Matty Groves

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For the English footballer, see Matt Groves.
"Matty Groves"
Song
Writer(s) Traditional

"Matty Groves" is a Border ballad probably originating in Northern England that describes an adulterous tryst between a man and a woman that is ended when the woman's husband discovers and kills them. This song exists in many textual variants and has several variant names. The song dates to at least the 17th century, and under the title Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard is one of the Child Ballads collected by 19th-century American scholar Francis James Child.

Synopsis[edit]

Little Musgrave (or Matty Groves, Little Matthew Grew and other variations) goes to church on a holy day either "the holy word to hear" or "to see fair ladies there". He sees Lord Barnard's wife, the fairest lady there, and realises she is attracted to him. She invites him to spend the night with her, and he agrees when she tells him her husband is away from home. Her page goes to find Lord Barnard (Arnel, Daniel, Arnold, Donald, Darnell, Darlington) and tells him that Musgrave is in bed with his wife. Lord Barnard promises the page a large reward if he is telling the truth and to hang him if he is lying. Lord Barnard and his men ride to his home, where he surprises the lovers in bed. Lord Barnard tells Musgrave to dress because he doesn't want to be accused of killing a naked man. Musgrave says he dare not because he has no weapon, and Lord Barnard gives him the better of two swords. In the subsequent duel Little Musgrave wounds Lord Barnard, who then kills him. Lord Barnard then asks his wife whether she still prefers Little Musgrave to him and when she says she would prefer a kiss from the dead man's lips to her husband and all his kin, he kills her. He then says he regrets what he has done and orders the lovers to be buried in a single grave, with the lady at the top because "she came of the better kin". In some versions Barnard is hanged, or kills himself, or finds his own infant son dead in his wife's body. Many versions omit one or more parts of the story.[1]

The name Musgrave originates in Westmoreland, a former county in the north of England now part of Cumbria.[2]

Some versions of the ballad include elements of an alba, a poetic form in which lovers part after spending a night together.

Standard references[edit]

Early Printed Versions[edit]

There are few broadside versions. There are three different printings in the Bodleian Library's Broadside Ballads Online, all dating from the second half of the seventeenth century. One, The lamentable Ditty of the little Mousgrove, and the Lady Barnet from the collection of Anthony Wood, has a handwritten note by Wood on the reverse stating that "the protagonists were alive in 1543".[4][5][6]

Collected versions[edit]

Child published 14 examples.[1]

The Roud Folk Song Index contains 302 instances of this ballad,[7] and shows that the ballad has been collected mostly in North America: 113 versions listed in Roud were found in the USA, with the bulk in North Carolina (24), the Virginias (24), Kentucky (23), New England (16) and Tennessee (9). In Canada, 18 versions were found, the majority in Nova Scotia. Scotland produced 9 versions, and England only 2. Cecil Sharp is listed as the collector for 22 of the versions.[7]

A number of songs and tales collected in the Caribbean are based on, or refer to, the ballad.[8][9][10][11]

Textual variants[edit]

Variant Lord/Lady's surname Lover Notes
The Old ballad of Little Musgrave and the Lady Barnard Barnard Little Musgrave This version has the foot-page
Mattie Groves Arlen Little Mattie Groves [12]
Matty Groves Darnell Matty Groves [13]

Some of the versions of the song subsequently recorded differ from Child's catalogued version.[14] The earliest published version appeared in 1658 (see Literature section below). A copy was also printed on a broadside by Henry Gosson, who is said to have printed between 1607 and 1641.[12] Some variation occurs in where Matty is first seen; sometimes at church, sometimes playing ball.

Other names for the ballad:

  • Based on the lover
    • Matthy Groves
    • Young Musgrave
    • Wee Messgrove
    • Little Musgrave
    • Little Sir Grove
    • Little Miushiegrove
    • Little Massgrove
  • Based on the lord
    • Lord Barnard
    • Lord Barnaby
    • Lord Barlibas
    • Lord Barnabas
    • Lord Bengwill
    • Lord Barnett
    • Lord Arlen
    • Lord Arnold
    • Lord Aaron
    • Lord Donald
    • Lord Darlen
    • Lord Darnell
  • Based on a combination of names
    • Lord Barnett and Little Munsgrove
    • Little Musgrave and Lady Barnet

Literature[edit]

