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Liverpool F.C. 0–2 Arsenal F.C. (26 May 1989)

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Liverpool vs Arsenal
Liverpool Arsenal programme cover 89.png
The match programme cover, featuring Liverpool's 1989 FA Cup Final win against local rivals Everton.
Event 1988–89 Football League First Division
Date 26 May 1989 (1989-05-26)
Venue Anfield, Liverpool
Referee David Hutchinson (Oxfordshire)
Attendance 41,783
Weather Warm[1]

The final match of the 1988–89 Football League season was contested at Anfield between Liverpool and Arsenal, the top two teams in the First Division, on 26 May 1989. The clubs were close enough on points for the match to act as a decider for the championship. Arsenal won by two goals, the margin they required to take the title. Midfielder Michael Thomas scored the second goal in the final seconds of the match, ending Arsenal's 18-year wait to be crowned champions.

The two clubs were due to meet a month earlier, but the stadium disaster at Hillsborough, which killed 96 of Liverpool's supporters, meant the fixture was postponed out of respect. It was moved to late May, days after the FA Cup Final which Liverpool won. Arsenal manager George Graham prepared for the match by giving his squad a minibreak and created a calming atmosphere in their training sessions. He adjusted his usual formation to a defensive one to stop Liverpool's attacking threat; David O'Leary was employed as a sweeper in a back five.

A peak British television audience of over 12 million[2] saw a first half of few chances as Arsenal successfully nullified Liverpool. Striker Alan Smith scored from a header as play resumed in the second half, but as the game drew to a close with the score 1–0, Arsenal needed a second goal to be crowned champions. In stoppage time, Arsenal's Thomas made a run through the Liverpool midfield and scored a last-minute goal, in the process denying Liverpool the chance of a second League and Cup double.

The match is considered to be one of the most dramatic conclusions to a league season in the history of the English game. It is also regarded as the starting point of a renaissance in English football; the ban on English clubs playing in European football was lifted a year later and a new top-flight division – the Premier League, was formed in 1992 which generated more revenue for clubs. The title decider also formed the centrepiece of Nick Hornby's book Fever Pitch.

Background[edit]

A memorial to the Liverpool supporters who lost their lives at Hillsborough. The incident happened a few weeks before the title decider.

The 1988–89 season marked the 100th anniversary of the Football League.[1] A season earlier, the body commemorated its founding by organising an exhibition game between a Football League-select XI, and a World XI (captained by Diego Maradona), followed by a Football Festival in April 1988.[3] The celebrations culminated in October 1988, when Arsenal won a centenary tournament involving seven other First Division clubs.[3] Despite the efforts of the Football League, the events failed to capture the imagination of supporters and the media; The Times football correspondent Stuart Jones described the final tournament as: "the closing debacle of the embarrassing League centenary celebrations."[4]

Football in England had reached its nadir in 1985 as clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster.[5][6] In the same year, the Kenilworth Road riot – scuffles between fans of Millwall and Luton Town – resulted in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's government setting up a "war cabinet" to combat football hooliganism.[7] Incidents like the aforementioned tarnished the sport's reputation, but commercial interest grew. In August 1988, ITV paid £44 million over four seasons to broadcast live First Division matches.[8] The arrangement came about as British Satellite Broadcasting withdrew its joint offer with the BBC, unhappy at how the clubs were run.[9] By November 1988 the government issued a broadcasting shakeup, which aided the growth of multichannel satellite television.[10][11] ITV's contract therefore acted as a precursor to rising broadcasting deals and growing pressures to keep the top clubs in line.[12][13]

For much of the 1988–89 season, Arsenal led the First Division table; their manager George Graham had assembled a side mixed with youth and experience, captained by academy graduate Tony Adams.[14] At one stage Arsenal were 11 points clear of defending champions Liverpool, but their lead diminished following a run of bad results.[14] Liverpool, coached by player-manager Kenny Dalglish, capitalised after an indifferent start to the campaign, and emerged as Arsenal's main challengers for the title.[14] Towards the end of the season Liverpool supporters were involved in a sporting disaster at Hillsborough, where 96 of the club's supporters lost their lives as a result of overcrowding during a match against Nottingham Forest on 15 April.[15] The disaster was the worst of its kind in English sporting history, and led to an inquiry into safety standards of stadiums.[15]

