Lithium polymer battery

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"Li-Po" and "LiPo" redirect here. For other uses, see Li Po (disambiguation).
Lithium polymer battery
A lithium-ion polymer battery used to power a mobile phone
Specific energy 100–265 W·h/kg(0.36–0.95 MJ/kg)
Energy density 250–730 W·h/L(0.90–2.63 MJ/L)
Nominal cell voltage 3.3 V, 3.7 V, depending on chemistry

A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated variously as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology in a pouch format. Unlike cylindrical and prismatic cells, LiPos come in a soft package or pouch, which makes them lighter but also less rigid.

The designation "lithium polymer" has caused confusion among battery users because it can be interpreted in two ways. Originally, "lithium polymer" represented a developing technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of the more common liquid electrolyte. The result is a "plastic" cell, which theoretically could be thin, flexible, and manufactured in different shapes, without risk of electrolyte leakage. The technology has not been fully developed and commercialized[1][2] and research is ongoing.[3][4][5]

The second meaning appeared after some manufacturers applied the "polymer" designation to lithium-ion cells contained in a non-rigid pouch format. This is currently the most popular use, in which "polymer" refers more to a "polymer casing" (that is, the soft, external container) rather than a "polymer electrolyte". While the design is usually flat, and lightweight, it is not truly a polymer cell, since the electrolyte is still in liquid form, although it may be "plasticized" or "gelled" through a polymer additive.[6] These cells are sometimes designated as "LiPo"; however, from a technological point of view, they are the same as the ones marketed simply as "Li-ion", since the underlying electrochemistry is the same.[6]

This article concerns the second, more extended meaning (among the general public), while the first meaning (understood in research and academia) is discussed only in the last section.

The name "lithium polymer" (LiPo) is widespread among users of radio-controlled models, for which it may indicate a single cell or a battery pack with cells connected in series or parallel. The more general term "lithium-ion" (Li-ion) is used almost everywhere else, including consumer electronics such as mobile phones and notebook computers, and battery-powered electric vehicles.


LiPo cells follow the history of lithium-ion and lithium-metal cells which underwent significant research during the 1980s, reaching a significant milestone with Sony's first commercial cylindrical Li-ion cell in 1991. After that, other packaging techniques evolved, including the pouch format now also called "LiPo".

Design origin and terminology[edit]

The original kind of cell named "lithium polymer" has technologically evolved from lithium-ion and lithium-metal batteries. The primary difference is that instead of using a lithium-salt electrolyte (such as LiPF6) held in an organic solvent (such as EC/DMC/DEC), the battery uses a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF).[2]

The solid electrolyte can be typically classified as one of three types: dry SPE, gelled SPE and porous SPE. The dry SPE was the first used in prototype batteries, around 1978 by Michel Armand, Domain University,[7][8] and 1985 by ANVAR and Elf Aquitaine of France, and Hydro Quebec of Canada.[1] From 1990 several organisations like Mead and Valence in the United States and GS Yuasa in Japan developed batteries using gelled SPEs.[1] In 1996, Bellcore in the United States announced a rechargeable lithium polymer cell using porous SPE.[1]

In parallel to the development of these "polymer electrolyte" batteries, the term "lithium polymer" started being used for liquid electrolyte Li-ion cells in pouch format. These cells started appearing in consumer electronics around 1995,[citation needed] eventually becoming known as "LiPo" for some applications.

The confusion in the names may stem from the construction of the basic lithium-ion cell. A typical cell has four main components: positive electrode, negative electrode, separator and electrolyte. The separator itself may be a polymer, such as a microporous film of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP); thus, even when the cell has a liquid electrolyte, it will still contain a "polymer" component. In addition to this, the positive electrode can be further decomposed in three parts: the lithium-transition-metal-oxide (such as LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4), a conductive additive, and a polymer binder of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF).[9][10] The negative electrode material may have the same three parts, only with carbon replacing the lithium-metal-oxide.[9][10]