There is an allusion to the ballad in Beaumont and Fletcher's play The Knight of the Burning Pestle (1613); this is the earliest known reference.[citation needed]

Al Hine's 1961 novel Lord Love a Duck opens and closes with excerpts from the ballad, and borrows the names Musgrave and Barnard for two characters.[15]

Deborah Grabien's third book in the Haunted Ballad series, Matty Groves (2005), puts a different spin on the ballad.[16]

Field recordings[edit]

  • In 1934, Jean Bell Thomas recorded Green Maggard singing "Lord Daniel" in Kentucky. This version was released on the anthology 'Kentucky Mountain Music' Yazoo YA 2200.[17]
  • On 2 June 1949, Jean Ritchie sang "Little Musgrave" for Alan Lomax, who made a reel-to-reel recording of it in his apartment in Greenwich Village.[18]
  • In September 1960, Hamish Henderson recorded Aberdeenshire singer Jean Robertson singing "Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard ". However, the protagonists are Mattie Groves and Lord Donal, and another version by the same singer is called "Lord Donal". The notes to the recording on the Tobar an Dualchais webpage suggest that the singer learned her version from Johnny Wells and Sandy Paton. Paton was an American singer and folk song collector.[19]
  • In August 1963, John Cohen recorded Dillard Chandler singing "Mathie Groves" in Sodom, North Carolina. This version was published on Smithsonian-Folkways SFW CD 40159 ('Dark Holler').[20]

Commercial recordings[edit]

Year Release (Album / "Single") Performer Variant Notes
1956 John Jacob Niles Sings American Folk Songs John Jacob Niles Little Mattie Groves
1958 Shep Ginandes Sings Folk Songs Shep Ginandes Mattie Groves [21]
1960 British Traditional Ballads in the Southern Mountains, Volume 2 Jean Ritchie Little Musgrave
1962 Joan Baez in Concert Joan Baez Matty Groves
1964 Introducing the Beers Family Beers Family Mattie Groves
1966 Home Again! Doc Watson Matty Groves
1969 Liege & Lief Fairport Convention Matty Groves Several live recordings also
1969 Prince Heathen Martin Carthy Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard
1970 Ballads and Songs Nic Jones Little Musgrave
1976 Christy Moore Christy Moore Little Musgrave
1977 Never Set the Cat on Fire Frank Hayes Like a Lamb to the Slaughter Done as a parody talking blues version
1980 The Woman I Loved So Well Planxty Little Musgrave
1990 Masque Paul Roland Matty Groves
1992 Just Gimme Somethin' I'm Used To Norman Blake and his wife, Nancy Blake Little Matty Groves
1992 Out Standing in a Field The Makem Brother and Brian Sullivan Matty Groves
1993 In Good King Arthur's Day Graham Dodsworth Little Musgrave
1994 You Could Be the Meadow Eden Burning
1995 Live at the Mineshaft Tavern ThaMuseMeant
1997 On and On Fiddler's Green Matty Groves
1999 Trad Arr Jones John Wesley Harding Little Musgrave
2000 Hepsankeikka Tarujen Saari Kaunis neito (In Finnish)
2001 Listen, Listen Continental Drifters Matty Groves
2002 Ralph Stanley Ralph Stanley Little Mathie Grove
2002 Maid on the Shore Goo Birds Flight Matty Grove
2003 sings Sandy Denny Linde Nijland Matty Groves
2004 Live 2004 Planxty Little Musgrave
2005 Dark Holler: Old Love Songs and Ballads Dillard Chandler Mathie Grove Acapella Appalachian.[22]
2005 De Andere Kust Kadril Matty Groves
2006 Bucket of Guts: Sea Shanties 1 Rant & Roar Maddie Grove
2007 Season of the Witch The Strangelings Matty Groves
2007 Prodigal Son Martin Simpson Little Musgrave
2008 The Peacemaker's Chauffeur Jason Wilson Matty Groves Reggae version, featuring Dave Swarbrick & Brownman Ali
2009 Foxhat Compilation The Fox Hat! Matty Groves
2009 Folk Songs James Yorkston and the Big Eyes Family Players Little Musgrave
2009 Alela & Alina Alela Diane featuring Alina Hardin Matty Groves, Lord Arland
2009 Orphans: Brawlers, Bawlers & Bastards Tom Waits Mathie Grove
2010 Sweet Joan Sherwood Matty Groves (In Russian)
2011 "Little Musgrave" The Musgraves Little Musgrave YouTube video recorded to explain the band's name
2011 In Silence Marc Carroll Matty Groves
2012 Retrospective The Kennedys Matty Groves
2012 Aloha Contranym Matty Groves Dub Folk version[23]
2013 Fugitives Moriarty Matty Groves

