In 1884, the village was described as "Llangynog is a parish, in the higher division of the hundred of Derllys, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales. Llangynog is 6 miles (9.7 km) south-west from Carmarthen; containing 800 inhabitants. The community comprises about 5,429 acres (21.97 km2) of good land, chiefly arable, and has been greatly improved since the year 1806. The greater part of it being now in a good state of cultivation. The surrounding scenery, with few exceptions, is tame and uninteresting, though some of the distant views are picturesque and beautiful. The soil is poor, rocky, and barren, and the chief produce is oats and barley, with a little wheat. The manor of Penryn, which is co-extensive with the parish, contains an ancient family mansion called Cwm, situated in a well-wooded, romantic spot. The parish church, dedicated to St. Cynog, is a very plain edifice, consisting of two aisles. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. Here is a parochial school, on the common in the manor of Penryn, said to have been founded by Judge Vaughan, of Derllys. There is also a Sunday school, in which fifty males and females are taught gratuitously by the dissenters." [From A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (S. Lewis, 1844).]
St Cynog's church is a grade II* listed building. 
The triangle formed by Llangynog, Llangain and Llansteffan constitutes Dylan Thomas' "breeding-box valley", as he once put it. His mother's family, the Williamses, lived in the triangle, in farms such as Waunfwlchan, Llwyngwyn, Maesgwyn and Penycoed.
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