|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2010)|
|City of Livingston|
Downtown Livingston in 2009
|Motto: The Last Stop|
Location in Merced County and the state of California
|Incorporated||September 11, 1922|
|• Total||3.715 sq mi (9.622 km2)|
|• Land||3.715 sq mi (9.622 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||131 ft (40 m)|
|• Density||3,500/sq mi (1,400/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature ID||1656135|
|Website||City of Livingston|
Livingston is a city in Merced County, California. Livingston is located 7 miles (11 km) west-northwest of Atwater, at an elevation of 131 feet (40 m). According to the 2010 census, the city population was 13,058, up from 10,473 at the 2000 census. Livingston's total area is 3.7 square miles (9.6 km2), including undeveloped farmland annexed in anticipation of future growth.
Livingston lies in the fertile San Joaquin Valley. Like the rest of the valley, it has long, dry summers and depends on irrigation water. The winters are mild, alternating between fog, rain, and sun, with occasional frost. The growing season is long, and there is a low risk of mold, drought, or bad weather interfering with crops. Due to deposits from the Merced River, Livingston's soil is unusually sandy, distinguishing it from the clay-based soils predominant in most of the valley.
Livingston and Merced County are a center of the agriculture industry. Livingston's largest businesses are agriculture-related. Among these are the largest poultry producer in the western United States, Foster Farms, and a dairy, Joseph Gallo Farms, which owns the largest dairy herd in the United States. Ninety percent of the sweet potatoes grown west of the Rockies are grown and packed in and around Livingston. The sweet potatoes benefit from the sandy soil. Grapes are also widely farmed near Livingston for wine, raisins, and table grapes. E & J Gallo Winery operates a major grape-pressing facility just outside the city. Almond orchards are a common sight. Other crops are farmed in smaller quantities, including alfalfa, corn, soybeans, peaches, melons, and berries.
The League of Independent Workers of the San Joaquin Valley and United Farm Workers are active in the area.
Livingston Union School District serves 2,400 children in and around Livingston. The district operates three elementary schools, Campus Park Elementary School, Selma Herndon Elementary School, and Yamato Colony Elementary School. Most elementary-age children are within walking distance of each school. All three elementary schools offer some form of two-way immersion instruction designed to build proficiency in both English and Spanish. Livingston Middle School serves grades 6-8.
Livingston High School is part of Merced Union High School District and serves all of Livingston as well as students from nearby towns of Ballico, and Cressey. In years past, most students from Delhi attended Livingston High School until Delhi opened its own high school, Delhi High School, in 1998. Livingston High School's foreign language department offers classes in Spanish and Punjabi.
Longview Mennonite School serves many Mennonite students in the area.
In the 1990s, Livingston schools were at the center of a controversy involving Sikh students' right to wear ceremonial daggers known as kirpans under clothing while at school. In 1995, a Federal appellate court affirmed the right to wear the kirpan if certain safety precautions are followed.
The Livingston Chronicle is a weekly newspaper delivered on Saturdays. The Chronicle publishes local happenings, especially Livingston High School academic and athletic events. The Merced Sun-Star and Modesto Bee are also widely read and cover Livingston news and events. All three newspapers are owned by The McClatchy Company. The San Francisco Chronicle is also available throughout the city.
Places of worship in Livingston and the immediately surrounding area include a Roman Catholic church, an Apostolic Assembly, an Assemblies of God church, a Southern Baptist church, a Church of Christ, Lutheran and United Methodist churches, a Mennonite church, a United Pentecostal Church, and two Sikh Gurdwaras.
The residents of Livingston are descended from people of many nations, including:
- Mexicans from Michoacán, the Yucatán, Chihuahua, Veracruz, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Oaxaca and other estados.
- Central Americans from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and other countries.
- People from Oklahoma and other parts of the United States of America. About 100 members of the Cherokee Nation live in the town.
- Portuguese from the Azores, Angola, and Brazil. About 10 percent of the locals speak Portuguese.
- Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims from India and Pakistan. Livingston has one of the largest communities of Sikhs in the United States.
- Japanese, mostly from Wakayama. The Livingston Farmers' Association was founded by Japanese Americans.
- Mennonites from Germany and Russia.
- Armenians from the Middle East.
- Hmong from Laos and Vietnam.
- Cambodians from Cambodia.
- Vietnamese from South Vietnam
An estimated 30 European, 25 Asian, 15 Latin American and 5 Sub-Saharan African nationalities are counted among Livingston's ethnic makeup. There are very few African-Americans in Livingston.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Livingston had a population of 13,058. The population density was 3,514.7 people per square mile (1,357.1/km²). The racial makeup of Livingston was 5,263 (40.3%) White, 106 (0.8%) African American, 348 (2.7%) Native American, 2,223 (17.0%) Asian, 18 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 4,547 (34.8%) from other races, and 553 (4.2%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9,547 persons (73.1%).
The Census reported that 13,054 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 4 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.
There were 3,156 households, out of which 1,907 (60.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,014 (63.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 501 (15.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 288 (9.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 199 (6.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 19 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 277 households (8.8%) were made up of individuals and 112 (3.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.14. There were 2,803 families (88.8% of all households); the average family size was 4.32.
The population was spread out with 4,254 people (32.6%) under the age of 18, 1,783 people (13.7%) aged 18 to 24, 3,605 people (27.6%) aged 25 to 44, 2,499 people (19.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 917 people (7.0%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.4 years. For every 100 females there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males.
There were 3,320 housing units at an average density of 893.6 per square mile (345.0/km²), of which 1,923 (60.9%) were owner-occupied, and 1,233 (39.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 7,849 people (60.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,205 people (39.9%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the census of 2000, there were 10,473 people, 2,390 households, and 2,143 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,019.8 people per square mile (1,165.3/km²). There were 2,449 housing units at an average density of 706.2/sq mi (272.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 36.52% White, 0.74% African American, 0.93% Native American, 14.45% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 41.54% from other races, and 5.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 71.81% of the population.
There were 2,390 households out of which 60.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.2% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 10.3% were non-families. 8.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.37 and the average family size was 4.57.
In the city the population was spread out with 37.7% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64, and 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females there were 101.0 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there are 99.3 men.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, and the median income for a family was $33,939. Males had a median income of $22,249 versus $19,693 for females. The per capita income for the city was $9,231. About 20.8% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.7% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over.
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (WORD). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United States Census Bureau.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Livingston, California
- Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 795. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
- See History of Livingston on the City of Livingston website.
- "Livingston California - City Economic and Fiscal Trends". City of Livingston. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- "Livingston Union School District". Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- Cheema v. Thompson, 67 F.3d 883 (9th Cir. 1995).
- "City of Livingston - Churches & Temples". City of Livingston. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "National Park Service: A History of Japanese Americans in California: Yamato Colony". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Livingston city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Statewide Database". Regents of the University of California. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "California's 16th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved October 1, 2014.