Film and television[edit]

In 2012's season 5 episode 2 ("Gently with Class") of the British television series Inspector George Gently, the song is performed by Ebony Buckle, playing the role of singer Ellen Mallam in that episode, singing it as "Matty Groves".

Musical variants[edit]

In 1943, the English composer Benjamin Britten used this folk song as the basis of a choral piece entitled "The Ballad of Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard".[24]

The Big Musgrave, a parody by the Kipper Family appears on their LP Fresh Yesterday (DAM CD 020) (1988). The hero in this version is called Big Fatty Groves.[25]

Other songs with the same tune[edit]

See also[edit]

shares a mid-song stanza with "Fair Margaret and Sweet William"

The previous and next Child Ballads:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Francis James Child. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads Vol. 2. Books.google.com. p. 243. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  2. ^ "MUSGRAVE". gbnames.publicprofiler.org. Great Britain Family Names Public Profiler. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  3. ^ "Matty Groves". vwml.org. English Folk Dance and Song Society / Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  4. ^ "A Lamentable Ballad of Little Musgrave, and the Lady Barnet". ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk. Bodleian Ballads Online. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  5. ^ "The lamentable Ditty of little Mousgrove, and the Lady Barnet". ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk. Bodleian Ballads Online. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  6. ^ "[A] Lamentable Ballad of the Little Musgrove, and the Lady Barnet". ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk. Bodleian Ballads Online. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  7. ^ a b "Search results for Roud folk song No. 52". vwml.org. English Folk Dance and Song Society / Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 15 March 2017. 
  8. ^ "Little Musgrove- Maroons (JM) pre1924 Beckwith C". bluegrassmessengers.com. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  9. ^ "Garoleen- Joseph (St Vincent) 1966 Abrahams C". bluegrassmessengers.com. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  10. ^ "Matty Glow- Antoine (St Vincent) 1966 Abrahams B". bluegrassmessengers.com. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  11. ^ "Little Musgrove- Forbes (JM) pre1924 Beckwith A , B". bluegrassmessengers.com. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "Mattie Groves". contemplator.com. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  13. ^ "The Celtic Lyrics Collection - Lyrics". celtic-lyrics.com. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  14. ^ Francis James Child. The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. books.google.com. p. 243. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  15. ^ Hine, Al (1961). Lord Love a Duck. babel.hathitrust.org. Longmans, Green & Co. p. 2, 367. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  16. ^ Grabien, Deborah (2005). Matty Groves. amazon.com. Minotaur Books. ISBN 0-312-33389-7. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  17. ^ "Roud Folksong Index (S243414) - "Lord Daniel"". vwml.org. English Folk Dance and Song Society / Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  18. ^ Jean Ritchie singing "Little Musgrave" in Alan Lomax's apartment, 3rd Street, Greenwich Village, New York City (New York), United States (2 June 1949). "Little Musgrave". research.culturalequity.org (Reel-to-reel). New York: Association for Cultural Equity. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  19. ^ Jeannie Robertson singing "Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard", recorded in Scotland by Hamish Henderson (September 1960). "Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard". www.tobarandualchais.co.uk (Reel-to-reel). Scotland: Tobar an Dualchais/Kist o' Riches. Retrieved March 3, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Roud Folksong Index (S373182) - "Mathie Groves"". vwml.org. English Folk Dance and Song Society / Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  21. ^ ""Mattie Groves" by Shep Ginandes". secondhandsongs.com. SecondHandSongs. 1958. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 
  22. ^ Smithsonian Folkways – SFW 40170
  23. ^ "Aloha by Contranym". bandcamp.com. Retrieved 2 March 2017. 
  24. ^ Reviews at Musical Quarterly 51 (4), 722; Music & Letters 34 (2), 172.
  25. ^ "Fresh Yesterday Lyrics - Big Musgrave". The Kipper Family. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 

External links[edit]