Living stumps are generally characterized as having a thin outer layer of living cells that surround a hollow central cavity. 
Living stumps can survive for several years by
- using excess carbon reserves,
- transfer of nutrients from the roots of neighbouring trees, often aided by mycorrhiza or
- root grafting to the root system of living trees.
Root grafting allows for carbon transfer from living trees to living stumps resulting in incremental cambium growth in the stump.
Stumps can grow a callus tissue over its cross section which prolongs longevity of the stump by protecting it from infection and insect damage. A living stump which is capable of producing sprouts or cuttings is known as a stool, and is used in the coppicing method of woodland management.
- Pinus strobus (white pine)
- Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
- Tsuga spp. (hemlock)
- Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)
- Cedrus spp. (cedar)
- Davidson, Donald W. (1963). "Living Stumps of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Hemlock) in Northern New Jersey". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 90 (3): 204–207. doi:10.2307/2482756. JSTOR 2482756.
- Simard, Suzanne W.; Perry, David A.; Jones, Melanie D.; Myrold, David D.; Durall, Daniel M. & Molina, Randy (1997). "Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field". Nature. 388 (6642): 579–582. Bibcode:1997Natur.388..579S. doi:10.1038/41557. S2CID 4423207.
- Bormann, F.H.; Graham Jr., B.F. (1959). "The occurrence of natural root grafting in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), and its ecological implications". Ecology. 40 (4): 677–691. doi:10.2307/1929820. JSTOR 1929820.
- Lanner, Ronald M. (1961). "Living Stumps in the Sierra Nevada". Ecology. 42 (1): 170–173. doi:10.2307/1933281. JSTOR 1933281.
- Crist, John B.; Mattson, James A.; Winsauer, Sharon A. 1983. Effect of severing method and stump height on coppice growth. In: Hansen, Edward A., ed. Intensive plantation culture: 12 years research. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-91. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 58-6; retrieved on 2008-05-10 from www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/18839.
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