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Littorina littorina.jpg
Two shells of the common periwinke
Littorina littorea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha
Superfamily: Littorinoidea
Family: Littorinidae
Children, 1834[1]
two freshwater species and numerous marine species.

The Littorinidae are a taxonomic family of over 200 species of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Littorinimorpha, commonly known as periwinkles and found worldwide.


In English-speaking countries, gastropod molluscs from other families, such as the Neritidae, are sometimes also commonly known as "winkles" because they are small, round snails that occupy a similar ecological niche.


These subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):

  • Subfamily Littorininae Children, 1834 - synonyms: Echinininae Rosewater, 1972; Tectariinae Rosewater, 1972; Melaraphidae Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983
  • Subfamily Lacuninae Gray, 1857 - synonyms: Risellidae Kesteven, 1903; Cremnoconchinae Preston, 1915; Bembiciidae Finlay, 1928.
  • Subfamily Laevilitorininae Reid, 1989


Genera within the family Littorinidae include:[3]


subfamily ?

  • Corneolitorina Powell, 1951: synonym of Laevilitorina (Laevilitorina) Pfeffer in Martens & Pfeffer, 1886 represented as Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886
  • Haloconcha Dall, 1886 is a synonym for Lacunaria Dall, 1885
  • Macquariella Finlay, 1926: synonym of Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886
  • Rissolittorina Ponder, 1966: synonym of Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886


  1. ^ Children J. G. (1834). Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. ed. 28: 110.
  2. ^ a b Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149-166. hdl:10088/7390 doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
  3. ^ World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) : Littorinidae
  4. ^ a b Reid D. G. (2009) "The genus Echinolittorina Habe, 1956 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in the western Atlantic Ocean." Zootaxa 2184: 1-103. abstract
  5. ^ a b (file created 29 July 2010) FRESH WATER MOLLUSCAN SPECIES IN INDIA. 11 pp. accessed 31 July 2010.
  6. ^ S T Williams , D G Reid , D T J Littlewood (2003). "A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism, and biogeography of the Southern Ocean.". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1 (1): 60–86. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1. PMID 12801472. 
  7. ^ Blanford W. T. (1869). "Notes on some Indian and Mascarene Land-Shells". Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)3: 340-344. page 343.

Further reading[edit]

David G. Reid, Suzanne T. Williams (2004). "The subfamily Littorininae in the Temperate Southern Hemisphere: the genera Nodilittorina, Austrolittorina and Afrolittorina" (PDF). Record of the Australian Museum 56: 75–122. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1393. 

External links[edit]