Livno

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Livno
Ливно
City
Panorama Livna-0174.jpg
Flag of Livno
Flag
Coat of arms of Livno
Coat of arms
Map of the Town of Livno
Map of the Town of Livno
Livno is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Livno
Livno
Location of Livno in BiH
Coordinates: 43°49′31″N 17°00′21″E / 43.82528°N 17.00583°E / 43.82528; 17.00583Coordinates: 43°49′31″N 17°00′21″E / 43.82528°N 17.00583°E / 43.82528; 17.00583
CountryBosnia and Herzegovina
CantonCanton 10
First mentioning28 September 892 CE
Government
 • MayorLuka Čelan (HDZ BiH)
Area
 • Municipality994 km2 (384 sq mi)
Elevation724 m (2,375 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Total37,487
 • Density38/km2 (100/sq mi)
 • Town9,045
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code80101
Area code34
Websitelivno.ba

Livno (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [lǐːʋno]) is a city and the administrative center of Canton 10 of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated on the river Bistrica in the southeastern edge of the Livno Field at the foot of Krug mountain and rocky hill Crvenice, it is the centre of the Canton 10 which mainly covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje.[1][2] As of 2013, it has a population of 37,487 inhabitants.

The town, with the remains of the antique architecture and the old town from the 9th century, first mentioned in 892, developed at the crossroads of roads between the Adriatic coast and inland, i.e., regions of Bosnia, Dalmatia, Herzegovina and Krajina.[3]

History[edit]

The plains of Livno have been populated since approximately 2000 BC. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians. The region was inhabited by Illyrian tribe of Dalmatae which capital was Delminium in today's Tomislavgrad. They left remains that testify about their presence in this area. The most important of them are the gradine, remains of Illyrian settlements which were distributed along the Livno Field. The three most important are Velika gradina, Mala gradina and Kasalov gradac.[4]

After the Roman conquest of the area, it was part of the province of Dalmatia. During the twenties of the first century AD, Roman government built a road connecting Salona, a city on the coast with Servitium, a city at the peripanonic lowlands. Its route passed through the Livno Field where two road stations have been established. The station of Pelva was located at the area of village Lištani and in the area of Livno station Bariduo was based.[5]

Livno celebrates its founding date as 28 September 892 AD, being mentioned in a document from Duke Mutimir which was released at that time. It was the centre of Hlebiana (ή Χλεβίανα) županija (province) of the Kingdom of Croatia, as mentioned in the tenth century work De Administrando Imperio (chapter 30). From 1199 Emeric until 1326 Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, who was a resident of Livno, it was part of the Chelmensis territory. From 1326 until 1463 Livno was part of the Bosnian Kingdom. One of the noble families of the Bosnian Kingdom bought Livno, Duvno, and Kupres (12th to 13th century) then called "Tropolje," (Three Fields).

The beginning of 15th century saw the Ottoman Empire advance, invade, and occupy Bosnia for the next 400 years. Mosque complex in the picture (left) the Hajji Ahmed the Ducat Minter's Mosque (more commonly known as the Glavica ("Head") Mosque, called after the knap above town on which it is erected) is one of the most recognizable architectural symbols of Livno. Constructed upon design by Mimar Sinan in 1574. (some date to 1587), it is situated on a hill overlooking the old town of Livno, the river Bistrica and the spring Duman in the upper section of the old town of Livno. The mosque complex consists of a compact main building of the mosque under a dome and uncharacteristically short minaret, with a clock tower which was erected around 1659, and is still in use today. Within the perimeter is an almost 500-year-old necropolis with characteristic early Bosnian Muslim tombstones and later ones.[6][7]

In 1878 Livno was occupied by the Austro-Hungarian forces. Soldiers from Dalmatia and an infantry division from Osijek fiercely fought against 3.000 Ottoman and Muslim militias around Livno, finally capturing the town on September 27th.

From 1918 it was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929 the kingdom was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into nine banates (banovine). Livno was divided into the Littoral Banovina, with its centre in the city of Split. This division brought Livno politically closer to Croatia. In 1939, the banates were further redrawn so that there was a Croatian banate (Banovina Hrvatska) of which Livno was also part.