Due to the tragedy, Liverpool's fixture at home to Arsenal on 23 April was postponed; no suitable date found until after the FA Cup Final.[14] It was eventually rescheduled to 26 May – six days after the Cup final, on a Friday evening.[14] The league season had ended for the remaining First Division clubs a week before.[16]

Pre-match[edit]

The 1988–89 title race was the closest in the history of the First Division.[17] In the run-up to the Anfield match, Arsenal lost to Derby County and drew with Wimbledon; Liverpool won twice, 2–0 against Queens Park Rangers and 5–1 against West Ham United allowing them to overtake Arsenal with one game to play and take a superior goal difference.[14] On the eve of the match, they were three points ahead, with the table looking as follows:

First Division table, 25 May 1989[18]
Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1 Liverpool 37 22 10 5 65 26 +39 76
2 Arsenal 37 21 10 6 71 36 +35 73
Explanation of criteria
A victory for Arsenal would have brought the two teams level on points. An Arsenal victory by two clear goals would have given them the title on goals scored, as the two teams would have been tied on goal difference at +37. A three-goal deficit or more would have won Arsenal the title on goal difference. Any other result (i.e. a Liverpool victory, a draw or an Arsenal win by one goal) would have given the title to Liverpool.

Liverpool had not lost by two or more goals at Anfield in three years, and Arsenal had not won there in fifteen.[19] Furthermore, Liverpool had never previously been defeated when playing forwards John Aldridge and Ian Rush together.[20] The home side therefore the overwhelming favourites to win the title – the Daily Mirror's sports sections led with the headline "You Haven't Got A Prayer, Arsenal".[21] To diffuse the tension, Graham gave his players two days off after their draw with Wimbledon.[14] The mood in training was relaxed and the squad travelled to Liverpool on the day of the match, which surprised several players.[22] During the coach trip, Graham showed his players a video of Arsenal's successful 1970–71 side to draw inspiration and motivate his players.[23]

In the United Kingdom, the game was shown live on ITV's The Match, which aired a live Division One game most weeks of the season from 1988 to 1992.[24][25] Elton Welsby presented coverage and his guest was the England coach Bobby Robson.[26] The match commentator on the night was Brian Moore, alongside former Tottenham Hotspur manager David Pleat.[26] On radio, the action was described by Peter Jones and Alan Green on BBC Radio 2.[27]

Match[edit]

Summary[edit]

The match took place on a warm spring evening with the kick-off delayed because many Arsenal supporters were caught in traffic congestion.[1] The Arsenal players presented flowers to fans in different parts of the ground in memory of those who had died in the Hillsborough disaster.[1] Liverpool lined up in a traditional 4–4–2 formation: a four-man defence (comprising two centre-backs and left and right full-backs), four midfielders (two in the centre, and one on each wing) and two centre-forwards. Arsenal adopted a 5–4–1 formation with David O'Leary in the unusual role of sweeper.[28] Although Arsenal did not usually play this way, this enabled the full-backs Lee Dixon and Nigel Winterburn more scope to push forward and limit Liverpool's wing play.[21]

Michael Thomas (here wearing a Liverpool shirt) scored Arsenal's second goal

Arsenal kicked-off the match and did their best to restrict Liverpool's passing game in the opening 45 minutes through tackling and quick counter-attacking with the long ball; with the game's flow interrupted and the two teams cancelling each other out, neither side built any momentum in the first half with few clear-cut chances.[1] The first notable action came for Arsenal when a cross from Michael Thomas on the right which was met by Steve Bould, but Steve Nicol cleared it over the bar for a corner.[28] Liverpool responded with a shot from outside the box from Rush after being teed up by Aldridge. However, soon after Rush was forced to go off with a groin strain and had to be replaced by Peter Beardsley in the 32nd minute.[29] The score was 0–0 at half time.

