35-8 - AMXOYNBUYSYVKV-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Lithium bromide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b Ulrich Wietelmann, Richard J. Bauer "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
  4. ^ Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils, ed., Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  5. ^ "Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Care". webmd.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.

External links[edit]