Lixinae

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Lixinae
Lixus iridis.jpg
Lixus iridis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Polyphaga
Infraorder: Cucujiformia
Superfamily: Curculionoidea
Family: Curculionidae
Subfamily: Lixinae
Tribes

Cleonini
Lixini
Rhinocyllini

Lixinae is a subfamily of true weevils,[1] included in the Molytinae in many older treatments. They are mainly root feeders, although some develop in flower buds or stems. Several species are used in biological control of invasive weeds, namely knapweeds (Centaurea).

Characteristics include tarsal claws that are fused at the base, and labial palps are short and telescoping. The body is elongate shape, as for some other weevils. Each tibia bears an uncus (small hook) on its distal end. The rostrum is forwardly directed.

Genesis[edit]

Bearing in mind modern geographical distribution of Lixinae and its feeding links, it is considered to be that this subfamily appeared in Euroasian lands, when the area of Tethys Ocean demenished. Probably, lixine weevis formed as groupe in the arid conditions of the deserts of Ancient Mediterranean. From here pra-lixine spread out the over dryland.[2][3]

Taxonomy[edit]

There are three tribes.[1][4] The largest of these by far are the Cleonini, sometimes ranked as an independent subfamily in the past:

Temnorhinus mendicus

Cleonini

Lixini

Rhinocyllini

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bouchard P, Bousquet Y, Davies AE, Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Lawrence JF, Lyal CH, Newton AF, Reid CA, Schmitt M, Slipiński SA, Smith AB (April 2011). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys. 88: 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. PMC 3088472Freely accessible. PMID 21594053. 
  2. ^ Ter-Minasyan, M. E. (1978). Weevils of subfamily Cleoninae in the fauna of the USSR: Tribe Lixini. New Delhi: Amerind. OCLC 991728300. 
  3. ^ Volovnik, S.V. (2013). "On phylogenetic inertia: a case of Lixinae weevils". International Journal of Entomology. 49 (3): 240–1. doi:10.1080/00379271.2013.854087. 
  4. ^ Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A.; Lyal, C.H.C. (1999). A world catalogue of families and genera of Curculionoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) (excepting Scolytidae and Platypodidae) (PDF). Barcelona: Entomopraxis. ISBN 8460599949. 

External links[edit]