Liverpool (UK Parliament constituency)

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Liverpool
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Lancashire
1295–1885
Number of members 1295–1868: Two
1868–1885: Three
Replaced by Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth

Liverpool was a Borough constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of England to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs). In 1868, this was increased to three Members of Parliament.

The Borough franchise was held by the freemen of the Borough. Each elector had as many votes as there were seats to be filled. Votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings. In 1800 there were around 3000 electors, with elections in this seat being nearly always contested.

The Borough returned several notable Members of Parliament including Prime Minister George Canning, William Huskisson, President of the Board of Trade, Banastre Tarleton, noted soldier in the American War of Independence and most notably, William Roscoe the abolitionist and Anti Slave Trade campaigner.

The constituency was abolished in 1885, the city being split into nine divisions of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

History[edit]

The Borough of Liverpool exercised the privilege of sending two members to Parliament in 1295 and 1307, but then for 240 years the right was wholly suspended. In the first Parliament of Edward VI, which met 4 November 1547, though Elective Franchise was restored to the two Lancashire Boroughs of Liverpool and Wigan and has since continued almost without further interruption.

Representation was increased to three Members in 1868 and the constituency abolished in 1885, to be replaced by the nine new constituencies of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

Members of Parliament[edit]

1295–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1295 Adam fitz Richard Robert Pinklowe
1300–1307 Richard de la More John de la More
1545 Nicholas Cutler Gilbert Gerard[1]
1547 Thomas Stanley ?Francis Cave or Richard Taverner[2]
1553 (Mar) Ralph Assheton William Bromley[2]
1553 (Oct) William Bromley Sir Giles Alington[2]
1554 (Apr) William Bromley Sir William Norris[2]
1554 (Nov) William Bromley John Beaumont[2]
1555 Sir Richard Sherborn John Beaumont[2]
1558 William Stopford George White[2]
1559 (Jan) Sir Thomas Smith Ralph Browne[3]
1562/3 Sir Richard Molyneux Ralph Sekerston[3]
1571 Thomas Avery Ralph Sekerston[3]
1572 Ralph Sekerston, died
and repl. 1576 by
Thomas Greenacres, died
and repl. April 1583 by
Arthur Atye
Mathew Dale[3]
1584 Arthur Atye John Molyneux[3]
1586 John Poole William Cavendish[3]
1588 (Oct) Edward Warren Francis Bacon[3]
1593 Michael Doughty John Wroth[3]
1597 (Oct) Thomas Gerard Peter Probie[3]
1601 (Oct) Edward Anderson Hugh Calverley[3]
1604 Giles Brook Thomas Remchinge
1614 Thomas Ireland Sir Hugh Beeston
1621–1622 Thomas May William Johnson
1624 Sir Thomas Gerard, 2nd Baronet George Ireland
1625 Lord Strange Edward Moore
1626 Edward Bridgeman Thomas Stanley
1628 Henry Jermyn John Newdigate
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

1640–1868[edit]

Election 1st Member 1st Party 2nd Member 2nd Party
April 1640 Lord Cranfield John Holcroft
November 1640 Sir Richard Wynn, Bt. Parliamentarian John Moore Parliamentarian
December 1648 Wynn excluded in Pride's Purge – seat vacant[n 1]
October 1649 Thomas Birch
June 1650 Moore died June 1650 – seat left vacant
1653 Liverpool was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Birch Liverpool had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Gilbert Ireland Thomas Blackmore
May 1659 Liverpool was unrepresented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Sir Gilbert Ireland William Stanley
1670 Sir William Bucknall
1675 William Banks
1677 Sir Ralph Assheton, Bt. Richard Atherton
1679 Ruisshe Wentworth John Dubois
1685 Sir Richard Atherton Thomas Legh
1689 Richard Savage, Viscount Colchester Whig Thomas Norris
1694 Thomas Brotherton
January 1695 Jasper Maudit
November 1695 Sir William Norris, Bt.
1698 William Clayton
1701 (Dec) (Sir) Thomas Johnson[n 2] Whig
1708 Richard Norris
1710 John Cleiveland
1713 William Clayton
1715 Edward Norris
1722 William Cleiveland
1723 Langham Booth
April 1724 Thomas Bootle
November 1724 Thomas Brereton
1729 Sir Thomas Aston, Bt.
1734 Thomas Brereton[n 3] Richard Gildart
1754 John Hardman
1755 (Sir) Ellis Cunliffe[n 4]
1756 Charles Pole
1761 Sir William Meredith, Bt. Tory
1767 Richard Pennant Tory
1780 Bamber Gascoyne Tory Henry Rawlinson
1784 Richard Pennant Tory
1790 Colonel Banastre Tarleton[n 5] Tory
1796 Colonel Isaac Gascoyne[n 6] Tory/Ultra-Tory
1806 William Roscoe Whig
1807 Lieutenant General Banastre Tarleton Tory
1812 George Canning[n 7] Tory
1823 William Huskisson Tory
November 1830 William Ewart Whig
May 1831 Evelyn Denison[n 8] Whig
October 1831 Viscount Sandon Tory
1837 Cresswell Cresswell Conservative
1842 Lieutenant-General Sir Howard Douglas, Bt Conservative
1847 Edward Cardwell Peelite[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Sir Thomas Birch, Bt Whig[9][10][11]
1852 Charles Turner Conservative William Forbes Mackenzie Conservative
1853 Thomas Horsfall Conservative Henry Liddell Conservative
1855 Joseph Christopher Ewart Whig[12][13]
1859 Liberal
1865 Samuel Robert Graves Conservative