From 1941-45, Livno was part of the Axis Independent State of Croatia. The territory that Croat partisans liberated and managed to keep under their control from November 1942 to January 1943 (dubbed the Republic of Bihać) included all of rural Western Herzegovina west of Neretva and Široki Brijeg, including Livno. Livno and its area, under Croat partisan control from August to October 1942, was very important for Bosnian Croat resistance, as key Croatian Peasant Party members from Livno Florijan Sučić and Ivan Pelivan joined the partisans resistance and mobilized many other Croats.[8] Croatian writer Ivan Goran Kovačić joined the Partisans in Croata, writing his epic poem "Jama" ("The Pit") during his time with the resistance. He finished it in Livno. When German and ustaše forces drove the partisans out of Livno in October 1942, as many as 1.500 civilians from Livno and the area chose to leave with the partisans into exile.[9]

After the end of World War II, Livno was a part of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Yugoslavia. After its collapse in 1992 and during the Bosnian War, it was under control of Croat Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia.

Location[edit]

Livno is 96 km[10] from Split, 127 km [11] from Mostar, 167 km[12] from Banja Luka and 212 km [13] from Sarajevo.

Demographics[edit]

Year
Croats
%
Bosniaks
%
Serbs
%
others
%
Total
±%
Ref.
1948
29,647
80.86
4,452
12.14
2,565
7.00
36,664
[14]
1953
30,603
78.98
5,204
13.43
2,942
7.59
38,749
+5.7%
[15]
1961
31,133
77.27
2,068
5.13
5,503
13.66
1,587
3.94
40,291
+4.0%
[16]
1971
31,567
74.83
5,087
12.06
4,791
11.36
741
1.76
42,186
+4.7%
[17]
1981
28,918
71.51
4,418
10.93
3,898
9.64
3,204
7.92
40,438
−4.1%
[18]
1991
29,324
72.23
5,793
14.27
3,913
9.64
1,570
3.87
40,600
+0.4%
[19]
2013
29,273
85.76
4,047
11.86
438
1.28
375
1.09
34,133
−15.9%
[20]

Settlements[edit]

BilaBilo PoljeBogdašeBojmunteČaićČaprazlijeČelebićČuklićĆosanlijeDobroDonji RujaniDrinova MeđaDržanlijeGolinjevoGornji RujaniGrboreziGrgurićiGubinKomorani • Kovačić • LipaLištani • Livno • LopaticeLusnićLjubunčićMali GuberMali KablićiMišiOdžakOrguzPodgradinaPodgredaPodhumPotkrajPotočaniPotokPrilukaPrisapPrologProvoRadanovciRapovineSajkovićSmričaniSrđevićiStrupnićSuhačaTribićVeliki GuberVeliki KablićiVidošiVrbicaVržeralaZabrišćeZagoričaniZastinjeŽabljakŽirović

Geography[edit]

Livno karst field and mountain Dinara

The territory of the municipality is 994 km2 (384 sq mi). Livno is both the cultural and industrial center of the canton. It is the biggest city in the canton and situated 730 meters above sea level. The Bistrica river flows through the city and is itself is 3 km (1.9 mi) long, which means that it is a very small river. Livno is also situated in the Livanjsko field which is the largest field in the entire country. The field is situated between the mountains Dinara and Kamešnica in the south, Tušnica in the east, Cincar in the north and Šator in the west. Livanjsko field is 405 km2 (156 sq mi), making it almost half of the Livno municipality.

Climate[edit]

Livno has a stable continental climate with cold winters and hot summers. It is situated between mountains like Cincar and Kamesnica which make the climate more continental than the climate in Mostar and Čapljina for example. The winters in that part of the country are not as cold as in Livno. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[21]