Therefore, even if a bare, unfinished cell lacks a polymer separator, or any liquid or solid electrolyte, it may still have a "polymer" component in the active materials of the electrodes. This polymer, however, is just a small fraction, typically less than 5% by weight, and does not participate in the electrochemical reactions, being only useful for binding the active particles together to maintain good conductivity, and help make the slurry mix adhere well to the copper and aluminium foils that compose the current collectors of the battery cell.[10]

Working principle[edit]

Just as with other lithium-ion cells, LiPos work on the principle of intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions from a positive electrode material and a negative electrode material, with the liquid electrolyte providing a conductive medium. To prevent the electrodes from touching each other directly, a microporous separator is in between which allows only the ions and not the electrode particles to migrate from one side to the other.


Just as with other kinds of lithium-ion cells, the voltage of a LiPo cell depends on its chemistry and varies from about 2.7-3.0 V (discharged) to about 4.20-4.35 V (fully charged), for cells based on lithium-metal-oxides (such as LiCoO2), and around 1.8-2.0 V (discharged) to 3.6-3.8 V (charged) for those based on lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4).

The exact voltage ratings should be specified in product data sheets, with the understanding that the cells should be protected by an electronic circuit that won't allow them to overcharge nor over-discharge under use.

For LiPo battery packs with cells connected in series, a specialised charger may monitor the charge on a per-cell basis so that all cells are brought to the same state of charge (SOC).

Applying pressure on LiPo cells[edit]

An experimental lithium-ion polymer battery made by Lockheed-Martin for NASA

Unlike lithium-ion cylindrical and prismatic cells, which have a rigid metal case, LiPo cells have a flexible, foil-type (polymer laminate) case, so they are relatively unconstrained. By themselves the cells are over 20% lighter than equivalent cylindrical cells of the same capacity.[11]

Being lightweight is an advantage when the application requires minimum weight, such as in the case of radio controlled models. However, it has been investigated that moderate pressure on the stack of layers that compose the cell results in increased capacity retention, because the contact between the components is maximised and delamination and deformation is prevented, which is associated with increase of cell impedance and degradation. [12][13]


Six edge shaped Lithium-Polymer-Battery for Underwater Vehicles made by Custom Cells Itzehoe GmbH

LiPo cells provide manufacturers with compelling advantages. They can easily produce batteries of almost any desired shape. For example, the space and weight requirements of mobile phones and notebook computers can be completely satisfied. Also, they have low-self discharge rate, which is about 5% per month.[14]

Radio controlled equipment and airsoft[edit]

3-Cell LiPo battery for RC-models

LiPo batteries have just about taken over in the world of radio-controlled aircraft, radio-controlled cars and large scale model trains, where the advantages of lower weight and increased capacity and power delivery justify the price.

As of mid 2016, LiPo packs of 1.3 Ah exist, providing 95C continuous discharge, and short-time 190C bursts.[15]

LiPo packs also see widespread use in airsoft, where their higher discharge currents and better energy density compared to more traditional NiMH batteries has very noticeable performance gain (higher rate of fire). The high discharge currents do damage the switch contacts due to arcing (causing the contacts to oxidize and often deposit carbon), so it is advised to either use a solid-state MOSFET switch or clean the trigger contacts regularly.

Personal electronics[edit]

LiPo batteries are pervasive in mobile phones, tablet computers, power banks, very thin laptop computers, portable media players, wireless controllers for video game consoles, electronic cigarettes, and other applications where small form factors are sought and the high energy density outweighs cost considerations.

Electric vehicles[edit]

Lithium-ion cells in pouch format are being investigated to power battery electric vehicles. While it is possible to use a large number of cells of small capacity to obtain required levels of power and energy to drive a vehicle, some manufacturers and research centres are looking into large-format lithium-ion cells of capacities exceeding 50 Ah for this purpose.[citation needed] With higher energy content per cell, the number of cells and electrical connections in a battery pack would certainly decrease but the danger associated with individual cells of such high capacity might be greater.