1868–1885[edit]

  • Constituency increased to three Members (1868)
Election 1st Member 1st Party 2nd Member 2nd Party 3rd Member 3rd Party
1868 Samuel Robert Graves Conservative Viscount Sandon Conservative William Rathbone Liberal
1873 by-election John Torr Conservative
Feb 1880 by-election Edward Whitley Conservative
1880 John Ramsay Liberal
Aug 1880 by-election Lord Claud Hamilton Conservative
1882 by-election Samuel Smith Liberal
1880 Constituency abolished (Redistribution of Seats Act 1885)

Elections[edit]

1832–1868[edit]

General Election 1832: Liverpool (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig William Ewart 4,931
Tory Dudley Ryder 4,260
Whig T Thornely 4,096
Tory Howard Douglas 3,249
Majority
Registered electors 11,283
Whig hold Swing
Tory hold Swing
General Election 1835: Liverpool (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Viscount Sandon 4,407
Whig William Ewart 4,075
Tory Howard Douglas 3,869
Whig J Morris 3,627
Majority
Registered electors 12,492
Tory hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1837: Liverpool (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Tory Dudley Ryder 4,786
Tory Cresswell Cresswell 4,652
Whig William Ewart 4,381
Whig H Elphinstone 4,206
Majority
Registered electors 11,179
Tory hold Swing
Tory gain from Whig Swing
General Election 1841: Liverpool (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Dudley Ryder 5,979
Conservative Cresswell Cresswell 5,792
Whig J Walmsley 4,647
Whig Henry Temple 4,431
Majority
Registered electors 15,539
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing
Liverpool by-election, 1842
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Howard Douglas
General Election 1847: Liverpool (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Peelite Edward Cardwell 5,581
Liberal Thomas Birch 4,882
Conservative D Mackworth 4,089
Conservative John Manners 2,413
Majority
Registered electors 17,004
Peelite gain from Conservative Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1852: Liverpool (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Turner 6,693 28.8
Conservative William Forbes Mackenzie 6,367 27.4
Peelite Edward Cardwell 5,247 22.6
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 4,910 21.1
Majority 1,120 4.8
Turnout 11,609 (est) 66.6 (est)
Registered electors 17,433
Conservative gain from Peelite Swing
Conservative gain from Whig Swing

Election declared void on petition, due to bribery and treating by Mackenzie and Turner, causing a by-election..[15]

By-election, 9 July 1853: Liverpool (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 6,034 34.4 +5.6
Conservative Henry Liddell 5,543 31.6 +4.2
Whig Thomas Erskine Perry[16][17] 4,673 26.7 +5.6
Independent Conservative John Bramley-Moore[18] 1,274 7.3 N/A
Majority 870 5.0 +0.2
Turnout 10,462 (est) 64.7 (est) −1.9
Registered electors 16,182
Conservative hold Swing +1.4
Conservative hold Swing +0.7

Liddell succeeded to the peerage, becoming 2nd Baron Ravensworth and causing a by-election.

By-election, 29 March 1855: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 5,718 57.3 +36.2
Conservative George Bonham 4,262 42.7 −13.5
Majority 1,456 14.6 N/A
Turnout 9,980 56.1 −10.5
Registered electors 17,795
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +24.9
General Election 1857: Liverpool (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 7,566 36.0 +7.2
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 7,121 33.9 +12.8
Conservative Charles Turner 6,316 30.1 +2.7
Turnout 10,502 (est) 57.3 (est) −9.3
Registered electors 18,314
Majority 445 2.1 −2.7
Conservative hold Swing +0.4
Majority 805 3.8 N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +1.5
General Election 1859: Liverpool (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joseph Christopher Ewart Unopposed
Conservative Thomas Horsfall Unopposed
Registered electors 18,779
Liberal hold
Conservative hold
General Election 1865: Liverpool (2 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 7,866 34.9 N/A
Conservative Samuel Robert Graves 7,500 33.3 N/A
Liberal Joseph Christopher Ewart 7,160 31.8 N/A
Majority 340 1.5 N/A
Turnout 14,843 (est) 72.0 (est) N/A
Registered electors 20,618
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

1868–1885[edit]

Seat increased to three members

General Election 1868: Liverpool (3 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Samuel Robert Graves 16,766 26.5 −6.8
Conservative Dudley Ryder 16,222 25.6 −9.3
Liberal William Rathbone 15,337 24.2 +8.3
Liberal William Nathaniel Massey[19] 15,017 23.7 +7.8
Majority 885 1.4 −0.1
Turnout 31,671 (est) 79.9 (est) +7.9
Registered electors 39,645
Conservative hold Swing −7.6
Conservative hold Swing −8.6
Liberal win (new seat)

Graves' death caused a by-election.