Seven minutes after the restart, Whelan was penalised for an offence on the edge of the Liverpool area. Winterburn took the resulting indirect free kick, from which Alan Smith scored with a header.[28] Liverpool's players protested, claiming Smith had not made contact (and thus the goal should have been disallowed, coming directly from an indirect free kick) or that there had been a push by O'Leary.[29] After consulting his linesman, the referee David Hutchinson awarded the goal.[28] After the match, he recalled none of the Liverpool players knew why they had protested,[30] and TV replays confirm that Smith made contact.[28]

With the score 1–0, Arsenal pushed forward but Liverpool still held the advantage. In the 74th minute an unmarked Thomas latched onto a pass from Richardson near the penalty spot, but shot weakly and it was smothered by Liverpool keeper Bruce Grobbelaar.[28] Arsenal manager George Graham brought on Martin Hayes and Perry Groves, and switched to a more attack-oriented 4–4–2 formation. This gave Liverpool space to counter-attack through John Barnes and Aldridge.[1] Aldridge and Ray Houghton both had late chances to equalise but did not capitalise on them;[29] Houghton sliced a shot from the edge of the box wide, while Aldridge was caught offside meeting a Barnes throughball and scored a disallowed goal after the whistle had gone. As full-time approached the game was heading for a 1–0 scoreline, and thus Liverpool would win the title.

As the time went past 90 minutes, an injury to Kevin Richardson held up play.[31] TV cameras showed Liverpool midfielder Steve McMahon telling his team-mates there was one minute remaining. The injury itself meant there would, in fact, be two minutes and 39 seconds of injury time played. Liverpool adopted time-wasting tactics, including an unnecessary backpass from McMahon to Grobbelaar.[32] In the second minute of injury time, Arsenal launched their final attack. A Barnes run was intercepted by Richardson, and he passed the ball back to his goalkeeper John Lukic.[1] Lukic bowled the ball out to Dixon, his long ball to Alan Smith was flicked on, finding Michael Thomas charging through the midfield. Thomas evaded a challenge by Nicol and raced into the penalty area, slipping the ball past the advancing Grobbelaar to score Arsenal's second.[28]

Thomas had scored with just one minute and 18 seconds to go including whatever time the referee may have added due to the goal celebration. An actual 38 seconds were played after the ball was kicked off. Liverpool tried one last attack but Thomas managed to intercept and pass the ball back to Lukic. The final whistle confirmed Arsenal as champions, with the two sides inseparable on points and goal difference meaning the visitors won the title by virtue of having scored eight more goals than Liverpool throughout the season.[33] Arsenal received the Championship trophy after the match.[1]

Details[edit]

26 May 1989
20:05 BST
Liverpool 0–2 Arsenal
Smith Goal 52'
Thomas Goal 90+1'
Anfield, Liverpool
Attendance: 41,783
Referee: David Hutchinson (Oxfordshire)
Liverpool
Arsenal
GK 1 Zimbabwe Bruce Grobbelaar
CB 2 England Gary Ablett
RB 4 Scotland Steve Nicol
CB 6 Scotland Alan Hansen
LB 3 Republic of Ireland Steve Staunton
RM 7 Republic of Ireland Ray Houghton
CM 5 Republic of Ireland Ronnie Whelan (c)
CM 11 England Steve McMahon
LM 10 England John Barnes
CF 8 Republic of Ireland John Aldridge
CF 9 Wales Ian Rush Substituted off 32'
Substitutes:
DF 12 England Barry Venison
FW 14 England Peter Beardsley Substituted in 32'
Manager:
Scotland Kenny Dalglish
GK 1 England John Lukic
SW 5 Republic of Ireland David O'Leary
RB 2 England Lee Dixon
CB 6 England Tony Adams (c)
CB 10 England Steve Bould Substituted off 76'
LB 3 England Nigel Winterburn
MF 4 England Michael Thomas
MF 7 England David Rocastle YC
MF 8 England Kevin Richardson YC
MF 11 England Paul Merson Substituted off 73'
CF 9 England Alan Smith
Substitutes:
MF 12 England Perry Groves Substituted in 76'
MF 14 England Martin Hayes Substituted in 73'
Manager:
Scotland George Graham


Assistant referees:
Geoff Banwell (England)
P. Cullen (England)


Match rules

  • 90 minutes, no extra time or penalties.
  • Three points awarded to winner, none to loser.
  • One point awarded to each in the event of a draw.
  • Two named substitutes.
  • Maximum of two substitutions.