Hyundai Motor Company uses this type of battery in some of their hybrid vehicles,[16] as well as Kia Motors in their battery electric Kia Soul.[17] The Bolloré Bluecar, which is used in car sharing schemes in several cities, also uses this type of battery.

Light aircraft and self-launching gliders are being produced such as the Alisport Silent 2 Electro[18] and the Pipistrel WATTsUP.[19] Some larger gliders such as Schempp-Hirth Ventus-2 use the technology for self-sustaining motors[20]


Apple iPhone 3GS's Lithium-ion polymer battery, which has expanded due to a short circuit failure.

LiPo cells are affected by the same problems as other lithium-ion cells. This means that overcharge, over-discharge, over-temperature, short circuit, crush and nail penetration may all result in a catastrophic failure, including the pouch rupturing, the electrolyte leaking, and fire.[21]

All Li-ion cells expand at high levels of state of charge (SOC) or over-charge, due to slight vaporisation of the electrolyte. This may result in delamination, and thus bad contact of the internal layers of the cell, which in turn brings diminished reliability and overall cycle life of the cell.[12] This is very noticeable for LiPos, which can visibly inflate due to lack of a hard case to contain their expansion.

Lithium cells with true polymer electrolyte[edit]

Although the name "lithium polymer" (LiPo) is mostly applied to lithium-ion cells in pouch format, which still contain a liquid electrolyte, there are electrochemical cells with actual polymer electrolytes, which however have not reached full commercialization and are still a topic of research. Prototype cells of this type could be considered to be between a traditional lithium-ion battery (with liquid electrolyte) and a completely plastic, solid-state lithium-ion battery.[22]

The simplest approach is to use a polymer matrix, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) or poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), gelled with conventional salts and solvents, such as LiPF6 in EC/DMC/DEC. Nishi mentions that Sony started research on lithium-ion cells with gelled polymer electrolytes (GPE) in 1988, before the commercialisation of the liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion cell in 1991.[23] At that time polymer batteries were promising and it seemed polymer electrolytes would become indispensable.[24] Eventually, this type of cell went into the market in 1998.[23] However, Scrosati argues that, in the strictest sense, gelled membranes cannot be classified as "true" polymer electrolytes, but rather as hybrid systems where the liquid phases are contained within the polymer matrix.[22] Although these polymer electrolytes may be dry to the touch, they can still contain 30% to 50% liquid solvent.[6] In this regard, an open question remains on how to really define what a "polymer battery" is.

Other terms used in the literature for this system include hybrid polymer electrolyte (HPE), where "hybrid" denotes the combination of the polymer matrix, the liquid solvent and the salt.[25] It was a system like this that Bellcore used to develop an early lithium-polymer cell in 1996,[26] which was called "plastic" lithium-ion cell (PLiON), and subsequently commercialised in 1999.[25]

A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) may be, for example, a compound of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) and high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO),[3] or a high molecular weight poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC).[4]

The performance of these proposed electrolytes is usually measured in a half-cell configuration against an electrode of metallic lithium, making the system a "lithium-metal" cell, but it has also been tested with a common lithium-ion cathode material such as lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4).