By-election, 10 Feb 1873: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Torr 18,702 52.7 +0.6
Liberal William Sproston Caine 16,790 47.3 −0.6
Majority 1,912 5.4 +4.0
Turnout 35,492 67.1 −12.8
Registered electors 52,912
Conservative hold Swing +0.6
General Election 1874: Liverpool (3 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Dudley Ryder 20,206 27.0 +1.4
Conservative John Torr 19,763 26.4 −0.1
Liberal William Rathbone 16,706 22.3 −1.9
Liberal William Sproston Caine 15,801 21.1 −2.6
Lib-Lab William Shaw Simpson 2,435 3.3 N/A
Majority 3,057 4.1 +2.7
Turnout 38,673 (est) 70.4 (est) −9.5
Registered electors 54,952
Conservative hold Swing +1.8
Conservative hold Swing −1.2
Liberal hold Swing −1.3

Ryder was appointed Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on Education, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 14 Mar 1874: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Dudley Ryder Unopposed
Conservative hold

Torr's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 6 Feb 1880: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Edward Whitley 26,106 52.2 −1.2
Liberal John Ramsay 23,885 47.8 +4.4
Majority 2,221 4.4 +0.3
Turnout 49,991 78.2 +7.8
Registered electors 63,946
Conservative hold Swing −2.8
General Election 1880: Liverpool (3 seats)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Ramsay Unopposed
Conservative Dudley Ryder Unopposed
Conservative Edward Whitley Unopposed
Registered electors 63,946
Liberal hold
Conservative hold
Conservative hold

Ramsay succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl of Dalhousie, causing a by-election.

By-election, 9 Aug 1880: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Claud Hamilton 21,019 52.4 N/A
Liberal Samuel Plimsoll 19,118 47.6 N/A
Majority 1,901 4.7 N/A
Turnout 40,137 62.8 N/A
Registered electors 63,946
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Ryder succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl of Harrowby, causing a by-election.

By-election, 11 Dec 1882: Liverpool[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Samuel Smith 18,198 50.4 N/A
Conservative Arthur Forwood 17,889 49.6 N/A
Majority 309 0.9 N/A
Turnout 36,087 58.2 N/A
Registered electors 62,039
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Wynn died in July 1649, and a by-election was held to replace him
  2. ^ Knighted 1708
  3. ^ Changed his surname to Salusbury on inheriting an estate from his father-in-law in 1734
  4. ^ Created a baronet, March 1759
  5. ^ Major General from 1794
  6. ^ Major General from 1802, General 1819
  7. ^ The future Prime Minister (in 1827), the Right Hon. George Canning was also returned in 1812 for the Irish borough of Sligo. He elected to sit for Liverpool.
  8. ^ Denison was also elected for Nottinghamshire, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Liverpool

References

  1. ^ "History of Parliament". Retrieved 22 October 2013.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "History of Parliament". Retrieved 22 October 2013.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 25 September 2011.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^  Smith, Goldwin (1887). "Cardwell, Edward (1813-1886)". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 9. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  5. ^ "Cardwell, Viscount (UK, 1874 - 1886)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2018. 
  6. ^ Collins, Neil (2017). Politics and Elections in Nineteenth-Century Liverpool. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-85928-076-8. Retrieved 19 May 2018. 
  7. ^ Neal, Frank (1988). "Heightened Religious Tension". Sectarian Violence: The Liverpool Experience 1819-1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-7190-1483-2. Retrieved 19 May 2018. 
  8. ^ "Edward Cardwell". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. 
  9. ^ a b "Liverpool". Dublin Weekly Nation. 31 July 1847. p. 12. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ a b "Electioneering News". Belfast News-Letter. 3 August 1847. p. 4. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ "The Dissolution". Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal. 23 July 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ "Liverpool Election". Newry Examiner and Louth Advertiser. 31 March 1855. p. 3. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ "Bell's Weekly Messenger". 31 March 1855. p. 4. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3. 
  15. ^ "Local and Provincial". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 30 July 1853. p. 9. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ Atkinson, Diane (2012). The Criminal Conversation of Mrs Norton. London: Arrow Books. p. 390. ISBN 9780099556480. Retrieved 6 May 2018. 
  17. ^ Stubbings, Matthew (October 2016). "British Conservatism and the Indian Revolt: The Annexation of Awadh and the Consequences of Liberal Empire, 1856–1858". Journal of British Studies. 55 (4): 728–749. doi:10.1017/jbr.2016.73. Retrieved 6 May 2018. 
  18. ^ "Liverpool Election". The Evening Freeman. 11 July 1853. p. 2. Retrieved 19 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  19. ^ "Obituary". The Times. London. 27 October 1881. p. 9. 
  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 3)