Source:[34]

Post-match[edit]

Shortly after receiving the trophy, Adams was called over by pitchside reporter Jim Rosenthal for a conversation on the field, explaining his absence from the celebratory team photograph for the press.[35] The Arsenal captain spoke of how his team-mates were "really fired up" before the game and was delighted with the effort they put in during the course of the match.[36] Graham was proud of his team's performance, and credited Adams, who "suffered an awful lot of stick which has given football very little dignity."[37] When asked about the result he said, "Nobody outside Highbury expected us to do it, but when you lose belief you might as well get out of football."[37] Dalglish paid tribute to his players and refused to blame the fixture rearrangements for losing out to Arsenal, lamenting "It just wasn't to be."[37]

Stuart Jones in The Times wrote how Thomas's late strike was "...worthy of the occasion, defined belief, logic and all expectation. So did Arsenal's performance as a whole."[38] The Guardian's David Lacey opined that Arsenal were deserved winners, calling the match "a marvellous night for English football" after the events at Hillsborough and other crowd disorders had overshadowed the sport.[29]

In popular culture[edit]

The events of the night formed the pivotal point of the 1997 film Fever Pitch, an adaptation of Nick Hornby's bestselling book of the same name.[39] Hornby disagrees his book was responsible for gentrifying the sport, arguing "the owner of an international media empire" had more of a profound impact.[40]

Moore's goal call for Arsenal's winner ("Thomas, it's up for grabs now!") has become synonymous with English football and is one of the sport's most memorable lines.[41][42] In 2002, it was selected as one of the top ten commentaries of all time by The Observer,[43] and the phrase It's Up For Grabs Now is used as the title of the Arsenal commemorative DVD of the match.[44] It's Up For Grabs Now is also the title of a podcast, hosted by comedian and Arsenal supporter Alan Davies.[45]

Legacy[edit]

Manchester City's league win of 2011–12 bore comparison to Arsenal's in that the title was decided in the final seconds of the season.[46]

The match has been cited as a pivotal turning point in English football. Author Jason Cowley noted how instead of rioting, as had occurred at Heysel with fatal consequences, Liverpool fans stayed on after the game and applauded Arsenal "as if they understood that we were at the start of something new; that there would be no returning to the ways of old".[1] Cowley describes the match as "the night football was reborn" and that the event "repaired the reputation of football".[1] Dominic Fifield suggested Arsenal's win "had shattered the myth that Liverpool were invincible,"[47] while Si Hughes in The Daily Telegraph wrote it "...set in motion the decline of one of football’s grandest institutions."[48]

Although Liverpool regained the championship a year later, the club's dominance waned.[47] In February 1991, Dalglish resigned as Liverpool manager after an FA Cup replay against Merseyside rivals Everton, citing stress as the principal cause.[49] His successor, Graeme Souness, struggled to sustain the club's success with a conservative hierarchy and ageing squad, despite investing in youth players.[50] Liverpool throughout the 1990s and 2000s declined as a league force and as of 2017, have not been crowned as top-flight champions.[51]

Arsenal were unable to take part in the European Cup as English clubs were still banned from European competition.[52] Graham's side went on to further successes in the early 1990s, winning the League title again in 1990–91, followed by a domestic cup double and finally the European Cup Winners' Cup.[53] Despite his part in denying them the title, Thomas went on to play for Liverpool in a spell between 1991 and 1998, scoring the opener in their 2–0 victory over Sunderland in the 1992 FA Cup Final.[54]