Other attempts to design a polymer electrolyte cell include the use of inorganic ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) as a plasticizer in a microporous polymer matrix like poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP/PMMA).[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Murata, Kazuo; Izuchi, Shuichi; Yoshihisa, Youetsu (3 January 2000). "An overview of the research and development of solid polymer electrolyte batteries". Electrochimica Acta. 45 (8-9): 1501–1508. doi:10.1016/S0013-4686(99)00365-5. 
  2. ^ a b Manuel Stephan, A.; Nahm, K. S. (26 July 2006). "Review on composite polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries". Polymer. 47 (16): 5952–5964. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2006.05.069. 
  3. ^ a b Zhang, Heng; Liu, Chengyong; Zheng, Liping (1 July 2014). "Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte". Electrochimica Acta. 133: 529–538. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2014.04.099. 
  4. ^ a b Sun, Bing; Mindemark, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Brandell, Daniel (1 September 2014). "Polycarbonate-based solid polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries". Solid State Ionics. 262: 738–742. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2013.08.014. 
  5. ^ a b Zhai, Wei; Zhu, Hua-jun; Wang, Long (1 July 2014). "Study of PVDF-HFP/PMMA blended micro-porous gel polymer electrolyte incorporating ionic liquid [BMIM]BF4 for Lithium ion batteries". Electrochimica Acta. 133: 623–630. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2014.04.076. 
  6. ^ a b c Brodd, Ralf J. (2002). "Chapter 9: Lithium-Ion cell production processes". In van Schalkwijk, Walter A.; Scrosati, Bruno. Advances in Lithium-ion batteries. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-306-47356-9. 
  7. ^ M.B. Armand; J.M. Chabagno; M. Duclot (20–22 September 1978). "Extended Abstracts". Second International Meeting on Solid Electrolytes. St. Andrews, Scotland. 
  8. ^ M.B. Armand, J.M. Chabagno & M. Duclot (1979). "Poly-ethers as solid electrolytes". In P. Vashitshta; J.N. Mundy & G.K. Shenoy. Fast ion Transport in Solids. Electrodes and Electrolytes. North Holland Publishers, Amsterdam. 
  9. ^ a b Yazami, Rachid (2009). "Chapter 5: Thermodynamics of Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries". In Ozawa, Kazunori. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Wiley-Vch Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. ISBN 978-3-527-31983-1. 
  10. ^ a b c Nagai, Aisaku (2009). "Chapter 6: Applications of Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Related Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries". In Yoshio, Masaki; Brodd, Ralph J.; Kozawa, Akiya. Lithium-ion batteries. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-34445-4. ISBN 978-0-387-34444-7. 
  11. ^ "Harding Energy | Lithium Ion batteries | Lithium Polymer | Lithium Iron Phosphate". Harding Energy. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 
  12. ^ a b Vetter, J.; Novák, P.; Wagner, M.R.; Veit, C. (9 September 2005). "Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries". Journal of Power Sources. 147 (1-2): 269–281. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.01.006. 
  13. ^ Cannarella, John; Arnold, Craig B. (1 January 2014). "Stress evolution and capacity fade in constrained lithium-ion pouch cells". Journal of Power Sources. 245: 745–751. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.165. 
  14. ^ "Lithium Polymer Battery Technology" (PDF). Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  15. ^ "Tattu R-Line 4S 1300mah 95~190C Lipo Pack". Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  16. ^ Brown, Warren (3 November 2011). "2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid: Hi, tech. Bye, performance". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Alisport web site". Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  19. ^ "Pipistrel web site". Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  20. ^ "Schempp-Hirth web site". Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  21. ^ FAA Battery Incident Chart, includes incidents of Lithium-Polymer-Air ignition after puncturing. Ex: Entry for 11-Dec-2007
  22. ^ a b Scrosati, Bruno (2002). "Chapter 8: Lithium polymer electrolytes". In van Schalkwijk, Walter A.; Scrosati, Bruno. Advances in Lithium-ion batteries. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-306-47356-9. 
  23. ^ a b Yoshio, Masaki; Brodd, Ralph J.; Kozawa, Akiya, eds. (2009). Lithium-ion batteries. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-34445-4. ISBN 978-0-387-34444-7. 
  24. ^ Nishi, Yoshio (2002). "Chapter 7: Lithium-Ion Secondary batteries with gelled polymer electrolytes". In van Schalkwijk, Walter A.; Scrosati, Bruno. Advances in Lithium-ion batteries. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-306-47356-9. 
  25. ^ a b Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Armand, Michele (2001). "Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries". Nature. 414: 359–367. doi:10.1038/35104644. PMID 11713543. 
  26. ^ Tarascon, J.-M.; Gozdz, A. S.; Schmutz, C.; Shokoohi, F.; Warren, P. C. (July 1996). "Performance of Bellcore's plastic rechargeable Li-ion batteries". Solid State Ionics. Elsevier. 86-88 (Part 1): 49–54. doi:10.1016/0167-2738(96)00330-X. 

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