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The lithotrite was an early medical device, invented by Jean Civiale, which was used to perform transurethral lithotripsy, the first known minimally invasive surgery, to crush stones inside the bladder without having to open the abdomen (lithotomy). To remove a calculus the instrument was inserted through the urethra and holes bored in the stone. Afterwards, it was crushed with the same instrument and resulting fragments aspired or allowed to flow normally with urine.