Climate data for Livno (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.1
(61)
19.9
(67.8)
23.2
(73.8)
25.0
(77)
28.5
(83.3)
31.8
(89.2)
36.2
(97.2)
35.4
(95.7)
33.8
(92.8)
28.6
(83.5)
22.0
(71.6)
17.1
(62.8)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
6.0
(42.8)
9.5
(49.1)
13.7
(56.7)
18.9
(66)
22.3
(72.1)
25.5
(77.9)
25.5
(77.9)
21.9
(71.4)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
5.6
(42.1)
15.1
(59.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
0.9
(33.6)
4.1
(39.4)
8.3
(46.9)
13.0
(55.4)
16.1
(61)
18.6
(65.5)
17.9
(64.2)
14.2
(57.6)
9.5
(49.1)
4.8
(40.6)
0.6
(33.1)
8.9
(48)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.8
(37)
6.5
(43.7)
9.1
(48.4)
10.6
(51.1)
10.2
(50.4)
7.5
(45.5)
3.7
(38.7)
0.1
(32.2)
−3.6
(25.5)
3.2
(37.8)
Record low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−18.9
(−2)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.2
(28)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.7
(36.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
−9.4
(15.1)
−15.5
(4.1)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 95.4
(3.756)
93.1
(3.665)
96.7
(3.807)
95.2
(3.748)
73.3
(2.886)
91.5
(3.602)
50.5
(1.988)
75.1
(2.957)
85.2
(3.354)
116.0
(4.567)
149.2
(5.874)
125.4
(4.937)
1,146.6
(45.142)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.4 12.0 12.8 13.5 13.4 13.6 8.6 9.2 8.6 10.0 13.0 12.8 139.8
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 10.5 8.5 4.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 9.8 36.9
Average relative humidity (%) 74.5 71.5 67.7 65.5 65.8 66.7 60.7 63.3 69.9 72.8 74.7 74.8 69.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 110.0 119.7 153.8 175.1 217.0 240.3 306.8 279.1 222.4 185.4 121.3 100.7 2,231.7
Source: Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina[22]

Governance[edit]

The main local government of the municipality is Municipal Council of Livno (Bosnian: Općinska skupština; Croatian: Općinsko vijeće; Serbian Latin: Opštinska skupština). Council has 31 members elected for a four-year term by proportional representation. Livno has its municipal mayor who is the highest-ranking officer in the municipal government.

Structure of the Council[edit]

party 1997 2000 2004 2008 2012
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) 20 20 16 8 11
  Croatian Democratic Union 1990 (HDZ 1990) - - - 5 6
  People's Party for Work and Betterment (NSRZB) - - 3 12 4
  Croatian Party of Rights (HSP) - - 1 1 3
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA) 5 3 5 3 3
  Social Democratic Party (SDP) 1 3 2 1 2
  Croatian Peasant Party of Stjepan Radić (HSS SR) - - - - 1
  Independent 2 - - - 1

Sport[edit]

Livno is a sports city and has many sport clubs, the most famous of which is Troglav 1918. Futsal is represented with MNK Seljak.

Transport[edit]

M16 road, passing through Kupres and Šujica, connects Livno with Croatia and Central Bosnia. M6.1 starts at Bosansko Grahovo, runs through Livno connecting it with Tomislavgrad, Herzegovina and Mostar. Going northwards M15 connects Livno with Glamoč and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Livno". enciklopedija.hr. Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  2. ^ "Stari grad u Livnu (Bistrički grad), historijsko područje". Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission to Preserve National Monuments. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Livno". proleksis.lzmk.hr. Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Povijest Livna". livno.ba. Municipality of Livno. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  5. ^ Bojanovski, Ivo (1974). Dolabelin sistem cesta u rimskoj provinciji Dalmaciji. Sarajevo: Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine. p. 59. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  6. ^ Medzlis (27 December 2010). "Džemat Glavica – Milošnik". medzlis-livno.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  7. ^ Sir H. A. R. Gibb; J H Kramers (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  8. ^ Hoare, Marko Attila (2014). The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War. Oxford University Press. p. 36-7. ISBN 9780199365432.
  9. ^ Hoare (2014), pp 38-9
  10. ^ Michelin Livno-Split
  11. ^ Michelin Livno Mostar
  12. ^ Michelin Livno-Banja Luka
  13. ^ Michelin Livno-Sarajevo
  14. ^ 1948 census.
  15. ^ 1953 census.
  16. ^ 1961 census.
  17. ^ 1971 census.
  18. ^ 1981 census.
  19. ^ 1991 census.
  20. ^ 2013 census.
  21. ^ Climate Summary for Livno
  22. ^ "Meteorlogical data for station Livno in period 1961–1990". Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.

Books[edit]

  • Konačni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 15. marta 1948. godine (in Serbo-Croatian). 9. Belgrade: Savezni zavod za statistiku i evidenciju. 1955.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 1. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1991.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 2. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1994.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva SFR Jugoslavije: podaci po naseljima i opštinama (in Serbo-Croatian). 3. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1994.
  • Nacionalni sastav stanovništva: rezultati za Republiku po opštinama i naseljenim mjestima 1991 (in Serbo-Croatian). Sarajevo: State Bureau for Statistics of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1994.
  • Popis stanovništva 1953 (in Serbo-Croatian). 11. Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office. 1960.

External links[edit]