The title decider at Anfield is not only seen as the starting point of a renaissance in English football, but also the moment where businessmen started to see the untapped commercial potential of live football on television.[1][55] In the early 1990s discussions were in progress between broadcasters and football chairmen over forming a breakaway league.[13] With the backing of The Football Association, all of the First Division clubs resigned from the Football League to form the Premier League. The new division was created to ensure clubs could capitalise on television money and divide their earnings amongst themselves instead of the lower leagues.[13] After a lengthy bidding process, satellite company BSkyB were awarded exclusive rights for £191m, over five years to show 60 matches per season.[13] This represented an increase of 1,800% on the 1983 deal.[56] In addition to broadcasting, clubs increased their revenue through higher ticket prices; for some like Arsenal, this was to facilitate the phasing out of standing terraces to ensure stadia complied with the Taylor Report.[57][58]

In 1999, the match was ranked at number 60 in Channel 4's 100 Greatest TV Moments.[59] In 2002, the match was ranked at number 15 in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Sporting Moments,[60] and in 2007 Thomas's goal was voted the second greatest moment in Arsenal's history (second to completing an entire league season unbeaten in 2004).[61] To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the win, Arsenal's away kit for the 2008–09 season was styled on the same design as that of the 1988–89 season.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General

  • King, Anthony (2002). The end of the terraces: the transformation of English football in the 1990s. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-7185-0259-0. 
  • Leighton, James (2016). Rocky: The Tears and Triumphs of David Rocastle. London: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1-4711-5333-9. 
  • Moore, Brian, Pleat, David (commentators), Welsby, Elton (presenter), Robson, Bobby (studio guest) (26 May 1989). The Match [Liverpool v Arsenal] (Television production). ITV Sport. 
  • Smart, Barry (2005). The Sport Star: Modern Sport and the Cultural Economy of Sporting Celebrity. London: SAGE. ISBN 1-4711-5333-9. 
  • Soar, Phil; Tyler, Martin (2005). The Official Illustrated History of Arsenal. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-61344-5. 

