Liu Dongsheng (Chinese: 劉東生, 刘东生; 1917–2008) was a Chinese geologist and archaeologist. He graduated from department of geology of National Southwestern Associated University in 1942 and studied at department biology of National Central University (Nanjing University) from 1946 to 1949. He was a professor at the department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing. He was a research fellow at Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, and then Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Liu was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in 1980, and a member of the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) in 1991. In 2002, he was the recipient of Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. In 2003, Liu received the prestigious State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, the highest scientific prize awarded in China.