Specific

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cowley, Jason (29 March 2009). "The night football was reborn". The Observer. London. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  2. ^ "Beatleville to the Beeb via poachings and prime-time". The Guardian. London. 9 August 2004. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Pye, Steven (4 January 2017). "How Arsenal won the Centenary Trophy, the least celebrated title in their history". theguardian.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  4. ^ Jones, Stuart (1 September 1988). "Mistakes rebound in Arsenal's favour". The Times. p. 12. 
  5. ^ Mullen, Tom (29 May 2015). "Heysel disaster: English football's forgotten tragedy?". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  6. ^ Edwards, Richard (14 January 2015). "The worst five months in English football: Thatcher, fighting and fatalities in 1985". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  7. ^ Hearn, Tim (23 January 2014). "History of Football violence – Is it still a problem?". HuffPost. Retrieved 19 September 2017. 
  8. ^ Henderson, Jon (6 May 2007). "TV's staggering sum is now small change". The Observer. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  9. ^ King (2002), p. 63.
  10. ^ "New TV channels given the green light". The Times. 8 November 1988. p. 12. 
  11. ^ Brown, Maggie (12 April 2013). "Margaret Thatcher was the architect of controversial changes to TV and press". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  12. ^ Titford, Roger (May 2011). "Boxing clever". When Saturday Comes. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d MacInnes, Paul (23 July 2017). "Deceit, determination and Murdoch's millions: how Premier League was born". The Observer. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Massarella, Louis (3 March 2017). "Football's greatest-ever title finish? Arsenal's 1989 triumph over Liverpool, told by the players". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "How the Hillsborough disaster happened". BBC News. 14 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  16. ^ "English Division One (old) table". Statto Organisation. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  17. ^ Collings, Tim (24 December 2006). "Replay 1988–89: An epic race from Christmas to the last kick". The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "English Division One (old) table, 23-05-1989". Statto Organisation. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2017. 
  19. ^ "Graham: It's up for grabs for Arsenal at Anfield once again". Mail Online. London. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  20. ^ "Liverpool 0–2 Arsenal". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Thomas strike seals title at Anfield". Arsenal F.C. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  22. ^ Leighton (2016), p. 222.
  23. ^ Leighton (2016), pp. 221–2.
  24. ^ "The Match, episodes". British Film Institute. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  25. ^ King (2002), p. 62.
  26. ^ a b "Liverpool V Arsenal (1989)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  See also YouTube footage.
  27. ^ "Radio coverage of Michael Thomas's goal at Anfield". YouTube. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Soar & Tyler (2005), p. 145.
  29. ^ a b c d Lacey, David (27 May 1989). "Last-gasp Thomas ends the doubting". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  30. ^ Harris, Chris (26 May 2009). "Anfield '89: The view from the Referee". Arsenal F.C. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  31. ^ "Kevin Richardson". Arsenal F.C. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  32. ^ Hurrey, Adam (28 January 2014). "In memory of backpasses (1863–1993)". theguardian.com. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  33. ^ Harris, Harry (27 May 1989). "The Greatest Story Ever Told" (PDF). Daily Mirror. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  34. ^ "Matchdetails from Liverpool – Arsenal played on Friday 26 May 1989". LFC History. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  35. ^ N, Richard (26 May 2014). "Thomas 1989, it's up for grabs!" (in French). Les Cahiers du Football. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  36. ^ Moore, Pleat (1989). Event occurs towards the end of the match; live coverage between 21:55pm and 21:58pm.
  37. ^ a b c "Graham marvels at fairy tale end". The Times. 27 May 1989. p. 45. 
  38. ^ Jones, Stuart (27 May 1989). "Thomas has final word". The Times. p. 45. 
  39. ^ Mars-Jones, Adam (3 April 1997). "Kicked into touch: Fever Pitch". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  40. ^ Hornby, Nick (17 August 2012). "Nick Hornby: 'People say my book sold football to the middle classes. I disagree'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  41. ^ Lynch, Michael (11 December 2013). "The soundtrack to our footballing lives ... and death". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  42. ^ Borg, Chris (2 September 2001). "Commentator Moore dies, aged 69". ESPN FC. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  43. ^ Honeyball, Lee (6 October 2002). "The 10 greatest bits of commentary ever". The Observer. London. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  44. ^ "Arsenal FC: It's Up For Grabs Now! – 1988–89". British Video Association. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  45. ^ "It's Up For Grabs Now". Playback Media. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  46. ^ "Manchester City's Premier League clincher and five other massive injury-time winners". Radio Times. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  47. ^ a b Fifield, Dominic (30 November 2002). "History puts Ferguson on red alert". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  48. ^ Hughes, Si (1 November 2013). "Flashback: Liverpool 0 Arsenal 2 – Michael Thomas stoppage-time strike wins 1989 league title for Gunners". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  49. ^ Taylor, Louise (14 January 2011). "The game that forced Kenny Dalglish to resign as Liverpool manager". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  50. ^ Tandy, John (January 2000). "Souness destroyed Liverpool". When Saturday Comes. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  51. ^ Murray, Scott (15 October 2015). "A brief guide to … Liverpool's failure to recapture the glory days". theguardian.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  52. ^ Delaney, Miguel (21 June 2013). "What if ... England hadn't been banned from Europe". ESPN FC. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  53. ^ "Graham's glory years". Arsenal F.C. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  54. ^ "Michael Thomas – So tell us about that goal.." LFC History. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  55. ^ White, Jim (6 April 2009). "The Last Game by Jason Cowley: Review". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  56. ^ Smart (2005), p. 153.
  57. ^ Rumsby, Ben (25 April 2016). "The legacy of Hillsborough – how football has changed". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  58. ^ Kelly, Andy (2 October 2015). "History of Arsenal ticket prices since 1980". The Arsenal History. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  59. ^ "The 100 Greatest TV Moments (1999)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 23 September 2017. 
  60. ^ "100 Greatest Sporting Moments – Results". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 28 June 2002. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  61. ^ "Gunners Greatest 50 Moments". Arsenal F.C. Retrieved 25 May 2009. 
  62. ^ "Retro Arsenal away kit to honour Anfield 1989". The Daily Telegraph. London. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 

Further reading[edit]